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/PVli l iMi iiii 



BS 491 .C17 1984 v. 14 

The Cambridge Bible for 
schools and colleges 



Wijt €mnhvi'ij^t MUt for ^tfjools 
anti Colleges* 



Hontion: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 



ILeipjis: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 



Cj[)e Camijiitise MUt for ^tl)ools 
anti Colleges, 

General Editor for the Old Testament : — 












\All rights reservec/.'] 

(iTamfaritigc : 





The present General Editor for the Old Testament 
in The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges 
desires to say that, in accordance with the policy of 
his predecessor the Bishop of Worcester, he does not 
hold himself responsible for the particular interpreta- 
tions adopted or for the opinions expressed by the 
Editors of the several Books, nor has he endeavoured 
to bring them into agreement with one another. It 
is inevitable that there should be differences of 
opinion in regard to many questions of criticism and 
interpretation, and it seems best that these differences 
should find free expression in different volumes. He 
has endeavoured to secure, as far as possible, that 
the general scope and character of the Series should 
be observed, and that views which have a reasonable 
claim to consideration should not be ignored, but he 
has felt it best that the final responsibility should, in 
general, rest with the individual contributors. 






I. Introduction: 

§ I. The Name, and Division into Two Books ... ix, x 

§2. Relation to Ezra-Nehemiah x, xi 

§ 3. Date, Authorship, and Position in the Canon xi — xiii 

§4. Contents xiv — xvii 

§5. The Sources xviii — xxi 

§ 6. Character and Purpose xxi — xxiv 

§ 7. Relation to Samuel and Kings xxiv — xxvii 

§ 8. The Historical Value of the Narratives peculiar 

to Chronicles xxviii — xxxiii 

§ 9. Versions of Chronicles xxxiv — xxxvi 

II. Texts AND Notes i — 296 

Index 297 — 301 

Maps : 

The Holy Land To face Title 

Environs of Jerusalem at etid of Volume 


Thus there seemed to be room for a new history^ which should 
confine itself to matters still interesting to the theocracy of Ziott, 
keepiJtg Jerusalem and the Temple in the foreground, and 
developing the Divine prag7natism of the history, not so much 
with reference to the prophetic word as to the fixed legislation of 
the Pentateuch, so that the whole narrative might be tnade to 
teach that the glory of Israel lies in the observance of the Divine 
law and ritual, 

W. Robertson Smith. 


§ I. The Name, and Division into Two Books. 

Name. The name "Chronicles" is due to St Jerome, who in 
reckoning Chronicles as the seventh book of the Hagiographa 
(see § 3) writes, "Septimus Dabre lamin [Aa/3p/7ta/ieiV], id est, 
Verba Dierum quod significantius Chronicon totius historiae 
divinae possumus appellare ; qui liber apud nos Paralipo7nenon 
primus et secundus inscribitur" (Prologus in Libros Regutn^ ed. 
Vallarsi, ix. 458). The Hebrew title correctly written is Dibre 
hayyaniim, but it was reproduced in Greek as AajBprjiaixeiv 
(Origen apud Eus. H.E. vi. 25. 2). The literal rendering of this 
Hebrew title is given by Origen (?<;/ supra) as Xdyot rjfxepcov^ by 
Jerome («/ sicpra) as Verba Dierum. The literal English 
equivalent is "the Acts of the Days." 

This title seems to have been suggested by the Book of Kings, 
where mention is made some twenty times (and nearly always in 
the same terms) of a state chronicle^; e.g. i Kin. xiv. 29 literally 
rendered runs: — "And the rest of the acts of Rehoboam and all 
that he did are they not written in the book of the Acts of the 
Days of the kings of Judah.'*" (Cp. ibid. ver. 19; xv. 7, 23, 
31 ; and also i Chr. xxvii. 24, '''■ ChronicleSy" lit. "///^ Acts of the 
Days^^ of King David.) 

* Though the name Chronicles is open to the objection that it may 
mislead a thoughtless reader to suppose that these references in Kings 
to " the Chronicles of the kings of Israel [Judah]" (A.V. and R.V.) are 
references to our book of Chronicles, no other name equally suitable 
has ever been suggested. 


In the Septuagint Chronicles was regarded as supplementary 
to Samuel and Kings, and so received the title of " [Books of] 
the Omitted Acts" {napaXinronivcov) or "the Omitted Acts of 
the Kings {or Reigns) of Judah." This name, in spite of 
Jerome's preference for another, passed into the Latin Vulgate. 

Division. The division of Chronicles into two books (as in 
the E.V.) probably originated in the LXX; the MSS. A and B 
both mark the division. It has entered the E.V. through the 
Latin Vulgate. On the other hand the Fathers testify that 
among the Hebrews the book was undivided: so Origen 
(apud Eus. Hist. Eccl. vi. 25. 2) and Jerome {Doinnioni et 
Rogatiafio) ^. 

§ 2. Relation to Ezra-Nehemiah. 

The books of Ezra and Nehemiah (Cp, Ryle, Ezra^ Intro- 
duction, § i), it is well known, formed originally one book, 
which was divided merely for convenience. It is however 
further probable that the three books Chronicles-Ezra-Nehe- 
miah were once a continuous work, proceeding from one 
compiler (Ryle, § 5), or at least from one school of compilers. 
This view is based on the following considerations : — 

(i) The concluding verses of Chronicles are identical with 
the opening verses of Ezra, a fact which points to a difficulty 
felt in dividing one originally continuous work into our 
"Chronicles" and "Ezra." 

(2) The same general character pervades Chronicles and 
Ezra-Nehemiah. Thus we find 

{a) The same fondness for lists and genealogies in both 
works ; cp. e.g. i Chr. xii. with Ezra ii. or Neh. iii. ; and 
2 Chr. xxxi. 16 — 19 with Neh. vii. 63 — 65. 

^ Their testimony is confirmed by the indirect evidence of the 
Peshitta. No genuine MS. of this version exhibits our division into 
books, but two important MSS. (Brit. Mus. Add. 17, 104, of the sixth 
century, and Camb. Univ. Go. I. i, of the twelfth) make a division into 
"parts" [pdlagwdthd) between 2 Chr. v. 14 and vi. i. On the other 
hand two MSS. (Cod. Ambrosianus of the sixth century and " Laurent. 
Orient. 58" of the ninth) have not from the hand of the original scribe 
even this division. 


(J?) The same great interest in religious festivals; cp. 

1 Chr. XV., xvi. ; 2 Chr. v. — vii., xxix., xxx., xxxv. i — 19, 
with Ezra iii., vi. 16 — 22 ; Neh. viii. 

(c) Three classes of Temple attendants, viz. Levites, 
Singers, and Porters, which are barely mentioned in 
the rest of the Old Testament, receive a great deal of 
notice in Chronicles and in Ezra-Nehemiah. 
(3) The same style and diction are found in both works, or 
(more strictly speaking) in the parts of both works which are 
due to the compiler. Characteristic phrases are the following : 
{a) "Fathers' houses" (cp. i Chr. vii. 2, note). 
{b) "The house of God" (elsewhere "house of the Lord," 
i.e. of Jehovah). With this cp. the tendency to avoid the 
use of the name Jehovah (Jahveh) in such places as 

2 Chr. xvii. 4 (cp. A.V. with R.V.), xx. 12, 30; Ezra viii. 
18, 21. 

{c) "genealogy" ("reckon by genealogy"), cp. i Chr. v. 17, 

note ; Ezra ii. 62. 
{d) "to oversee"; i Chr. xxiii. 4 (R.V.); 2 Chr. ii. 2 [ii. i 

Heb.]; Ezra iii. 8 (R.V. "to have the oversight"). 
{e) "wiUingly offer"; i Chr. xxix. 14; Ezra i. 6. 

These are merely a few instances out of many which might 
be given. This similarity is of course far more striking in the 
Hebrew. Probably one editor compiled and issued one long 
work extending from Adam to Nehemiah and embracing in 
order our books of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah. This 
work being found too bulky was divided into two parts, 
(i) Chronicles, and (2) Ezra-Nehemiah. (See § 3, Position in 
the Canon.) 

§ 3. Date, Authorship, and Position in the Canon. 
Date. It is important to distinguish between the date of the 
compilation of the great work mentioned towards the end of the 
last paragraph and the date of the latest editor who put the 
last touches to the book, chiefly perhaps by continuing the 
genealogies down to his own day. The date of this latest 
editor is fixed on one side by the mention of the high-priest 


Jaddua in Neh. xii. ii, 22. He cannot be earlier than the time 
of Jaddua, who according to Josephus {Ant, xi. viii. 4, 5) met 
and appeased Alexander the Great in his passage through Syria 
in 332 B.C. Moreover it is to be noticed that in Neh. xii. 22 
the days of Jaddua are mentioned to fix a date in the past. 
This latest editor therefore cannot have lived until after the 
days of Jaddua; the most probable date of his editorial activity 
is circ. 300 — 250 B.C. 

It is to be noted further that the details of the genealogy given 
in I Chr. iii. 19 b — 24 (see note on the passage) point to the 
same result. According to the Hebrew text six generations are 
reckoned after Zerubbabel (circ. 520 B.C.). Now estimating a 
generation at 20 years, the least probable estimate, we arrive 
at circ. 400 B.C. as the earliest date of the compiler of this 
genealogy. This is too late for Ezra (sent from Babylon circ. 
458 B.C.) and also for Nehemiah (second mission circ. 432 B.C.). 
But if we follow the text of the LXX. the date of the genealogy 
must be put still later. The LXX. has eleven generations as 
against the six of the Hebrew after Zerubbabel. This brings 
us to about 300 B.C. as the date of the genealogy, and to a few 
years later for the date of the editor who inserted it. This 
agrees closely with the result given in the last paragraph. (For 
the date and occasion of the writing of the main substance of 
the book see § 6, p. xxiv.) 

AuthorsJiip. Nothing is certainly known of the authorship 
of the book, but some MSS. of the Peshitta ascribe the work to 
Johanan Kdhdna^ " Johanan the priest," no doubt the Johanan 
of Neh. xii. 23, where we read : — 

"The sons of Levi, heads of fathers' houses, were written in 
the book of the chronicles, even until the days of Johanan the 
son of Eliashib." The passage even as it stands may be under- 
stood to suggest authorship on the part of Johanan, but it is 
further possible that the words "until the days" {^ ad y erne) were 
read in early times "by the hands" i^al yedhe). Thus read Neh. 
xii. 23 ascribes the compilation of some part of the large work 
(Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah) to Johanan. The subject is how- 
ever too obscure to be pursued further. 


Position in Canon. In the English Version Chronicles stands 
next after Kings, the Historical books being grouped together. 
This arrangement was derived from the LXX. through the Latin 
Vulgate. The order of the Hebrew Bible is different. There 
all the books are arranged in three classes, of which the First 
contains the Books of the Pentateuch, the Second most of the 
Historical Books including Kings, while the Third (the Ke- 
thiibhlm) contains Chronicles. The books of this Third Class 
seem to have been the last to receive Canonical Authority 
among the Jews. Kings thus appears to have been taken into 
the Canon before Chronicles. 

In the Hebrew Bible the Kethubhim (Hagiographa) are 
usually arranged thus : — First the Poetical Books (Psalms, 
Proverbs, Job), next the Five Rolls or Megilloth (Canticles, 
Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther), and last the three 
books Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Chronicles. This is the 
usual Hebrew tradition, though it is surprising to find Ezra 
(which begins with the closing verses of Chronicles) put before 
Chronicles. The wording of Matt, xxiii. 35, however, "From 
the blood of Abel the righteous (Gen. iv. 10 f ) unto the blood 
of Zachariah (2 Chr. xxiv. 20 ff.)" suggests that as early 
as our Lord's day Chronicles was regarded as the last, just 
as Genesis was the first book of the Hebrew Canon. It is 
probable, therefore, that Chronicles found its way into the 
Canon after Ezra-Nehemiah, the latter book being needed 
to represent the post-exilic period of the history, whereas 
Chronicles covers ground already occupied by the books of 
Samuel and Kings. 

Chronicles has indeed been somewhat neglected. Thus in 
the old lectionary of the Church of England (in use before 
1 871) lessons were appointed from Tobit and Judith, but not 
from Chronicles. In the present lectionary, which came into 
use in 1871, seventeen lessons are taken from the Second Book 
of Chronicles for the daily service, and seven lessons drawn 
from the First and Second Books are appointed for Sundays 
and Holy Days. Tobit and Judith are now altogether ex- 


§ 4. Contents. 

The book of Chronicles (exclusive of i Chr. i. — ix.) contains 
the history of Israel for nearly 500 years, z.e. from the death of 
Saul, circ. 1017 B.C., to the edict of Cyrus, circ. $38 B.C. 

The following Table gives a general view of the contents 
of the book. The great interest taken by the compiler in 
all matters connected with the Temple and worship is to be 

(A) I Chr. i. — X. Introductory. 

i. I — 4. Genealogy from Adam to Noah. 

5 — 23 ( = Gen. X. 2 — 29). The descendants of Japheth, 
Ham, and Shem. 
24 — 28. Genealogy from Shem to Ishmael. 
29 — 31 ( = Gen. XXV. 12 — 16). Ishmaelite descendants of 

32, 33 ( = Gen. XXV. i — 4). Arabian descendants of Abraham. 
34 — 37 ( = Gen. xxxvi. 10 — 14). Edomite descendants of 

38 — 42 ( = Gen. xxxvi. 20 — 28). Genealogy of the Horite 

inhabitants of Seir. 
43 — 51a ( = Gen. xxxvi. 31 — 39). The early kings of Edom. 
^id — 54 ( = Gen. xxxvi. 40 — 43). The "dukes" of Edom. 
ii. I, 2 (cp. Gen. xxxv. 22^ — 26). The sons of Israel, 
ii. 3 — iv. 23. Genealogies of the tribe of Judah. 
ii. 3 — 17. Descent of the sons of Jesse. 

18 — 55. Hezron. Jerahmeel. Caleb, 
iii. I — 9 ( = 2 Sam. iii. 2 — 5; v. 14 — (6). David's sons. 
10 — 24. The Davidic Line before and after the Cap- 
iv. 1 — 23. Additional genealogies of Judah. 
iv. -24 — V. 26. Genealogies of Simeon, Reuben, Gad and 

vi. I — 81. The tribe of Levi. j 

I — 3. Genealogy from Levi to Eleazar. 
4 — 15. The line of the high-priests to the Captivity. 
16 — 30. The three clans of the Levites. 
31 — 47. The singers. 
48 — 53. Distinction between the sons of Aaron and 

the rest of the Levites. 
54 — 81. The cities of the Levites. 
vii. I — 40. Genealogies of Issachar, Benjamin (cp. viii. i — 40), 
Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim, and Asher. 






I — 40. Benjamin (cp. vii. 6 — 11). 

1 — 32. Genealogies of Benjaniite families. 
33 — 40 (cp. ix. 39 — 44). The Genealogy of the house 
of Saul. 
I — 17. The heads of the families of Judah, Benjamin, and 

Levi, which dwelt in Jerusalem. 
18 — 34. The duties of porters and Levites. 
35 — 38 ( = viii. 29 — 32). Benjamites living in Gibeon and in 

39 — 44 (cp. viii. 33 — 40). The Genealogy of the house of 

I — 14 (=1 Sam. xxxi. i — 13). The death of Saul at the 
battle of Gilboa. 

(B) xi — xxix. David. 










I — 24. 
25 — xvi 

I — 9 ( = 2 Sam. V. I — 10). Coronation of David and capture 

of Jebus. 
10 — 47 (cp. 2 Sam. xxiii. 8 — 39). David's mighty men. 
1 — 40. David's adherents who brought him to the kingdom. 
I — 14 ( = 2 Sam. vi. i — 11). The removal of the ark from 

Kiriath-jearim. Death of Uzza. 
I — 7 (cp. 2 Sam. V. 13 — 16). David's sons born in Jerusalem. 
8 — 17 ( = 2 Sam. V. 17 — 25). Two Philistine attacks re- 
Preparations for bringing home the ark. 
6 (cp. 2 Sam. vi. 12 — 20). The ark brought into the 
city of David. 
7 — 36 (=Ps. cv. I — 15; xcvi. I — 13; cvi. 1,47,48). David's 
psalm of praise. 
37 — 43. Arrangements for daily worship. 
I — 27 (=2 Sam. vii. i — 29). Permission to build a temple 

refused David. 
I — 17 (=2 Sam. viii. i — 18). David's foreign wars. His 

I — XX. 8 (=2 Sam. x. i — 19; xi. i; xii. 30, 31; xxi. 18 — 22). 

Wars with Ammon, Syria, and the Philistines. 
I — 30 ( = 2 Sam. xxiv. i — 25). The census and the plague. 
20. David's preparations for the building of the 
Temple and for the establishment of its services. 
The choice of the Temple site. The charge to 

The organisation of the Levites. 
The divisions (courses) of the Priests. 
The divisions of the Singers. 
The divisions of the Porters. 
Various officers of David. 

I — xxix. 20. David's charge to Solomon and to 
all Israel. 
The Epilogue. 






xxix. 21 — 30. 


(C) 2 Chr. i. — ix. Solomon. 

i. 1—13 (=1 Kin. iii. i — 15). The Vision and the prayer for 
14 — 17 (=1 Kiri- X. 26 — 29). Chariots and horses, 
ii. 1, 2, 17, 18 (cp. I Kin. v. 15, 16). Bearers of burdens and 
hewers of wood and stone. 
3 — 16 (cp. I Kin. V. 2 — 11). Negociations with Huram 
(Hiram) king of Tyre, 
iii. I — iv. 22 (cp. I Kin. vi, i — vii. 50). The building and 

furnishing of the Temple. 
V. I — 14 (= I Kin. viii. i — 11). The bringing in of the ark and 

the descent of the cloud, 
vi. I — II (= I Kin. viii. 12 — 21). Solomon's blessing. 
12 — 42 (=1 Kin. viii. 22 — 50). Solomon's prayer. 
vii. I — 3. The descent of the fire upon the sacrifices. 

4 — 10 (=1 Kin. viii. 62 — 66). The final rejoicings. 
II — 22 ( = 1 Kin. ix. J — 9). The second Vision and the 
acceptance of Solomon's prayer, 
viii. I — 13, 17, 18 (=1 Kin. ix. 10 — 28). Various Acts of 
14 — 16. Organisation of the priests and Levites in the Temple. 
ix. I — 28 (= I Kin. X. i — 27). The Visit of the Queen of Sheba. 
Solomon's greatness. 
29 — 31 (=1 Kin. xi. 41 — 43). The Epilogue. 

(D) 2 Chr. X. — xxxvi. The Acts of the Kings of Judah. 

X. I — xi. 4 (=iKin. xii. i — 24). The Revolt of the Ten Tribes. 
xi. 5 — xii. 16 (cp. I Kin. xiv. 21 — 31). The Acts of Rehoboam. 
xiii. I — 22 (cp. I Kin. xv. i — 8). The Acts of Abijah (Abijam). 
xiv. I — xvi. 14 (cp. I Kin. xv. 9 — 24). The Acts of Asa. 
xvii. I — 19. Jehoshaphat's religious measures. His captains, 
xviii. I — 34 (=1 Kin. xxii. i — 35). Jehoshaphat with Ahab at 
xix. I — XX. 30. Jehoshaphat's judges. His victory in the wilder- 
ness of Tekoa. 
XX. 31 — 37 ( = 1 Kin. xxii. 41 — 49). The rest of the acts of 

xxi. I — 20 (=1 Kin. xxii. 50; 2 Kin. viii. 16 — 24). Jehoram. 
xxii. I — 9 ( = 2 Kin. viii. 25 — 29; ix. 27, 28). Ahaziah. 
xxii. 10 — xxiii. 21 ( = 2 Kin. xi. i — 20). The rise and fall of 

xxiv. I — 14 (=2 Kin. xii. i — 16). Restoration of the Temple under 
15 — 22. Apostasy of the princes. Assassination of the prophet 

23 — 27 (cp. 2 Kin. xii. 17—21). The Syrian War and the end 
of Joash. 
XXV. I — 13 (cp. 2 Kin. xiv. i — 7). Amaziah. The Edomite War. 
The Ephraimite ravages. 


XXV. 14 — 16. Apostasy of Amaziah. 

17 — 28 ( = 2 Kin. xiv. 8 — 20). Capture of Jerusalem. Death 
of Amaziah. 
xxvi. I — 23 (cp. 2 Kin. xv. i — 7). Uzziah (Azariah). 
xxvii. I — 9 ( = 2 Kin. xv. 32 — 38). Jotham. 
xxviii. I — 27 (cp, 2. Kin. xvi. i — 20). Ahaz. 
xxix. I — xxxi. 21. Hezekiah. Cleansing of the Temple. Great 

Passover. Care for the priesthood. 
xxxii. I — 23 (cp. 2 Kin. xviii., xix.). The deliverance from Sen- 
24 — 33 (cp. 2 Kin. XX. I — 21). Hezekiah 's sickness. His 
xxxiii. I — 20 (cp. 2 Kin. xxi. i — 18). Manasseh. His captivity 
and repentance. 
21 — 25 ( = 2 Kin. xxi. 19 — 26). Amon. 
xxxiv. I — 7 (cp. 2 Kin. xxii. i, 2 ; xxiii. 4 — 20). Josiah. Removal 
of the emblems of idolatry. 
8 — 28 ( = 2 Kin. xxii. 3 — 20). Repair of the Temple. Dis- 
covery of the Book of the Law. 
29 — 33 ( = 2 Kin. xxiii. i — 3). Renewal of the Covenant. 
XXXV. I — 19 (cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. 21 — 23). The Great Passover. 

20 — 27 (cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. 28 — ^oa). The death of Josiah. 
xxxvi. I — 4 (cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. 30(^—34). Jehoahaz. 

5 — 8 (cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. 36 — xxiv. 6). Jehoiakim. 
9, io (cp. 2 Kin. xxiv. 8 — 15). Jehoiachin. 
II — 21 (cp. 2 Kin. xxiv. 18 — xxv. 21). Zedekiah. The 
Captivity of Judah. 
22, 23 ( = Ezra i. i — 3 a). The decree of Cyrus. 

It will be seen at a glance that large portions of the earlier 
histories, as given in the following list, have been incorporated 
in Chronicles : — 

1 Sam. xxxi. ; 

2 Sam. V. — viii. ; x. ; xxiii. 8 — xxiv. 25; 

1 Kin. iii. 4 — 14; v. — vii. (in part); viii. — x.; xi. 41 — xii. 24; xiv. 
21 — XV. 24 (in part) ; xxii. (in pari); 

2 Kin. viii. 17 — 29; xi., xii. ; xiv. i — 22; xv., xvi. (in part); xxi. — 
xxiv. (in part) ; 

Ezra i. i — 3. 

As the foregoing list shews, Chronicles by no means includes 
all the narratives of Samuel and Kings. Two noteworthy omis- 
sions are the Court History of David (2 Sam. xi. — xx.) and the 
History of Elijah and Elisha (i Kin. xvii. — xxi.; 2 Kin. i. i — 
viii. 15). On the other hand, Chronicles contains a great deal 
of matter not given in the earlier histories (cp. § 7). 


§ 5. The Sources. 

The Chronicler (being one of the latest in date of the writers 
of the Old Testament) has made free use of the earlier books. 
His genealogies are drawn for the most part from different 
parts of the Hexateuch, while his narrative is in many cases 
taken with a few verbal changes from the books of Samuel 
and Kings (cp. e.g. i Chr. x. with i Sam. xxxi., or 2 Chr. xviii. 
with I Kin. xxii.). Sometimes, however, we find these ex- 
tracted passages rewritten, with characteristic touches added, 
so that they bear throughout the marks of the Chronicler's 
style and of his point of view, and nothing remains in the 
passages themselves to shew that they come from an earlier 
source (cp. especially 2 Chr. xxii. 10 — xxiv. 14 with 2 Kin. xi. 
I — xii. 16). It is therefore quite probable that other passages 
in Chron. exhibiting the characteristics of the Chronicler may 
(though having no parallel in Samuel or Kings) be derived from 
some equally early documents now lost to us. 

In any case we cannot doubt that some sources of informa- 
tion were open to the Chronicler which were not used (or at 
least not used to the full) by the compiler of Kings, since we 
find in Chron. a great deal of material which has no place in 
the earlier histories. This information is of various kinds. 
We have details of family or tribal history, of topography or 
archaeology, and of prophetic or priestly activity. Probably the 
special sources of information open to the Chronicler were 
(i) family or tribal songs or traditions, (2) local traditions, and 
(3) prophetic or priestly writings now lost to us. 

(i) That the Chronicler had access to some early sources of 
tribal history seems probable from a consideration of the inci- 
dents of tribal history which he alone records. Thus we have 
the loss of "sixty cities" of the Gileadites to "Geshur and 
Aram" at an unrecorded time (i Chr. ii. 23); the conquest of 
the " Entering in of Gedor " by the Simeonites in the days of 
Hezekiah (i Chr. iv. 39 — 41); the successful war of the Reuben- 
ites against the Hagrites in the days of Saul (i Chr. v. 10, 18 — 
22); and the disastrous raid of certain Ephraimites against the 


cattle of the men of Gath (i Chr. vii. 21, 22), together with its 
sequel, the repulse of the men of Gath (i Chr. viii. 13). 

Such events as the foregoing may very well have been 
preserved in tribal songs and have been thence transferred 
to the Chronicler's roll, just as the deeds of David's heroes 
(2 Sam. xxiii. 8 — 23=1 Chr. xi. 11 — 25) were probably originally 
recorded in song. Indeed in this Praise of the Heroes the 
rhythmic beat, the naive song-like turns, and the occurrence 
of a poetical expression ("he awoke his spear" ver. 11, J-Ieb.\ 
compel us to recognise verse. 

Among the family traditions from which the Chronicler drew 
some of his materials are probably to be reckoned written or 
unwritten genealogical lists. Such lists probably contained not 
names only, but occasionally at least certain particulars con- 
cerning those named. Registers are mentioned as being in 
existence at a date subsequent to the Captivity (perhaps in the 
days of Ezra) in Neh. vii. 64. Moreover the Chronicler speaks 
of genealogies which were reckoned " in the days of Jotham 
king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam king of Israel" 
(i Chr. V. 17)^ From semi-private sources like these came 
probably such a detail as that Beerah was prince {nasi) of 
the Reubenites when " Tilgath-pilneser " carried them away 
captive (i Chr. v. 6). 

Again, some statements suggest (in spite of i Chr. xxvii. 24) 
that the results of David's census were in some form in the 
hands of the Chronicler. Thus he tells us (i Chr. iv. 27) that 
the Simeonites did not multiply to the same extent as the 
children of Judah, and he gives {ib. vv. 28 — 31) a list of 
their cities in the days of David. Similarly (i Chr. vii. 2) we 
are told that the sons of Tola, the son of Issachar, amounted, 
in the days of David, to 22,600 men. 

(2) Several facts again recorded in Chr. may be due to local 
tradition. Thus (i Chr. xi. 8) when David took the castle of 
Zion and built {i.e. rebuilt) the city round it from Millo, Joab 
spared (not "repaired," A.V. and R.V.) the rest of the city, 
i.e. perhaps a quarter in which Benjamites (not Jebusites) lived 
^ Cp. however Wellhausen, Prolegomena, p. 222. 


(cp. Judg. i. 2i). This ancient unrestored (or undestroyed) 
quarter may have borne Joab's name in consequence, and 
thus the tradition may have been preserved. 

(3) The most important authority, however (other than 
Samuel and Kings), used by the Chronicler was probably a 
prophetic work or series of works cited under the names of 
successive prophets. 

The following are references to It — 

(a) 1 Chr. ix. 29, "Written in the history (words, Heb.) of Nathan 
the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the 
visions of Iddo (Jedai or Jedo, Heb^ the seer concerning Jeroboam the 
son of Nebat." 

(p) ib. xii. 15, "Written in the histories (words, Heb^ of Shemaiah 
the prophet and of Iddo the seer, after the manner of genealogies" 
("in reckoning the genealogies," 9?iarg.). See note on the passage. 

{c) ib. xiii. 22, "Wx-itten in the commentary {tnidrash, Heb.) of the 
prophet Iddo." 

(d) ib. XX. 34, "Written in the history (words, Heb.) of Jehu the 
son of Hanani, which is inserted (who is mentioned, marg.) in the 
books of the kings of Israel." 

{e) ib. xxvi. 2-2, "The rest of the acts of Uzziah, first and last, did 
Isaiah the prophet, the son of Amoz, write." 

{f) ib. xxxii. 34, "Written in the vision of Isaiah the prophet the 
son of Amoz, in the book of the kings of Judah and Israel." 

{g) ib. xxxiii. 19, "Written in the history (words, Heb^ of Hozai " 
(of the seers, inarg.). 

A possible reference Is found : — 

(A) ib. xxiv. 27, "Written in the commentary {midrask, Heb.) of 
the book of the kings." 

The reigns for which appeal Is thus made to the authority of 
prophets or seers are those of Solomon {a), Rehoboam (^), 
Abijah {c), [not Asa], Jehoshaphat {d\ [not Jehoram, nor 
Ahaziah], perhaps Joash (//), [not Amaziah], Uzziah {e\ [not 
Jotham, nor Ahaz], Hezekiah (/), and Manasseh {g\ but of no 
later king. Of the actual extent of the work (or series of works) 
we are in Ignorance. It may possibly have included all the 
reigns mentioned above, although the Chronicler appeals to It 
for only half of them. Of its contents we are In still deeper 
Ignorance. We may conjecture that the account of Abijah's 
victory (2 Chr. xiii. 3 ff. ; no parallel in Kings) was taken from 



the 'commentary of the prophet Iddo' {ib. ver. 22), and that the 
story of Jehoshaphat's victory (2 Chr. xx. 20 ff.; no parallel in 
Kmgs) was derived from the ' history of Jehu ' {ib. ver. 34), but 
since the references are quite general in form, i.e. since they 
refer to the reigns and not to particular events in these reigns, 
our conjectures are but probable conjectures at the best. 

Besides this series of prophetical works, the Chronicler refers 
after the manner of the compiler of Kings to a state chronicle 
(now lost). His references are not uniform, but it is probable 
that he refers to one and the same work, variously described as 
below : 

{a) I Chr. ix. i, "The book of the kings of Israel." 
and Israel^"'* '^^^' " ^^^'^ elsewhere), "The book of the kings of Judah 

T ^"^ "" 5^^t'\\'''^!'' 7 (and elsewhere), "The book of the kings of 
Israel and Judah." ^ 

Is/fe'l '^ ^^'^' '''''''"* '^' "'^^^ ^""^^ {^oxA^, Heb.) of the kings of 

None of these references belong to the reign of David, for 
which the Chronicler appeals to 

(a) I Chr. xxiii. 27, "The last acts of David " (so R.V. me.), a lost 
work, perhaps part of {b). ^ '' 

,S^^ J' P,^''' ^^v"' 24, "The chronicles (acts of the days, Heb.\ of 
king David. ' ^ ' 

ff^ ^ ' ^^^' '^'^^^' ^9' "The history (words, Heb.) of Samuel the seer, 
and the history (words, Heb.) of Nathan the prophet, and the history 
(words, Heb.) of Gad the seer." This last work is most probably to be 
identified with i, 2 Samuel. 

The "lamentations" referred to in 2 Chr. xxxv. 25 are not to 
be identified with the canonical book of that name. No doubt 
some lost book is meant. 

§ 6. Character and Purpose. 

The main subject of Chronicles is the history of the kingdom 
of Judah (with special reference to its religious institutions) 
from the earliest times to the Return from Captivity. The pre- 
sentation of the subject is the Chronicler's own. The heroes 



of Israel are shewn in a new light, events are treated from 
a standpoint somewhat different from that of the writers of 
Samuel and Kings, and the religious institutions of Israel are 
treated with a fulness of detail such as we do not find in Samuel 
and Kings. 

(i) In the first place, the great men of Israel are idealised. 
Their careers are not fully described, but certain incidents are 
selected to illustrate the side of each man's character which 
commended itself to the Chronicler as useful for edification. 
Thus in the case of David, nothing is said either of his adultery 
or of the other scandals of his palace, while on the other hand 
his interest in the building of the Temple (cp. 2 Sam. vii. i ff.) 
is dwelt upon, and his preparations for the building, not even 
mentioned elsewhere, are fully set forth. So it is again with 
Solomon ; his foreign harem and his unfaithfulness in his old 
age to Jehovah are passed over in silence, while his erection 
of the Temple and his dedication of his work are described in 
detail. Such accounts of sin and scandal were to be found in 
some of the authorities to which the Chronicler refers (in the 
books of Samuel for instance; cp. § 5), but the Chronicler, 
writing with a purpose of his own, had no reason for incor- 
porating them in his own work. 

(2) In the second place, events are treated from a standpoint 
which is the Chronicler's own and different from that of the 
earlier writers. There is indeed a good deal of truth in the 
oft-repeated remark that, whereas Samuel and Kings are 
"prophetical," Chronicles is "priestly"; for we find that, while 
in the earlier histories references to the Mosaic laws affecting 
worship are few in number and general in character, in the 
books of Chronicles such references are numerous and precise ; 
cp. § 7 (2). So marked indeed are they, that we are obliged 
to conclude that they point to some deliberate purpose on the 
part of the Chronicler. It is especially to be noted in this 
connexion that the actions of kings and others are judged with 
greater frequency than in the earlier books by a ritual, as 
distinguished from a purely moral, standard; cp. 2 Chr. xiii. 
9 — II, xxvi. 16 ff. 


(3) Lastly, the religious institutions of Israel are treated with 
an unwonted fulness of detail. In Samuel and Kings nothing 
is said of the organisation of the priests ; and the Levites, door- 
keepers, and singers are barely mentioned ; in Chronicles, on 
the other hand, very full accounts are given of all classes of 
Temple ministrants and of their duties ; i Chr. xxiii. — xxvi. ; 
cp. vi. I — 81; ix. 10 — 34. Similarly in Kings a great Passover 
of Josiah is briefly mentioned (2 Kin. xxiii. 21 — 23), while in 
Chronicles the same Passover is fully described (2 Chr. xxxv. 
I — 19) ; and three whole chapters {ib. xxix. — xxxi.) are devoted 
to the ritual acts and measures of Hezekiah as compared with 
one verse in Kings (2 Kin. xviii. 4). 

Taking all these considerations into account, we conclude 
that one main purpose of the Chronicler was to impress upon 
his people the importance of the Temple worship. He assigns 
the organisation of that worship even in its details to David 
and Solomon, he judges the men of the Past by their faith- 
fulness to the Temple, and he describes a Passover or an 
Atonement festival with the care and particularity with which 
other historians would describe a battle or a revolution. 

Another main purpose of the Chronicler was more general 
in its character; it was to bring all events and all individuals 
to a religious and moral test. The judgements passed on 
the kings are more detailed in Chronicles than in the earlier 
histories; cp. i Chr. x. 13, 14 (note). Sometimes the Chronicler 
gives judgement in his own person, sometimes again the speeches 
of kings (cp. 2 Chr. xiii. 4 ff. ; xx. 20), or, specially, the utter- 
ances of prophets (cp, 2 Chr. xv. 2 ff. ; xix. 2 f.) express his views 
on events. We further gather that a third main purpose of 
the Chronicler was to preach the duty of faithfulness to Jehovah 
the God of Israel by describing the prosperity of faithful kings 
(2 Chr. xvii. 4, 5 ; xxvi. 5) in the Past, and the temporal punish- 
ments which befel the unfaithful {ib. xxi. 12 — 15) and wicked 
{ib. xxiv. 24, 25). In Chronicles nearly every calamity is shewn 
to be the punishment of previous sin (cp. the story of Uzziah's 
leprosy), and nearly every sin is followed by temporal punish- 
ment (cp. e.g. 2 Chr. xxviii. 6, 7), and moreover the connexion 



between sin and calamity is regularly pointed out. The 
Chronicler, in brief, is rather a commentator than a recorder, 
a religious teacher rather than a historian. 

The religious purpose then of the Chronicler is clear ; we 
next ask, What was his immediate aim ? For what readers 
did he write ? The nature of his work and of the material which 
he collected suggests the answer. He wrote for the readers for 
whom the Pentateuch in its present form was intended, i.e. 
for the restored community of Exiles, which was reorganised 
through the labours of Nehemiah and Ezra. That community 
looked to the Temple as its centre, and needed for its con- 
solidation just such religious institutions as are described in 
Chronicles. Though the latest editorial touches seem to be later 
than 300 B.C., the substance of the book of Chronicles seems 
to have been compiled by some older or younger contemporary 
of Nehemiah in order to forward the religious organisation of 
the Returned Exiles. 

§ 7. Relation to Samuel and Kings. 

Chronicles stands in a threefold relation to the earlier his- 
torical books (Samuel and Kings), (i) Sometimes it reproduces 
the text of the earlier book so closely as to become a help in 
textual criticism, (2) sometimes it paraphrases the text and adds 
glosses, (3) sometimes it gives a somewhat different account of 
events, (4) in part it supplements the earlier accounts by adding 
large sections on matters omitted in them. 

(i) Generally speaking it may be said that the text of 
Chronicles is inferior to that of the earlier books, as the follow- 
ing instances shew : — 

{a) I Chr. x. 10, "fastened his skull in Beth-Dagon" 
(i Sam. xxxi. 10, Heb. and [LXX.], '"fastened his body 
to the wall of Beth-shan.") 

ip) I Chr. xi. 23, "a man of stature" (2 Sam. xxiii. 21^ 
Heb. K'ri and LXX. "a goodly man.") 



(<c) I Chr. XX. 6, "a man of stature" (2 Sam. xxi. 20, Heb. 

A^rf and [LXX.] "a man of championship.") 
{d) 2 Chr. XXV. 19, "Lo, thou hast smitten Edom" (2 Kin. 

xiv. 10, Heb. and LXX. "Thou hast indeed smitten 


An instance of the superiority of the text preserved in Chroni- 
cles is found I Chr. xx. 4, Heb. and LXX. "there arose war ai 
Gezer"=2 Sam. xxi. 18, "There was again war.. .(2/ Gob"^ 

(2) The instances in which the Chronicler has either para- 
phrased the older text lying- before him or added glosses to it 
are very numerous. A few examples only can be given here ; 
they are chosen so as to illustrate the Chronicler's attitude 
towards religious ordinances. Many definite statements that 
such and such a king observed such and such an injunction of 
the Mosaic Law are found in Chronicles, though absent from 
the parallel passages of Samuel and Kings. 

I Chr. xiv. 12. 

"And [the Philistines] left 
their gods there, and 
David gave command- 
ment, and they were 
burned with fire y 

(Cp. Deut. vii. 5.) 

1 Sam. v. 21. 

"And [the Philistines] left 
their images there, and 
David and his men 
took them away'''' (R V.). 

I Chr. XV. I — 15.. 

It is definitely asserted that the 
Levites carried the ark [from the 
house of Obed-edom] upon their 
shoulders according to the Law of 
Moses. (Cp. Ex. xxv. 13, J4; 
Num. iv. 4 — 15.) 

2 Sam. vi. 12 — 17. 

Mention is made of the " bear- 
ers" of the ark (not of the use of 
a "new cart" as ver. 3), but it is 
not said who these bearers were. 

I Chr. xxvii. 23. 

David did not number them 
that were from twenty years old 
and under. (Cp. Num. i. 3.) 

1 Sam. xxiv. 9 

says more vaguely that the men 
drawing sword were numbered. 

^ In connexion with the whole subject notice that Chron. sometimes 
retains the original forms of names which have been altered in Samuel ; 
cp. I Chr. viii. 33, note. 



2 Chr. viii. 12, 13. 

" Solomon offered . . . ofFering 
according to the command- 
ment of Moses, on the 
sabbaths, and on the new 
moons, and on the set 
feasts, three times in the 
year, even in the feast of 
unleavened bread, and in 
the feast of weeks, and in 
the feast of tabernacles." 
(Cp. Ueut. xvi. 16.) 

I Kings ix. 25. 

" Three times in a year did 
Solomon offer burnt of- 
ferings and peace offer- 
ings upon the altar 
which he built unto the 

There is nothing in the account 
in Kings to enable us to identify 
the three occasions. 

We also find in Chron. certain corrections of the language of 
the earlier documents, by which references to the existence of 
practices not allowed by the Mosaic Law are removed. 

I Chr. xviii. 17 b. 

" And the sons of David were 


about the king." 

(Cp. Num. xvi. 40.) 

2 Sam. viii. 18 b. 

" And David's sons were 
priests (R.V.)." 

(3) In some instances the statements of the Chronicler cannot 
be reconciled with those of the earlier historians, discrepancies 
having arisen, either because a different tradition has been 
followed, or because the statement of an earlier document has 
been misunderstood, or possibly because the Chronicler has 
corrected a statement which appeared from his standpoint to be 
incorrect. The strongest instances are supplied by 2 Chr. viii. 
2, xxii. 9, XXXV. 20 — 24. 

2 Chr. viii. 2. 

"The cities which Huram had 
given (R.V.) to Solomon." 

I Kings ix. 12. 

" The cities which Solomon 
had given him (Hiram)." 

It seems as though the Chronicler, who records nothing to 
Solomon's discredit, was unable to believe that the great king 
had alienated any Israelite city. 



•2 Chr. xxii. 9. 

" And he (Jehu) sought 
Ahaziah : and they 
caught him, (now he ■ 
was hiding in Samaria), 
and they brought him 
to Jehu, and slew him ; 
and they buried him," etc 

2 Kings ix. 27, 28. 

" And Jehu followed after 
him (Ahaziah), and said, 
' Smite him also in the 
chariot : ' and they smote him 

the ascent 
of Gur, which is by 
Ibleam. And he fled 
to Megiddo, and died there. 
And his servants carried 
him in a chariot to Jerusalem. . 


No complete harmonisation of these two accounts can do 
justice to the language of both of them. According to Kings 
Ahaziah escaped (for the moment) wounded from Jehu and 
died of his wounds ; according to Chron. he was brought to 
Jehu and slain. 

The account of the death of Josiah shews a somewhat similar 
variation : 

2 Kings xxiii. 29. 

" King Josiah went to meet [Heb.) 
him (Necoh), 

and he slew him 

at Megiddo, 

when he had seen him." 

2 Chr. XXXV. 20 — 24. 

"Josiah went out to meet {Heb.) 
him (Neco) . . . 
. . . and came to 
fight in the valley of 

And the archers shot 
at king Josiah ; and the 
king said ... I am sore 

And [his servants] 
brought him to Jeru- 
salem ; and he died," etc. 

(See the notes.) 

(4) Important sections containing matter not found in the 
earlier histories are the following : — 

I Chr. XV., xvi. ; xxii. — xxix. (religious measures of David) ; 
2 Chr. xiii. — xv. (Abijah and Asa) ; xvii., xix., xx. (Jehoshaphat) ; 
xxi. I — 4, II — 19 (Jehoram) ; xxvi. 5 — 20 (Uzziah); xxviii. 6 — 15 
(the Ephraimite war); xxix. — xxxi. (Hezekiah's ecclesiastical 


§ 8. The Historical Value of the Narratives 
PECULIAR to Chronicles. 

In the First Book of Chronicles there is an important section 
(xxii. — xxix.) for which there are practically no parallels in the 
earlier histories, and in the Second Book a still larger section 
(xiii. — xxxi.) for which (except as regards xviii., xxiii., xxiv.) the 
parallels are few, fragmentary and somewhat discordant. 

(A) The value of the first of these sections (i Chr. xxii. — xxix.), 
as an authority for the history of David's reign, as far as we are 
able to appraise it, is somewhat uncertain. Such passages 
as 2 Sam. vi. (the Ark brought into the city of David) and 
2 Sam. vii. (David's desire to build a house for the Ark), shew 
indeed the king's deep interest in matters connected with 
worship, but do not confirm the Chronicler when he traces back 
to David the origin of the organised system of ministration 
carried on in the Chronicler's own day in the Temple through 
four descending grades of ministrants, viz., priests, Levites, 
singers, and doorkeepers. The allusions to worship in the 
earlier books (Samuel and Kings) all suggest that this highly 
organised system was not developed until long after David's day, 
and that the Chronicler's account contains many anachronisms. 

(B) The question as to the historical value of the second of 
the two sections, viz., 2 Chr. xiii. — xxxi., is of much importance. 
We have practically nothing but these chapters to depend on as 
our authority for the internal history of the Southern kingdom 
and for its foreign relations (other than those with Israel) be- 
tween the reigns of Rehoboam and Ahaz. If therefore we 
cannot trust the account given us in Chronicles, the greater 
part of the history of the kingdom .of Judah is a blank. 

Now in reference to this section of Chronicles as a whole it 
may be said : 

(i) The political horizon of Judah is correctly represented in 
it, though both the Chronicler himself and the latest editor of 
the book wrote at a time when that horizon was greatly 


changed. Between 460 and 250 B.C. it would have been very 
difficult for a mere romance-writer to escape such an ana- 
chronism as the introduction of the Persians or of the Mace- 
donians or of the Seleucid empire into the pre-exilic history 
of his country. The Chronicler had sufficient historical sense 
to escape this danger (2 Chr. xxviii. 23 — see note — may be an 

(2) Passages bearing the stamp of the Chronicler's peculiar 
style and point of view are sometimes drawn from pre-exilic 
sources, or at least from sources much earlier than the Chroni- 
cler's own day (cp. ib. xxiii. with 2 Kin. xi.). 

(3) Accounts distinguished by high numbers and sweeping 
statements must not be put down hastily as inventions. The high 
numbers of 2 Chr. xiii. 17 ("five hundred thousand slain"), of 
ib. xiv. 9 (an army of "a thousand thousand"), and of ib. xxviii. 8 
("two hundred thousand" captives), do not of themselves 
discredit the accounts of victories in which they occur. (The 
Russian losses at the great defeat of Plevna, July 31, 1877, 
were stated at 30,000 in Turkish accounts ; the actual losses 
amounted to 6000 or 7000.) 

(4) The silence of Kings with regard to events which con- 
cern the Southern kingdom only is normal. (2 Kin. xi. is no 
exception, for the story of Athaliah is the sequel of the story of 
Ahab.) The mere absence therefore from Kings of such ac- 
c6unts~~as--are contained in 2 Chr. xiv. 9 — 15 (Asa's victory 
over the Cushites), ib. xx. i — 30 (Jehoshaphat's victory over 
Moab and Ammon), and ib. xxvi. 16 — 20 (the infliction of 
leprosy upon Uzziah), affords no presumption against the truth 
of these accounts, since they do not fall within the scope of the 
Book of Kings. 

(5) Narratives found only in Chronicles are not to be en- 
tirely rejected simply because they illustrate some distinctive 
religious principle dear to the Chronicler, e.g. the principle that 
sin is quickly followed by some earthly retribution, e.g. defeat 
(xxiv. 15 — 24) or disease (xxvi. 16 — 20). The Chronicler may 
have been wrong in his inferences (cp. Luke xiii. i — 5) as to the 
connexion between particular sins and particular calamities ; 


but the fact of the sin and the fact of the calamity may both be 
true notwithstanding. 

We may now consider the historical character of the four 
chief narratives peculiar to Chronicles contained in this sec- 
tion (xiii. — xxxi.), together with a fifth found in xxxiii. ii — 13. 
They have been regarded (not as history in any sense of 
the word, but) as of the nature of Haggaddh^ i.e. as tales 
enforcing certain moral and religious lessons. These narratives 
are the following: (I.) Abijah^s Victory (2 Chr. xiii. 3 — 20); 
(II.) Asa's Victory (xiv. 9 — 15); (III.) Jehoshaphafs Victory 
(xx. I — 30); (IV.) Uzziah's Leprosy (xxvi. 16 — 20). (V.) More- 
over, the story of the Repentance of Manas seh (xxxiii. 11 — 13) 
presents some difficulties, and is generally regarded as Hag- 
gadic, not historical. 

(I.) Abijah's Victory (2 Chr. xiii. 3—20). 

Such details of the narrative as the number of the forces 
engaged (ver. 3) and of the slain (ver. 17), the contents of 
Abijah's speech (ver. 11, an allusion to Ex. xl. 23 — 29 1), 
and the tone of the speech (cp. i Kin. xv. 3) seem to be 
unhistorical. On the other hand, there is no reason to doubt 
the statement that Abijah won a victory. If the further state- 
ment that Beth-el was taken by Abijah be true, then Beth-el 
must have been recaptured from Judah (cp. Amos vii. 13) at 
some later time, perhaps in the days of Asa (cp. i Kin. xv. 
16, 17). 

(II.) Asa's Victory (xiv. 9 — 15). 

The historical character of this narrative is not destroyed : 
{a) by the absence of the story from Kings, for it does not 
fall within the scope of Kings, nor {b) by the exaggeration of 
numbers (ver. 9), for the number is evidently not meant for an 

^ A passage belonging to " a secondary stratum of P," and therefore 
much later in date than the time of Abijah. (Cp. Driver, Introduction, 
ed. I. p. 39.) 


accurate estimate, nor {c) by the vague and general cast of 
the narrative, for the Chronicler has no interest in military 
details. If by Zerah the Ethiopian (see note on ver. 9) a 
Sabean prince be meant, the only real difficulty of the narra- 
tive is removed. No king Zerah of Ethiopia is known at this 
period, nor does there seem to be room for such a person. 

(III.) The Victory of Jehoshaphat (xx. i — 30). 

The Chronicler has described this event in a very mysterious 
manner, but the story in its outline bears the stamp of proba- 

Three tribes (or parts of tribes) of kindred origin, impelled 
by hunger or by the straitness of their country, determined to 
settle in Western Palestine (ver. 11). Two roads were open to 
them, one round the northern end of the Dead Sea, passing 
by Jericho, the other by the southern end, passing through the 
wilderness of Tekoa. The former offered perhaps the more 
hospitable country to traverse, but it was blocked by Jericho. 
The confederates accordingly chose the route which passes 
round the southern end of the Dead Sea. In their advance 
through the south of Judah, a land of cliffs, ravines, and caves, 
they were doubtless harassed by the shepherd population of that 
region, and in the course of a difhcult march dissensions are 
very likely to have broken out among them. The care taken 
by Jehoshaphat to invest the advance of his army from Jeru- 
salem with the character of a religious act is quite of a piece 
with his anxiety (i Kin. xxii. 5, 7) to consult a prophet of the 
Lord before advancing against Ramoth-gilead. The greatness 
of the spoil, which took three days to gather (ver. 25), is con- 
sistent with the representation of ver, 11 that the three tribes 
came to stay. They brought all their property with them. (Cp. 
G. A. Smith, Hist. Geography^ p. 272 f ) 

The fact that the whole story is absent from Kings forms no 
objection against its truth. Like Asa's victory over the Cushites, 
Jehoshaphat's deliverance from the confederates concerned only 
the south of the Southern kingdom. The business of the author 
of Kings was primarily with the Northern kingdom. 


(IV.) UzziAH's Leprosy (xxvi. 16—20). 

In Kings only the prosperity and leprosy of Uzziah (Azariah) 
are recorded ; in Chron., on the contrary, we have a story of 
prosperity followed by pride, and of presumption punished by 
leprosy. Moreover, the Chronicler attributes a particular act of 
presumption to the king, viz., offering incense upon the altar of 
incense. Now it is often assumed that such an act would not 
have been considered wrong in pre-exilic days, for in Samuel 
and Kings it is recorded even of pious monarchs that they took 
upon themselves priestly functions, e.g. David "offered burnt 
offerings " before the LORD and " blessed " the people (2 Sam. 
vi. 17, 18), and Solomon "burnt incense" (i Kin. iii. 3) and 
"hallowed" the middle of the Temple court {ibid. viii. 64). It 
is not however clear from such brief notices that these kings 
really acted in the same way as Uzziah. The great sacrifices of 
Solomon (i Kin. iii. 4, viii. 63) were on such a scale that he 
must needs have performed them by the help of intermediaries, 
and in particular the incense may have been offered entirely 
through the priests. Qui per alium facit^ facit fier se. Uzziah, 
on the contrary, is described as acting in tyrannical defiance of 
the priests. Some touches in the story {e.g. the mention of the 
altar of incense as a specially holy altar; cp. Ex. xxx, i — 10, 
apparently a very late passage) may be post-exilic, but the story 
itself may very well be pre-exilic. The "silence of Kings" in 
this place is only normal (cp. p. xxix), and the expression in 
2 Kin. XV. 5, "the Lord smote the king" is consistent with the 
supposition that the writer knew of some story such as the 
Chronicler tells. 

(V.) The Repentance of Manasseh (xxxiii. 11 — 13). 

The Chronicler draws a singularly dark picture of the reign 
of Manasseh (xxxiii. i — 10), in which he is in close agreement 
with 2 Kin, xxi. i — 18, and also with Jer. xv. 4, where the 
dispersion of Judah is described as the result of the sin of 
Manasseh. Chronicles, however, stands alone in giving a 
sequel. The Assyrians carried Manasseh captive to Babylon 


(a quite credible statement; see notes on 2 Chr. xxxiii. 11); 
at Babylon Manasseh repented, and on his return to Judah 
took steps to put down the idolatry which he had himself set 
up. These two last statements, i.e. that Manasseh repented 
and that he reformed, are questioned by some scholars, who 
point out that the compiler of Kings, a nearly contemporary 
author, condemns Manasseh without reserve. If the Chronicler 
be accurate, they say, then the compiler of Kings is unjust. 
The dilemma, however, is not inevitable. The Chronicler does 
not date the king's captivity nor his repentance, and there is 
nothing to prevent us from assigning his restoration to the 
throne to the last years of his reign. If this be the case, if 
some fifty years were spent in corrupting the people and some 
five in undoing the mischief, the reformation would have little 
abiding effect, and the compiler of Kings, in giving a brief 
summary (2 Kin. xxi. — xxv.) of the events which led to the 
fall of the Jewish state, was justified in omitting all reference to 
a repentance which came too late to stay the approaching ruin. 

The general conclusion to which the study of these five 
narratives (and indeed of Chronicles as a whole) leads us is 
that the substantial accuracy of the Chronicler's sketch of the 
history of Judah cannot reasonably be questioned. The con- 
tinued existence of the little kingdom of Judah for three 
hundred and fifty years, with enemies on the south and 
revolted Israel on the north, is hardly to be explained except 
on the hypothesis that some such successes as the Chronicler 
describes (2 Chr. xiii. 3 ff. ; xiv. 9 ff. ; xx. i ff.) were gained by 
Judah. Moreover, portents and wonders, such as occur freely 
in the unhistorical Haggadah of later time, are absent from 
Chronicles. Nor, again, does the Chronicler bring together 
in incongruous association men who lived at different epochs, 
except perhaps in 2 Chr. xxi. 12 — 15 (where however we should 
probably read "Ehsha" for "Elijah"); cp. 2 Kin. iii. 11. In 
short, the main facts recorded by the Chronicler are all 
probable in themselves, and taken together give a consistent 
picture of the history of Judah. 


§ 9. Versions of Chronicles. 

Chronicles has not fared well at the hands of its chief trans- 
lators. Grave drawbacks mark the LXX., the Peshitta, and the 
Authorised English Version. 

The Septuagint of Chronicles is in the main a close repro- 
duction of the Massoretic text. It contains, however, one inter- 
polation, viz. 2 Chr. XXXV. \(f^^^ (ed. Swete) = 2 Kin. xxiii. 24 — 27. 
Moreover, the text was disfigured with some errors before it was 
translated into Greek, e.g. in i Chr. xix. 17 (see note); 2 Chr. 
xi. 23 ; xxi. 2 (see note). In a few places, however, the Septua- 
gint seems to have followed a Hebrew reading better than the 
Massoretic, e.g. in 2 Chr. xiv. 10 (see note); xxii. i (see note); 
xxxii. 22 (see note). 

Occasionally ignorance of the meaning of Hebrew words is 
shown and transliterations are given instead of translations, e.g. 
in 2 Chr. iii. 16, eTroiijaev aepaepcod ev rw dajSeip ( = R.V. "he 
made chains in the oracle") and 2 Chr. xxvi. 21, eV o'Ua a(f)cf)ov- 
criav V. aTT(Pov(rQ)6 ( = R.V. "in a several house"). On the whole 
the LXX. gives but little help towards the criticism and exegesis 
of the book. 

The Peshitta shews often the characteristics of a paraphrase 
rather than of a translation. Thus (i) it contains many inter- 
pretations of Haggadic character, e.g. 

1 Chr. v. 12, "And Joel went forth at their head and judged 
them and taught them the scriptures well" ( = R.V. "Joel the 
chief, and Shapham the second "). 

xii. I, "They in their might were all servants of David; and 
if he had been willing, they would have killed Saul the son of 
Kish, for they were mighty men, and the men were warriors; 
and David was not willing to allow them to kill Saul" ( = R.V. 
"they were among the mighty men, his helpers in war"). 

xxix. 15, "For we are made like the smoke of the pot, and 
we sojourn with thee" ( = R.V. "For we are strangers before 
thee, and sojourners"). 

2 Chr. xxi. II, "He gave the Nazarites of Jerusalem wine to 


drink" ( = R.V. "[He] made the Inhabitants of Jerusalem to go 
a whoring"). 

xxxv. 23, " [Pharaoh-neco] shot Josiah with two arrows" 
( = R.V. "The archers shot at king Josiah"). 

(2) The Peshitta exhibits also some remarkable omissions 
(and substitutions) ; e.g. 

2 Chr. iv. 10 — 22. 

xi. 5 — xii. 12, ( I Kin. xii. 25 — 30 followed by I Kin. xiv. i — 9 
being substituted). 

(N.B. I Chr. xxvi. 13 — xxvii. 34, though omitted in printed 
editions of the Peshitta, is found in two good MSS. and doubt- 
less belongs to the text.) 

The Authorised E?iglish Version of Chronicles is (like Ezra- 
Nehemiah and Daniel) a poor example of the translators' work. 
The translation itself is generally good, but the English style is 
decidedly inferior to that of the better known books of the Old 
Testament, and the diction is characterised by a larger ad- 
mixture of words derived from the Latin. 

(A) Modern Phrases and Words. 

I Chr. vii. 4, "bands of soldiers" (R.V. "bands of the host"). 

xvi. 30, "the world also shall be stable" (Ps. xcvi. 10, "shall 
be established"). 

xix. 5, " told David how the men were served." 

xxvii. 34, "the general of the king's army" (cp. 2 Sam. xix. 13, 
"captain of the host"). 

xxviii. 4, "he liked me" (R.V. "he took pleasure in me"). 

(B) Latinised Diction. 

I Chr. xvii. 11, "when thy days be expired" (2 Sam. vii. 12, 
"be fulfilled"). 

xviii. 10, "to congratulate him" (2 Sam. viii. 10, "to bless 

xix. 6, "they had made themselves odious" (2 Sam. x. 6, 
" they stank "). 

ver. 13, "let us behave ourselves valiantly" (2 Sam. x. 12, 
" let us play the men "). 


2 Chr. iv. 12, "pommels" (i Kin. vii. 41, "bowls"). 

xviii. 12, "with one assent'' (i Kin. xxii. 13, "with one 
mouth "). 

xxi. 8, "from under the dominion of Judah" (2 Kin. viii. 20, 
" from under the hand of Judah "). 

Some careless or cumbrous constructions {e.g. 2 Chr. xviii. 10, 
xxxi. 6) occur, and some uncouth words, e.g. " terribleness " 
(i Chr. xvii. 21) and "magnifical" {ib. xxii. 5). 


For the present edition of Chronicles I have consulted with 
advantage the following works : — 

Bertheau, Chronik, 2'* Auflage, 1873. 

S. Oettli, Chroiiik^ 1889. 

R. Kittel, Chronicles (Critical edition of the Hebrew text), 

Francis Brown, Chronicles (in Hastings' Dictionary of the 
Bible, 1898). 

A. Klostermann, Chronik (in Y{2i\ic\i^s Realencyclopadie, 1898). 

H. E. Ryle, Ezra and Nehemiah, 1893. 

S. R. Driver, Introduction (pp. 484 — 507 with Appendix, 
pp. 540, 541). 

Idem, The Speeches in Chrorticles, in the Expositor, April, 

G. Buchanan Gray, Hebrew Pi'oper Names (pp. 172 — 242), 

J. Wellhausen, Prolegomena (pp. 177 — 237). 

A. T. Chapman, Index of Proper Names {Cambridge Cotn- 
panion to the Bible, pp. 559 — 606). 

An excellent summary of what is known with regard to 
Chronicles is to be found in W. R. Smith, Chronicles, En- 
cyclopcedia Britannica, ed. ix (1876). 



ADAM, Sheth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalaleel, Jered, Henoch, 1 ?, 3 
>- Methuselah, Lamech, Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 4 

Ch. I. The Genealogies of the Peoples. 
1 — 4. A Genealogy from Adam to the Sons of Noah. 

The history proper does not begin till the death of Saul, but the 
historian acts in accordance with Eastern custom in connecting his 
history with the remote past by means of genealogies. 

This first genealogy is taken from Gen. v. 3 — 32. The extremely 
concise form in which it is given is instructive as shewing how far the 
Chronicler could go in abbreviating his authorities. 

1. Sheth, Enosh\ " Seth, Enos," the spellings given in Gen. (A.V.) 
are less correct. Generally speaking the forms of names in Genesis 
(A.V.) are derived from the Latin Vulgate, which in turn took them 
from the LXX., which again (owing to the shortcomings of the Greek 
alphabet as compared with the Hebrew) did not reproduce the Hebrew 
forms accurately. 

2. Ketian, . . .J ered'\ "Cainan, Jared," the spellings given in Gen. 
(A.V.) are less correct. 

3. Henoch'] "Enoch," the spelling given in Gen. (A.V. and R.V.) 
is less correct. In ver. 33 the R.V. gives the still better form " Hanoch," 
but it does not venture to alter the form of the name ot the famous 
Enoch (Gen. v. 21). 

6 — 23. The "Genealogy" of the Nations. 

The table which follows is taken from Gen. x. 2 — 29, In the A.V. 
several variations between Gen. and Chron. occur in the spelling of 
proper names. In the R.V. the spelling has been made uniform. 

The table is geographical rather than ethnological, i.e. neighbouring 
nations are regarded as having the same descent. The world, as known 
to the writer, is divided into three zones, of which the Northern is 
assigned to the Sons of Japheth (5 — 7), the Southern to the Sons of Ham 










2 I. CHRONICLES, I. [v. 5. 

5 The sons of Japheth ; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, 

(8 — 16), and the Central to the Sons of Sham (17 — 23). Had the 
arrangement been according to descent the Semitic Zidonians and 
the (probably Mongoloid) Hittites would not have been equally described 
as the offspring of Ham (cp. Sayce, Higher Criticism and the Monu- 
Tuents, p. 122). 

It must be noticed, moreover, that the passage contains a general 
table with two appendices. The General Table is derived from the 
so-called "Priestly" narrative (PC) of the Hexateuch, while the 
appendices have been inserted by a Redactor from an earlier narrative, 
the "Prophetical" (J) (cp. Driver, Introduction, p. 13). Thus we 
get the following scheme : — 

I Chr. I. 5 — 9. PC (GeneralTableof the descendants of Japheth 

and Ham). 
(Appendix to the descendants of Ham). 
(General Table of the descendants of Shem). 
(Appendix to the descendants of Shem). 

It must be further noted that though the Priestly source is assigned 
in its main stock by critics to "the exilic or early post-exilic period," 
some elements in it belong to pre-exilic times. This table of the 
nations in particular agrees with the state of the world as referred to by 
Ezekiel, and is probably to be assigned to a date anterior to the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. (Sayce in Hastings' Dictionary of 
the Bible, i. 347, suggests that the table is as early as the period of 
the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Egyptian dynasties, when Palestine was 
under Egyptian suzerainty.) 

5 — 7 ( = Gen. x. 2—4). The Sons of Japheth. 

5. The sons of Japheth^ The writer begins with the Northern 

Go/ner'] to be identified with the Gimirrai of the Assyrian monu- 
ments who in the seventh century B.C. inhabited the district afterwards 
called Cappadocia. Probably they are also to be identified with the 
KififxepLoi of the Greeks, who migrated from South Russia into Asia 
Minor under the pressure of the Scythians (Hdt. I. 103; iv. 11, 12; 
cp. Ezek. xxxviii. 6, R.V. ; Sayce, Higher Criticisjn and the Alonutnents, 

J\Iagog'\ In Ezek. xxxviii. judgement is denounced on "Gog, of the 
land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal" (ver. 2, R.V.) 
who is represented as accompanied in his migration by the "hordes" of 
Gomer and Togarmah (ver. 6, R.V.), "all of them riding upon horses" 
(ver. 15). Magog represents therefore one of several tribes of Northern 
nomads (Scythians) known to Israel ; see note below on Tnbal and 

iMadat] first mentioned in an inscription of the Assyrian king Ram- 
mannirar (Rimmon-nirari III.), who reigned B.C. 812 — 783. They are 
probably the Medes who lived in small communities {Kara Kdjfias, Hdt. 
I. 96) without a central government in Azerbaijan and Irak Ajemi, i.e. 
in the N.W. provinces of modern Persia. 

vv. 6, 7'] I. CHRONICLES, I. 3 

and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. And the 6 
sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. 
And the sons of Javan ; EHshah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and 7 

yavan] the lonians {'Id/oves) who were already settled on the West 
coast of Asia Minor at the dawn of Greek history. Being a seafaring 
nation and having a slave-trade with Tyre (Ezek. xxvii. 13; Joel iii. 
[Hc-d. iv. 6 "Grecians"]), they became known to Israel at an early date. 
In the Book of Daniel the title "king of Javan" (viii. 21) is used of 
Alexander the Great; cp. "kingdom of Javan" (xi. 2) of the Mace- 
donian Empire. 

Tubal and Meshech] mentioned together Ezek. xxvii. 13, xxxii. 26, 
xxxviii. 2, 3, xxxix. i; and to be identified with the "Tabal" and 
"Muski" of the monuments, who in the times of the later Assyrian 
Empire lived as neighbours in the country N.E. of Cilicia ; see Kiepert's 
map in Schrader's Keilinschrifiliche Bibliothek, vol- 1 1. This Meshech 
is to be distinguished from the Meshech son of Shem mentioned in 
ver. 17. At a later period the Ti^apTjvoi ( = Tubal) lived in Pontus, and 
the Moaxoi- ( = Meshech) further E. towards the Caspian. They were in 
the nineteenth nome of the Persian Empire (Hdt. III. 94). 

Ttras] No probable identification has been proposed for this name. 

6. As/ickefiaz] R.V. Ashkenaz, as in Gen. x. 3. In Jer. li. 27 "the 
kingdoms of Ararat, Minni and Ashkenaz" are to be summoned against 
Babylon. Ararat being Armenia, and Minni ( = Mannai of the Assyrian 
monuments) being a neighl)our of Armenia, Ashkenaz also is probably 
a neighbour of Armenia and to be sought on the N. or E. of Cappadocia, 
the seat of its "father" Gomer. 

Riphathi so LXX. and Vulg. R.V. Diphatli, following the Heb. 
text which however has a note added that another reading is " Riphath." 
The letters D and R are easily confused in Hebrew. Nothing certain 
is known of either Riphath or Diphath. 

Togarmah^ In Ezek. xxvii. 14 Togarmah is mentioned (after "Javan, 
Tubal, and Meshech," ver. 13) as trading with Tyre in horses, war-horses 
and mules, and in xxxviii. 6 mention is made of "the house of Togarmah 
in the uttermost parts of the north, and all his hordes " in connexion 
with "Gomer and all his hordes." The geographical position of 
Togarmah is unknown, but it must have been a neighbour of Gomer, 
Tubal and Meshech. 

7. Elisha/i] Ezekiel (xxvii. 7) addressing Tyre, "Blue and purple 
from the isles of Elishah was thine awning." Elishah clearly denotes 
some islands or coastlands near the territory of Javan, but no closer 
identification is at present possible. If it be the Alashya of the Tell-el- 
Amania Letters (cp. Flinders Petrie, Syria and Egypt, p. 161), it may 
be Cyprus or some part of Cyprus ; cp. note on Kittim. 

Tarshish'] Probably Tarsus in Cilicia is meant, for the next people 
mentioned are its near neighbours, the Kittim, i.e. the inhabitants 
of Cyprus. Tarsus was early colonised by the Greeks and was the 
capital of the country as early as the close of the fifth century B.C. 

4 I. CHRONICLES, I. [vv. 8, 9. 

8 The sons of Ham ; Gush, and Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. 

9 And the sons of Gush ; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and 

It is to be distinguished from the Tarshish ( = Tartessus in the south of 
Spain) of Ezek, xxvii. 12. 

Kittini\ spelt in A.V. Chittim (R.V. Kitthji) in Num. xxiv. 24 ; Is. 
xxiii. T, 12; Jer. ii. 10; Ezek. xxvii. 6, and Dan. xi. 30. The inhabi- 
tants of Cyprus are meant, and "Kittim" may be a reminiscence of 
Citium, the name of one of its oldest towns. In later times Kittim 
(Chittim) is used vaguely of Western nations; "the ships of Kittim" 
(iJan. xi. 30) are the Roman ships; "the land of Chittim" (XexTteiVj 
I Mace i. i) is Macedonia {ib. viii. 5). 

Dodanini\ R.V. Bodanim, so Heb. and LXX. ('P65iot). In the 
A.V. the spelling is made to agree with that of Cen. x. 4, where, 
however, the LXX. has again 'PoSiot. No doubt the Rhodians are 
meant ; their island was celebrated even in the days of Homer. For the 
confusion of reading between D and R see note on Riphath^ ver. 6. 

8, 9 ( = Gen. x. 6, 7). The Sons of Ham. 

8. The sons of Ham'\ Passing over for the present the Central 
"zone," the writer now describes the Southern. 

Cush?^ The Heb. name here transliterated Cush is several times 
translated "Ethiopia" (e.g. 2 Kin. xix. 9; Is. xviii. i) no doubt rightly. 
On the inscriptions of Assur-bani-pal frequent mention is made of Ku-su 
(Ku-u-su) "Ethiopia" in connexion with Mu-sur "Egypt." The 
Cushites were not Negroes but a brown race like the modern Nubians 

Mizraivi\ is without doubt Egypt. In form the word seems to be 
dual, and it is generally said to mean the two Egypts, Upper and Lower. 
A singular "Mazor" is translated "Egypt" in 2 Kin. xix. 24 (R.V.). 
Neither form is the native name of the kingdom. 

Pui\ In Gen. x. 6 "Phut" (R.V. Put). This people is mentioned 
among the helpers of Egypt in Jer., in Ezek. (twice) and in Nahum ; 
"the Libyans" A.V. In Ezek. xxvii. lo it appears among the auxiliary 
troops of Tyre ; "Phut" A.V. In all these passages R.V. has "Put." 
" Put" is probably the Punt of the Egyptian monuments, i.e. the Somali 
coast with the parts of the coast of Arabia nearest to it. 

Ca7iaan\ In Gen. ix. 25 — 27 "Canaan" is not the son of Ham, but 
takes Ham's place among the sons of Noah. Canaan ("lowland") is 
applied to the whole country W. of Jordan including the Hill Country 
of Judah and Ephraim, but perhaps the name was originally given to 
the sea-coast only. This coastland (including both Philistia and Phoe- 
nicia) had close political connexions with Egypt, being indeed Egypt's 
highway to the E., and hence Canaan is described as the brother of 
Mizraim, although no near ethnological relationship existed between the 
mass of the population of Canaan and the Egyptians. 

9. the sons of Cush] According to some authorities Seba and 
Havilah are to be sought in Africa on the W. coast of the Red Sea and 
the Gulf of Aden, while Sabta, Raamah, and Sabtecha (R.V. Sabteca) 

vv. 10—13.] I. CHRONICLES, I. 5 

Raamah, and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah ; Sheba, 
and Dedan. And Gush begat Nimrod : he began to be 10 
mighty upon the earth. And Mizraim begat Ludim, and n 
Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, and Pathrusim, 12 
and Casluhim, (of whom came the PhiHstines,) and Caph- 
thorim. And Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth, 13 

are to be sought in Arabia. According to another view (Sayce, Higher 
Criticism^ p. 133) all five tribes belonged to Arabia. 

Seba\ In Is. xliii. 3 and xlv. 14 Seba (the Sabeans) is mentioned 
along with Egypt and Cush, and in Ps.lxxii. 10 along with Sheba. The 
first two passages suggest Africa, the third Arabia as Seba's home. 

Sheba and Dedan~\ The same two names occur together in ver. 32 as 
descendants of Shem through Jokshan. Possibly the same two tribes 
are meant in both places, and Sheba and Dedan were of mixed origin, 
Hamitic and Semitic. 

10 — 16( = Gen. X. 8 — 18 b). Appendix. Other Descendants 

OF Ham. 

10. And Cush begat Nimrod^ In the parallel passage of Gen. 
Nimrod is described as having founded a kingdom in Babylonia and as 
having subsequently occupied Assyria (x. 10, 11, R.V.). In ver. 17 
( = Gen. X. 22) however, the inhabitants of these two countries (" Asshur, 
Arphaxad") are assigned to Shem. Either Nimrod represents the pre- 
Semitic inhabitants who were perhaps Hamitic, or Cush the father of 
Nimrod is wrongly identified with Cush son of Ham. The latter 
supposition is more probable, and Cush may stand for the "Kasi" who 
gave a dynasty to Babylonia which lasted (it is said) from B.C. 1806 to 
1230 (Sayce, Higher Criticising p. 148). 

began to be mighty upon the earth] Cp. Gen. x. g — 12. 

11. Lzidim] reckoned in Jer. xlvi. 9 and Ezek. xxx. 5 (R.V. 
"Lud") among the auxiliary troops of Egypt; they are no doubt the 
Lydians. Gyges of Lydia in the seventh century B.C. helped to make 
Egypt independent by sending forces to help Psammetichus ; and 
Lydians were permanently retained in the bodyguard of the Egyptian 
king. See also ver. 17, note on Lt^d. Of the Anamim, Leliab'nn, and 
Naphtuhim, nothing is certainly known. 

12. Pathrusini] the inhabitants of Pathros (Is. xi. 11), i.e. Upper 

Casluhim] not identified. 

of whom came the Philistines'] R.V. from whence. Elsewhere (Jer. 
xlvii. 4; Amos ix. 7; cp. Deut. ii. 23) the Philistines are said to have 
come from Caphtor ; and it is possible that this clause has been mis- 
placed and that it should follow Caphtorim. 

Caphthorim] R.V. Caphtorim. Perhaps Crete is meant by Caphtor, 
and the inhabitants of Crete by Caphtori?n, but nothing is certainly 
known of either word. 

13. Ca7iaan begat Zidon his firstborn] From the time of David 
downwards Tyre takes precedence of Zidon in any mention of the 

6 I. CHRONICLES, I. [vv. 14—17. 

r4, 15 the Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, and 

16 the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, 
and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite. 

17 The sons of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, 
and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and 

Phoenician cities in the O.T., but Zidon may still have been the older of 
the two cities, as indeed the Roman historian Justin (xviii. 3) asserts. 
So we find the Phoenicians in the earlier books of the O.T. called 
Zidonians, not Tyrians (e.g. Judg. iii. 3 ; i Kin. v. 6). 

Heth] i.e. the Hittites, who for centuries were the great power 
of Northern Syria, having their capital at Kadesh in the Orontes valley 
and a territory reaching from the Orontes to the Euphrates. Only an 
offshoot from them seems to have settled in Palestine. 

14. the Jebusite] Judg. i. 21; 2 Sam. v. 6. 

the Amorite] Num. xiii. 29; xxi. 21; Judg. i. 35. 

15. the Hivite] In Josh. xi. 3, the Hivites are placed in the extreme 
N. of the land, "the Hivite under Hermon" (Heb. not LXX.). The 
Arkite and Sinite lived in Lebanon, the Arvadite (cp. Ezek. xxvii. 8) on 
the sea-coast N, of Gebal (Byblus), the Zemarite a little to the S. of the 
Arvadite, and the Hamathite furthest to the north on the Orontes. 

17 ( = Gen. x. 22, 23). The Sons of Shem. 

17. The sons of Shem] These occupied the middle geographical 

Elam] "Semites neither in blood nor in speech" (Sayce, Higher 
Criticism, p. 122). If this be so, the reason of their being reckoned 
to Shem must be that they were in the geographical zone which belonged 
to the Semites. 

Asshur] The Assyrians, who spoke a Semitic dialect and were 
doubtless Semites. 

Arphaxad] R.V. Arpachshad. The second half of the word 
("chshad") contains the name of the Casdim, the "Chaldeans" or 
"Chaldees" of the A.V. 

Lud] Perhaps the Lydians. In ver. 11, which is an extract from 
an earlier document ("J"), Ludim ("the Lydians") are reckoned as 
the children of Mizraim (Egypt). Lydia itself was in the Japhetic 
"zone," but the people may have been recognised as Semites in- 
dependently of their geographical position. 

Aram] the "Syrians" of the A.V. ; better called Aramaeans. In 
Damascus they held an independent power for centuries and were 
constantly at war with Israel. Further north they seem to have been 
under the hegemony of the Hittites. 

Uz] From Gen, x. 23 it appears that in Chron. the words "And the 
children of Aram^" have dropped out, so that "Uz" etc. appear as 
the immediate descendants of bhem. 

Neither Uz nor the three following names have been satisfactorily 
identified. For "Meshech" Gen. x. 23 (Heb. ;/^/ LXX.) reads "Mash." 
1 The Alexandrine MS (A) of the LXX, has the words. 

vv. 18—31.] I. CHRONICLES, I. 7 

Meshech. And Arphaxad begat Shelah, and Shelah begat 18 
Eber. And unto Eber were born two sons : the name of 19 
the one was Peleg ; because in his days the earth was 
divided : and his brother's name was Joktan. And Joktan 20 
begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, 
Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, and Ebal, and Abi- 21, 22 
mael, and Sheba, and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All 23 
these were the sons of Joktan. 

Shem, Arphaxad, Shelah, Eber, Peleg, Rehu, Serug, 24,25,2 
Nahor, Terah, Abram ; the same is Abraham. The sons 27, 28 
of Abraham ; Isaac, and Ishmael. 

These are their generations : The firstborn of Ishmael, 29 
Nebajoth ; then Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, Mishma, 30 
and Dumah, Massa, Hadad, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, 31 
and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael. 

18 — 23 (=Gen. x. 24 — 29). The Descent of the South 
Arabian Tribes. 

18. Eher\ The Heb. word usually means " the land beyond." 
Perhaps here we have a personification of the population beyond the 

19. the earth was divided^ i.e. there was a great dispersion of the 
population of the earth. /V/<?o- means "Separation" or "Division." 

20. Joktan besfat Almodad\ All the names of the sons of Joktan 
here given, so far as they have been identified, represent peoples 
situnted in S. Arabia or on the W. coast of the Red Sea lying over 
against S. Arabia. 

24—27. The Descent of Abraham from Shem. 

These verses are compressed within the smallest limits from Gen. xi. 
10 — 26. For another example of this extreme compression compare 
vv. I — 4. 

28 — 31. The Descent of the Ishmaelite Tribes from 
Abraham ( = Gen. xxv. 12—16). 

29. Nebajoth'] Cp. Is. Ix. 7. 
Kedar'] Is. xxi. 13 — 17. 

30. Diifuah] Is. xxi. 11. 

JMassa] Prov. xxxi. i (R.V. marg.). 

iJadad'] The name begins with the Heb. letter Heth and therefore 
differs from the Hadad of ver. 46 and of ver. 50 and of 2 Chr. xvi. 2 
in which the first letter is He. 

Tema] Is. xxi. 14. 

31. Jetur, Naphish] i Chr. v. 18—22. 

8 I. CHRONICLES, I. [vv. 32—39. 

32 Now the sons of Keturah, Abraham's concubine : she 
bare Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and 
Ishbak, and Shuah. And the sons of Jokshan ; Sheba, and 

33 Dedan. And the sons of Midian ; Ephah, and Epher, and 
Henoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. All these are the sons 
of Keturah. 

34 And Abraham begat Isaac. The sons of Isaac; Esau 
and Israel. 

35 The sons of Esau; Eliphaz, Reuel, and Jeush, and Jaalam, 

36 and Korah. The sons of Eliphaz ; Teman, and Omar, 

37 Zephi, and Gatam, Kenaz, and Timna, and Amalek. The 
sons of Reuel ; Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. 

38 And the sons of Seir; Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, 

39 and Anah, and Dishon, and Ezer, and Dishan. And the 
sons of Lotan; Hori, and Homam: and Timna was Lotan's 

32, 33. The Descent of Arabian Tribes from Abraham 
THROUGH Keturah ( = Gen. xxv. i — 4). 

32. Medan, Midian] Kindred tribes often bore names only slightly 
differing in form. 

Midian] In Judg. viii. 24 the Midianites are reckoned as Ishmael- 

Sheba and Dedan] The same two names occur in ver. 9 among the 
descendants of Ham. See note there. 

33. Ephah] Is. Ix. 6. 

Henoch] R.V. Hanoch, as Gen. xxv. 4. Cp. ver. 3. 

34—37. The Descent of the tribes of Edom from 
Abraham (Cp. Gen. xxxvi. lo — 14). 

35. Jaalam] R.V. Jalam. 

36. Teman] Amos i. 11, 12; Hab. iii. 3. The word means South, 
and is applied in the first passage to Edom itself, in the second to the 
wilderness of Edom, both being south of Canaan. 

Zephi] In Gen. xxxvi. 11, "Zepho." 

Kenaz] perhaps the same person as the father of Othniel (i Chr. 
iv. 13). 

Amalek] Perhaps the eponymous ancestor of the Amalekites ; cp. 
ver. 12 of Gen. xxxvi. with ver. 16. 

38 — 42. The Genealogy of the Horite Inhabitants 
OF Seir (Cp. Gen. xxxvi. 20 — 27). 

38. The sons of Seir] Chron. omits the further description given 
in Gen. "the Horite, the inhabitants of the land," words which shew 
clearly that these "sons of Seir" were not descendants of Esau, but 
aboriginal inhabitants of the land. 

vv. 40— 51.] I. CHRONICLES, I. 

sister. The sons of Shobal ; Allan, and Manahath, and 40 
Ebal, Shephl, and Onam. And the sons of Zibeon ; Alah, 
and Anah. The sons of Anah ; Dlshon. And the sons of 41 
Dlshon ; Amram, and Eshban, and Ithran, and Cheran. 
The sons of Ezer ; Bilhan, and Zavan, and Jakan. The 42 
sons of Dlshan ; Uz, and Aran. 

Now these are the kings that reigned In the land of Edom 43 
before afiy king reigned over the children of Israel ; Bela 
the son of Beor : and the name of his city was Dlnhabah. 
And when Bela was dead, Jobab the son of Zerah of 44 
Bozrah reigned in his stead. And when Jobab was dead, 45 
Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned in his stead. • 
And when Husham was dead, Hadad the son of Bedad, 46 
which smote Mldlan in the field of Moab, reigned in his 
stead : and the name of his city was Avlth. And when 47 
Hadad was dead, Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead. 
And when Samlah was dead, Shaul of Rehoboth by the 48 
river reigned in his stead. And when Shaul was dead, Baal- 49 
hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his stead. And when 50 
Baal-hanan was dead, Hadad reigned in his stead : and the 
name of his city was Pal ; and his wife's name was Mehe- 
tabel, the daughter of Hatred, the daughter of Mezahab. 
Hadad died also. And the dukes of Edom were ; duke 51 

40. Aiah and AnaK\ See Gen. xxxvi. 24. 

43 — 51a. The early Kings of Edom. (Cp. Gen. xxxvi. 31 — 39.) 

43. in the land of Edoni] Edom continued to play an important 
part in the history of Israel till long after the Chronicler's lifetime. 
See (e.g.) i Mace. v. 65 ; 2 Mace. x. 14 — 17. Moreover the Herods 
were of Edomite descent. 

46. Midian in the field of Moab^ Perhaps the words point to a 
time when Midian and Moab were in alliance ; cp. Num. xxii. 4, 7. 

48. Rehoboth by the River] The Euphrates is meant. See Map 6 
in the Cambridge Companion to the Bible. 

50. Hadad^ As in ver. 46 ; in Gen. xxxvi, 39, "Hadar." 

51a. Hadad died also] R.V. And Hadad died. The words are 
repeated by a copyist's error from ver. 47 (R.V. "And Hadad died," 
as here) ; they are not found in Genesis. 

51b — 54. The "Dukes" of Edom (Cp. Gen. xxxvi. 40—43). 

51. dtihes] The word means "leader of a thousand." The list 
which follows is probably topographical, not chronological. It seems 
to give the names of the "dukedoms" into which Edom was divided at 
the time when the list was drawn up. 

lo I. CHRONICLES, I. 11. [vv. 52— 54; i— 6. 

52 Timnah, duke Aliah, duke Jetheth, duke Aholibamah, duke 

53 Elah, duke Pinon, duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mibzar, 

54 duke Magdiel, duke Iram. These are the dukes of Edom. 
2 These are the sons of Israel ; Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and 

2 Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun, Dan, Joseph, and Benjamin, 
Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. 

3 The sons of Judah ; Er, and Onan, and Shelah : which 
three were born unto him of the daughter of Shua the 
Canaanitess. And Er, the firstborn of Judah, was evil in 

4 the sight of the Lord ; and he slew him. And Tamar his 
daughter in law bare him Pharez and Zerah. All the sons 

5 of Judah were five. The sons of Pharez ; Hezron, and 

6 And the sons of Zerah ; Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, 

duhe Timnah, etc.] Render, the duke of Timnali, etc. 
Aliah] In Gen. xxxvi. 40, "Alvah." 

Chapters II.— VIII. The Genealogies of the Tribes 

OF Israel, 

The Chronicler deals very unequally with the tribes in their gene- 
alogies ; as the following tal)le shews : 
ii. I — iv. 23. Judah (102 verses). 
iv. 24 — 43. Simeon (20 verses). 

V. I — 26. Reuben, Gad, and Eastern Manasseh (26 verses). 
vi. I — 8r. Levi (81 verses), 
vii. I — 40. Issachar, Benjamin, Naphtali, Eastern Manasseh 

(again), Ephraim, and Asher (40 verses). 
viii. I — 40. Benjamin, though already noticed in vii. 6 — 11 

(40 verses). 
Zebulun and (perhaps) Dan (cp. vii. 12, note) are omitted. 
It may easily be seen that the tribes in which the Chronicler is really 
interested are the three southern tribes, Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin, 
together with the priestly tribe, Levi. 

The order in which the tribes are mentioned is at first geographical, 
Judah and Simeon the southern tribes first, then the eastern tribes 
Reuben, Gad, Manasseh ; the rest follow in no fixed order. 

Ch. II. 1, 2. The Sons of Israel (Cp. Gen. xxxv. 22 <5 — 26). 

3—17. The Descent of the Sons of Jesse from Judah. 

4. Pharez] R.V. Perez. 
6. The sons of Pharez] So Gen. xlvi. 12, 
6. the sotis of Zerah] This genealogy appears only in Chron. 
Zimri] LXX (B) Zau^pei (/3 being merely euphonic) here and also 
Josh. vii. I where Heb. has "Zabdi." LXX. is probably right in 

vv. 7— 16.] I. CHRONICLES, II. ii 

and Calcol, and Dara : five of them in all. And the sons 7 
of Carmi ; Achar, the troubler of Israel, who transgressed 
in the thing accursed. And the sons of Ethan ; Azariah. 8 
The sons also of Hezron, that were born unto him ; 9 
Jerahmeel, and Ram, and Chelubai. And Ram begat 10 
Amminadab; and Amminadab begat Nahshon, prince of 
the children of Judah ; and Nahshon begat Salma, and n 
Salma begat Boaz, and Boaz begat Obed, and Obed begat 12 
Jesse, and Jesse begat his firstborn Eliab, and Abinadab the 13 . 
second, and Shimma the third, Nethaneel the fourth, Raddai 14 
the fifth, Ozem the sixth, David the seventh : whose sisters 15, j6 
were Zeruiah, and Abigail. And the sons of Zeruiah ; 

identifying the two. Either form might arise from the other by easy 
textual corruption. 

Ethan... Dara] Read, Darda with Vulg., Targ., Pesh. The same 
four names in the same order occur i Kings iv. p,i as the names of wise 
men whom Solomon surpassed in wisdom. They are there called 
sons of "Mahol" who may have been either a nearer or remoter 
ancestor than Zerah. Ethan however is there called the Ezrahite 
{ = probably "son of Zerah"). [Pss. Ixxxviii, Ixxxix. bear respectively 
the names "Heman the Ezrahite," "Ethan the Ezrahite," but these 
(it seems) were Levites (r Chr. xv. 17, 19).] 

7. the sons of Carmi] Carmi is probably to be taken as the son of 
Zimri ( = Zabdi, Josh. vii. i). Targ. however has "Carmi who is 
Zimri." See note on Zimri ver. 6. 

Achar] This form of the name (instead of "Achan" Josh. vii. i) is 
used by the Chronicler to bring out better the play on the Heb. word 
for "troubler." The Heb. runs, "Achar ocher Israel." 

9. yerahmeef] For his descendants see vv. 25 — 41. The de- 
scendants of his younger brother Ram are given first because they 
include David and his family. 

Chelubai] Another form of " Caleb"; see ver. 42. 

10. Ram] The descent of David from Judah is given also Ruth 
iv. 18 — 22 and Matt. i. 3 — 6. 

Nahshon., prince, etc.] See Num. i. 4, 7 ; ii. 3. 

13. Shimma] R.V. Shimea, as in xx. 7. His name is written 
"Shammah" in i Sam. xvi. 9. In 2 Sam. xxi. 21 "Shimei" (R.V.). 

14. Nethaneel] R.V. Nethanel. It is the same name as Nathanael 
(John i. 45). The fourth, fifth and sixth of David's brothers are not 
elsewhere named. 

15. David the seventh] Jesse had eight sons (i Sam. xvii. 12; 
cp. xvi. 10, 11). Here one seems deliberately passed over, perliaps 
because he had no children. (The Elihu "one of David's brethren" of 
I Chr. xxvii. 18 is probably to be identified with Eliab and not to be 
regarded as an eighth brother.) 

16. sons of Zeruiah] Joab and his brothers are always thus named 

12 I. CHRONICLES, 11. [w. 17— 23. 

17 Abishai, and Joab, and Asahel, three. And Abigail bare 
Amasa: and the father of Amasa was Jether the IshmeeHte. 

18 And Caleb the son of Hezron begat children of Azubah 
his wife, and of Jerioth : her sons are these ; Jesher, and 

19 Shobab, and Ardon. And when Azubah was dead, Caleb 

20 took unto him Ephrath, which bare him Hur. And Hur 
begat Uri, and Uri begat Bezaleel. 

21 And afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir 
the father of Gilead, whom he married when he was three - 

22 score years old ; and she bare him Segub. And Segub 
begat Jair, who had three and twenty cities in the land ot 

23 Gilead. And he took Geshur, and Aram, with the towns 
of Jair, from them, with Kenath, and the towns thereof, even 

after their mother ; probably their father died while they were young, 
or we may have a relic here of the ancient method of tracing kinship 
through the mother. 

17. Jether'] 2 Sam. xvii. 25, "Ithra," a small difference of spelling 
in the Heb. 

the IshmeeHte'] 2 Sam. xvii. 25, "the Israelite," a reading yielding 
no satisfactory sense. 

18 — 20. The Genealogy of Bezaleel. 

It is quite in accordance with the mind of the Chronicler to single 
out the artificer of the Tabernacle ("Tent of Meeting") and tell his 
family history (cp. Ex. xxxi. 2 ff.). 

18. begat children of Azubah his wife and of Jerioth'] So R.V., 
but the Heb. seems to be corrupt. Probably we should read, took 
Azubah the wife of Jerioth. LXX. gives no help. 

21 — 24. Other Descendants of Hezron. 

22. Jair] He was one of the Judges (Judg. x. 3, 4 where thirty 
cities, not twenty-three, are assigned him). 

the land of Gilead] This name is sometimes restricted to that part 
of the land E. of Jordan which lies S. of the Yarmuk ; see Camb. 
Companion, Map 2. Here, as often, it is applied to all the land E. of 
Jordan occupied by Israel. 

23. And he took Geshtir, and Ara?n, with the towns] R.V. And 
Geshur and Aram took the towns. Geshur was a (probably Aramaean) 
kingdom E. of Jordan on the N.E. border of Manasseh. Aram, com- 
monly translated "Syria" or "the Syrians" probably here signifies 
the kingdom of which Damascus was the capital. The conquest of 
Manassite territory by the Aramaeans (" Syrians") here described pro- 
bably took place before the days of Ahab, for in his reign they were 
already established as far south as Ramoth-gilead (1 Kin. xxii. 3). 

the towns of Jair] R.V. marg., Havvoth Jair. Cp. Deut. iii. 14; 

vv. 24—34.] I. CHRONICLES, II. 13 

threescore cities. All these belonged to the sons of Machir 
the father of Gilead. And after that Hezron was dead in 24 
Caleb-ephratah, then Abiah Hezron's wife bare him Ashur 
the father of Tekoa. 

And the sons of Jerahmeel the firstborn of Hezron were, 25 
Ram the firstborn, and Bunah, and Oren, and Ozem, and 
Ahijah. Jerahmeel had also another wife, whose name was 26 
Atarah; she was the mother of Onam. And the sons of 27 
Ram the firstborn of Jerahmeel were, Maaz, and Jamin, 
and Eker. And the sons of Onam were, Shammai, and 28 
Jada. And the sons of Shammai; Nadab, and Abishur. 
And the name of the wife of Abishur was Abihail, and she 29 
bare him Ahban, and Molid. And the sons of Nadab ; 30 
Seled, and Appaim : but Seled died without children. And 31 
the sons of Appaim; Ishi. And the sons of Ishi; Sheshan. 
And the children of Sheshan ; Ahlai. And the sons of 32 
Jada the brother of Shammai ; Jether, and Jonathan : and 
Jether died without children. And the sons of Jonathan ; 33 
Peleth, and Zaza. These were the sons of Jerahmeel. Now 34 
Sheshan had no sons, but daughters. And Sheshan had a 

Judg. X. 4. The name perhaps means '*the tent-villages of Jair," 
(Arab. Aiz'a = "a collection of tents near together"). 

24. And after that Hezron was dead in Caleb-ephratah (R.V. 

The text of this passage is probably corrupt, for (i) "Caleb- 
ephrathah " is a very strange combination to signify the name of a 
place, (2) Vulg. LXX. have a verb (ingressus est, y]\d^v) instead of the 
preposition, "in". A few small changes in the Heb. would yield the 
sense, "And after Hezron was dead Caleb went in to Ephratli (ver. 
19) his father Hezron's wife and she bare him" etc. 

Ashtir'\ R.V. Ashhur, Hur (ver. 19) the father of Bethlehem is 
described as the "firstborn of Ephrathah," so that Ashhur would be a 
younger brother (iv. 4). 

the father of Tekoa'\ i.e. the founder of the town or the eponymous 
ancestor of its inhabitants. Cp. iv. 4, 14, 21 etc. For Tekoa see 
2 Chr. XX. 20, note. 

26 — 41. The Genealogy of the Jerahmeelites. 

25. the sons of yerahmeer\ Their settlements were in the S. of 
Judah; cp. 1 Sam. xxvii. 10; xxx. 29. 

Ozem, and Ahijah'X By a slight change in the Heb. we get Ozem his 
brother (so LXX.) ; cp. xxvi. 20 for a similar confusion of reading. 

31. the children of Sheshan ; Ahlai] Ahlai is perhaps a gentilic 
name, not the name of an individual. Cp. ver. 34. 

14 I. CHRONICLES, II. [vv. 35—49- 

35 servant, an Egyptian, whose name ivas Jarha. And Sheshan 
gave his daughter to Jarha his servant to wife ; and she 

36 bare him Attai. And Attai begat Nathan, and Nathan 

37 begat Zabad, and Zabad begat Ephlal, and Ephlal begat 
s8 Obed, and Obed begat Jehu, and Jehu begat Azariah, 

39 and Azariah begat Helez, and Helez begat Eleasah, 

40 and Eleasah begat Sisamai, and Sisamai begat Shallum, 

41 and Shallum begat Jekamiah, and Jekamiah begat Eli- 

42 Now the sons of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel were^ 
Mesha his firstborn, which was the father of Ziph ; and the 

43 sons of Mareshah the father of Hebron. And the sons of 
Hebron ; Korah, and Tappuah, and Rekem, and Shema. 

44 And Shema begat Raham, the father of Jorkoam : and 

45 Rekem begat Shammai. And the son of Shammai was 

46 Maon : and Maon was the father of Beth-zur. And Ephah, 
Caleb's concubine, bare Haran, and Moza, and Gazez : and 

47 Haran begat Gazez. And the sons of Jahdai ; Regem, and 
Jotham, and Geshan, and Relet, and Ephah, and Shaaph. 

48 Maachah, Caleb's concubine, bare Sheber, and Tirhanah. 

49 She bare also Shaaph the father of Madmannah, Sheva the 

35. Sheshan gave his daughter to yarha'] This was equivalent to 
making his servant his heir, an action not unknown in the East. Thus 
Abraham at first (Gen. xv. 2, 3) regarded Eliezer his steward as his 
heir. Cp. note on ver. 31. 

42 — 49. The Descendants of Caleb. 

42. Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel'] Called Chelubai (ver. 9) and 
Caleb the son of Hezron (ver. 18). There is nothing to shew what 
relationship existed between this Caleb and Caleb son_ of Jephunneh 
(iv. 15 and Num. xiii. 6). Perhaps they are to be identified; cp. 
ver. 49, note. Both are assigned to the tribe of Judah. 

Several of the names, viz. Ziph (Josh. xv. 24 or 55), Mareshah (2 
Chr. xi. 8), Hebron, Tappuah (Josh. xv. 34), Maon (Josh. xv. 55), and 
Beth-zur ( xv. 58) are names of towns in the 8. or S.W. of Judah, 
and consequently may represent here the respective populations of 
those towns, and not individual descendants of Caleb. 

Mesha] The Moabite king whose deeds are recorded on the Moabite 
stone bore this name. It means Victory, enlargeinent. LXX. reads 
Mareshah (Mapeto-d) as in the latter part of the verse. 

45. Maon] Nabal'who was a Calebite lived at the town of Maon 
(i Sam. XXV. 1, 3). It is improbable that Maon was ever used as the 
name of a person ; cp. Buchanan Gray, Hebrew Proper Natnes, pp. 
127, 8. See note on ver. 42. 

vv. 50—55.] I. CHRONICLES, II. 15 

father of Machbenah, and the father of Gibea : and the 
daughter of Caleb was Achsah. 

These were the sons of Caleb the son of Hur, the first- 50 
born of Ephratah ; Shobal the father of Kirjath-jearim, 
Salma the father of Beth-lehem, Hareph the father of Beth- 51 
gader. And Shobal the father of Kirjath-jearim had sons ; 52 
Haroeh, and half of the Manahethites. And the families 53 
of Kirjath-jearim; the Ithrites, and the Puhites, and the 
Shumathites, and the Mishraites ; of them came the Zare- 
athites, and the Eshtaulites. The sons of Salma ; Beth- 54 
lehem, and the Netophathites, Ataroth, the house of Joab, 
and half of the Manahethites, the Zorites. And the families 55 
of the scribes which dwelt at Jabez; the Tirathites, the 
Shimeathites, a7id Suchathites. These are the Kenites that 
came of Hemath, the father of the house of Rechab. 

49. the daughter of Caleb was Achsah'\ The Caleb of Judg. i. 12 
(who according to Josh. xv. 13 — 19 was Caleb son of Jephunneh) also 
had a daughter Achsah. 

50. These were the sons of Caleb the son of Htir\ Read with LXX., 
These "were the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur (Cp. R.V.). Hur 
was the son of Caleb (ver. 19). 

52. Haroeh and half of the Manahethites'] R.V. Haroeh, half of the 
Menuhoth. If the text be sound, render, Who provided for half the 
resting-places, the description applying to Shobal, whose work ap- 
parently was to supervise some of the halting-stations of the caravans 
which passed through the territory of Judah. Cp. similar details in 
iv. 21 — 23. Seraiah (Jer. li. 59), who accompanied king Zedekiah to 
Babylon, bore the title o{ Prince of the resting-places, doubtless because 
he was entrusted with the duty of selecting the halting-places on the 
king's journey. Some however would read Reaiah as in iv. 2, and 
would find the name of another son concealed in the phrase half of the 
Manahethites (Menuhoth) ; cp. ver. 54, where however the Heb. word 
is different. 

53. Fuhifesl R.V. rightly Puthites. 

Zareathites] R.V. Zorathites as in iv. 2, where the same family is 
mentioned again. 

54. Ataroth, the house of Joab] R.V. Atroth-beth-Joab. 

55. at fabezl Jabez occurs as the name of a man of the tribe of 
Judah in iv. 9. 

the Kenites that came] Render, the Kenites who came in, i.e. 
attached themselves to Israel. 

of Hemath] Render, who were of Hammath. 

the house of Rechab] The Rechabites (2 Kings x. 15; Jer. xxxv. 2 ff.) 
are here traced to a non-Israelite source. On the incorporation of non- 
Israelites into Israel see Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, ii. 508^2. 

i6 I. CHRONICLES, III. [vv. 1—7. 

3 Now these were the sons of David, which were born unto 
him in Hebron ; the firstborn Amnon, of Ahinoam the 
Jezreelitess ; the second Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess : 

2 the third, Absalom the son of Maachah the daughter of 
Talmai king of Geshur : the fourth, Adonijah the son of 

3 Haggith : the fifth, Shephatiah of Abital : the sixth, Ithream 

4 by Eglah his wife. These six were born unto him in Hebron; 
and there he reigned seven years and six months : and in 

5 Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years. And these 
were born unto him in Jerusalem ; Shimea, and Shobab, 
and Nathan, and Solomon, four, of Bath-shua the daughter 

6, 7 of Ammiel : Ibhar also, and Elishama, and Eliphelet, and 

Ch. III. 1—24. The Genealogy of the House of David. 

1 — 4 (=2 Sam, iii. 2—5). The Sons born to David 
IN Hebron. 

1. Daniel] LXX. (B) ^afivL-rfK, (A) AoKovta. In 2 Sam. iii. 3 
Chileab, but LXX. AaXouia. The real name of David's second son 
remains therefore uncertain. 

2. Ges/nir] Cp. ii. 23, note. 

3. Eglah his zvife] In 2 Sam. iii. 5 "Eglah David's wife," where 
however David is probably a wrong reading for the name of a previous 
husband of Eglah. 

5 — 9 ( = ch. xiv. 4 — 7 and 2 Sam. v. 14—16). The Sons born 
TO David in Jerusalem. 

5. Shimea'] in xiv. 4 and 2 Sam. v. 14 (R.V.) Shammua. 
Nathan] Through him our Lord's descent is traced in Luke iii. 31. 
Solomon] Oiily here are other sons besides Solomon attributed to 


Bathshua] is a slight variation in pronunciation (with a consequent 
variation in meaning) of Bath-sheba. 

the daughter of Atnniiel] of Eliam (perhaps a by-form of Aminiet) 
in 2 Sam. xi. 3. An Eliam son of Ahithophel, David's counsellor, is 
mentioned in 2 Sam. xxiii. 34; Bath-sheba may therefore have been 
grand-daughter to Ahithophel. Notice that the Chronicler does not 
call Bath-sheba the wife of Uriah the Hittite ; he nowhere refers to 
David's gi-eat sin. 

6. Elishama] in xiv. 5 and 2 Sam. v. 15 Elishua, no doubt the 
right reading, for otherwise (cp. ver. 8) we have two sons of David named 

Eliphelet] in xiv. 5 (R.V.) Elpelet-, in 2 Sam. v. 15 the name is 
wanting. Eliphelet cannot be right, for it re-occurs as the name of the 
thirteenth son in ver. 8. On the other hand Elpelet may be right here 
and Eliphelet in ver. 8, for according to Hebrew custom two brothers 
might bear names of similar sound and significance. 

vv. 8— 16.1 I. CHRONICLES, III. 17 

Nogah, and Nepheg, and Japhia, and Elishama, and 8 
Eliada, and Eliphelet, nine. These were all the sons of 9 
David, beside the sons of the concubines, and Tamar their 

And Solomon's son was Rehoboam, Abia his son, Asa 10 
his son, Jehoshaphat his son, Joram his son, Ahaziah his n 
son, Joash his son, Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, 12 
Jotham his son, Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh 13 
his son, Amon his son, Josiah his son. And the sons of 14, 15 
Josiah were, the firstborn Johanan, the second Jehoiakim, 
the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum. And the sons of iC 
Jehoiakim : Jeconiah his son, Zedekiah his son. 

7. Nogah'\ so xiv. 6; in 2 Sam. v. 15 the name is wanting. 

8. Eliada] so in 2 Sam. v. 16, but in 1 Chr. xiv. 7 Beeliada (i.e. 
Baaliada). The original reading, probably Baaliada ("The Lord — the 
rSaal — knows"), seems to have been changed to Eliada ("God knows") 
at the time at which the Hebrews ceased to apply the title Baal to 
Jehovah. From Hos. ii. 16 it appears that I3aal once used as an 
epithet of Jehovah fell into disuse owing to its overpoweringly heathen 
associations. Cp. viii. 33, note. 

10 — 16. The Line of Davidic Kings. 

Two things are to be noted in this list: (i) Johanan's name is given 
in ver. 15, though he was never king, (2) Zedekiah's name appears to 
be /zfzV^ given, once among the sons of Josiah (ver. 15) and again in his 
place according to the succession (ver. 16). 

10. Abid\ R.V. Abijah, as in 2 Chr. xiii. i ff. He is called Abijam 
in I Kin. xiv. 31, xv. i ff. Abia is the Greek form of the name; 
Matt. i. 7 (A. v.). 

12. Azariah] This king is usually called Uzziah', see note on 
2 Chr. xxvi. 1. 

15. the firstborn yohanan] This son of Josiah never came to the 
throne, nor is anything known of him except from this passage. Perhaps 
he died before he grew up. 

Zedekiah] Though reckoned third here, he was younger than Shallum 
(=Jehoahaz); cp. 2 Chr. xxxvi. 2 (=2 Kings xxiii. 31) with 2 Chr. 
xxxvi. II ( = 2 Kings xxiv. 18). 

Shallum] To be identified with Jehoahaz', cp. 1 Chr. xxxvi. i with 
Jer. xxii. 11. 

16. yeconiah] This name is sometimes shortened to Coniah (Jer. 
xxii. 24) and written (with a slight change of meaning) Jehoiachin 
(2 Chr. xxxvi. 8, 9; 2 Kings xxiv. 6 ff.). 

Zedekiah his son] Zedekiah was heir, not son, to Jeconiah, whom he 
succeeded in the kingdom. His relationship to Jeconiah was that of 


i8 I. CHRONICLES, III. [vv. 17, 19. 

17 And the sons of Jeconiah ; Assir, Salathiel his son, 

i8 Malchiram also, and Pedaiah, and Shenazar, Jecamiah, 

19 Hoshama, and Nedabiah. And the sons of Pedaiah were^ 

Zerubbabel, and Shimei : and the son of Zerubbabel ; Me- 

17 — 19a. The Davidic Line from Jeconiah to Zerubbabel. 

A difficulty arises from the fact that whereas Zerubbabel is here 
represented apparently as the son of Pedaiah and consequently nephew 
of Salathiel { = Shealtiel), he is elsewhere called the son of Shealtiel 
(Ezra iii. 2; Hag. i. i, ii. 2; cp. Luke iii. 27 — 31). The LXX. solves 
the difficulty by reading Salathiel { = Shealtiel) in ver. 19. It may 
be however that the names given in ver. 18 (including Pedaiah) are the 
names of the sons of Shealtiel. Another possible solution is that 
Zerubbabel was grafid-son both to Shealtiel and Pedaiah, according to 
such a scheme as the following : — 

Pedaiah Shealtiel 

I I 

a daughter = a son 


A minor difficulty arises from the fact that Salathiel ( = Shealtiel) is 
here connected with David through Solomon, whereas in Luke iii. 
27 — 31 his descent is traced through Solomon's brother Nathan. How- 
ever, intermarriage at some point in the genealogy between the two 
Davidic families would explain the difficulty. 

17. the sons of Jeconiah; Assir, Salathiel] R.V. the sons of Jeconiah, 
the captive (mg., Assir) ; Shealtiel. Assir is a significant name 
of Jeconiah given him after his removal to Babylon. Salathiel (cp. 
Luke iii. 27 A.V.) is the Greek form of Shealtiel. 

It should be noted that the fact that Jeconiah had sons is not at 
variance with Jeremiah's denunciation of him (xxii. 30). That passage 
gives the answer to Jeconiah's expectation of a speedy return to his 
kingdom [ib. ver. 27) ; Jeremiah says that neither he nor any of his seed 
shall recover the lost throne : "Reckon him childless, for no son of his 
shall succeed him on his throne." 

18. Malchiram also] R.V. and Malchiram. 
Shenazar, Jecamiah] R.V. Shenazzar, Jekamiah. 

19. the QOT\^ of Zerubbabel] R.V. = LXX. ; A.V. =Heb. 

19b — 24. The Davidic Line from Zerubbabel. 

The text of these verses is very uncertain. In ver. 20 the names of 
five sons are given, but their father's name (perhaps Meshullani) is 
wanting. In verses 21, 22 the LXX. differs from the Heb. in such a 
way as to affect the number of steps in llic genealogy; the Heb. seems 
to reckon but one generation between Hananiah and Shemaiah, the 
LXX. on the contrary reckons six\ the result on the whole genealogy 
being that the LXX. counts eleven generations after Zerubbabel as 

VV.20— 24; 1—3'] I. CHRONICLES, III. IV. 19 

shullam, and Hananiah, and Shelomith their sister : and 20 
Hashubah, and Ohel, and Berechiah, and Hasadiah, Jushab- 
hesed, five. And the sons of Hananiah; Pelatiah, and 21 
Jesaiah : the sons of Rephaiah, the sons of Arnan, the sons 
of Obadiah, the sons of Shechaniah. And the sons of 22 
Shechaniah; Shemaiah: and the sons of Shemaiah; Hattush, 
and Igeal, and Bariah, and Neariah, and Shaphat, six. And 23 
the sons of Neariah ; EHoenai, and Hezekiah, and Azrikam, 
three. And the sons of Elioenai were, Hodaiah, and 24 
Eliashib, and Pelaiah, and Akkub, and Johanan, and Dalaiah, 
and Anani, seven. 

The sons of Judah ; Pharez, Hezron, and Carmi, and 4 
Hur, and Shobal. And Reaiah the son of Shobal begat 2 
Jahath ; and Jahath begat Ahumai, and Lahad. These are 
the families of the Zorathites. And these were of the father 3 

against six in the Heb. In ver. 22 again the sons of Shemaiah are 
reckoned to be six, but only fizv names are given both in Heb. and LXX. 

19. their sistcr'X R.V. was their sister. 

20. and Hashubah^ Probably we should read "The sons of 
Meshullam : Hashubah." See above. 

Jushab-hesed\ The name means "Mercy is restored." Many such 
significant names belong to the period of the Return. 

21. and yesaiah...Shechaniah'\ The LXX. reads (with some blun- 
ders in reproducing the names), "and Jesaiah his son, Rephaiah his son, 
Arnan his son, Obadiah his son, Shechaniah his son," thus adding five 
steps to the genealogy. The difference of reading in the Heb. text thus 
suggested is very slight. Probably the LXX. is to be followed. 

23. Elioennt] A significant name meaning, "Mine eyes are towards 
Jehovah"; cp. yushab-hesed {ytx. 16). 

Hezekiah] R.V. Hizkiali. 

24. Hodaiah] R.V. Hodaviah (as in v. 24). Another significant 
name "Thank ye Jehovah." 

Ch. IV. 1 — 23. A Genealogy of the Tribe of Judah 
(cp. ii. 3 ff.). 

1. As Hezron was the son of Perez (ch. ii. 5) and (if the LXX. be 
right) Shobal was the son of Hur (ii. 50, note), we have in this verse 
five, if not six, generations. 

Pharez] R.V. Perez. 

Carmi] if a descendant of Hezron, then probably not the person 
mentioned in ii. 7. 

2. Reaiah] Cp. note on ii. 52. 
the Zorathites] Cp. note on ii. 53. 

3. these were of the father of Etavi] LXX. ("these were the sons of 
Etam" — A^rdj/) yields better sense. Etam (ver. 32) was a place; the 

20 I. CHRONICLES, IV. [vv. 4— 12. 

of Etam ; Jezreel, and Ishma, and Idbash : and the name 

4 of their sister was Hazelelponi : and Penuel the father of 
Gedor, and Ezer the father of Hushah. These are the sons 
of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah, the father of Beth-lehem. 

5 And Ashur the father of Tekoa had two wives, Helah and 

6 Naarah. And Naarah bare him Ahuzam, and Hepher, and 
Temeni, and Haahashtari. These were the sons of Naarah. 

7 And the sons of Helah were^ Zereth, and Jezoar, and Ethnan. 

8 And Coz begat Anub, and Zobebah, and the famiUes of 
Aharhel the son of Harum. 

9 And Jabez was more honourable than his brethren : and 
his mother called his name Jabez, saying, Because I bare 

10 him with sorrow. And Jabez called on the God of Israel, 
saying, Oh that thou wouldest bless me indeed, and enlarge 
my coast, and that thine hand might be with me, and that 
thou wouldest keep me from evil, that it may not grieve me. 
And God granted him that which he requested. 
" And Chelub the brother of Shuah begat Mehir, which 
12 was the father of Eshton. And Eshton begat Beth-rapha, 

"sons of Etam" would be families which derived their origin from the 

4. Hur'X the first-born of Ephratah (R.V. Epliratliali = Ephrath) one 
of the wives of Caleb (ii. 19). Hur v^'diS, father of Bethlehem through his 
son Salma (ii. 50, 51, LXX.). For the name of the city cp. Gen. xxxv. 
19 {Ephrath the same is Bethlehem) and Mic. v. 2 (R.V. Thoii., Bethlehem 

8. And Coz] R.V. And Hakkoz as in xxiv. 10, but there a different 
person (or family) is meant. The connexion of this verse with the 
preceding does not appear, and the names given are not otherwise 

9. The connexion of this verse also does not appear, but according 
to Targ. (on ver. 13) Jabez— Othniel, the nephew of Caleb. 

Afid Jabez etc.] Render, And Jabez came to be honoured above Ms 
brethren, but Ms mother had called his name, etc. The man with 
the ill-omened name staved off ill-fortune by his prayer. Jabez=''iie 
bringeth sorrow." 

10. my coast] R.V. my border. 

that thou wouldest keep vs\Qfro?n evil] Lit. that thou wouldest make... 
from evil. Most probably the Heb. text is defective here, one or two 
words having fallen out, and we should supply the gap somewhat as 
follows, that thou ivouldest make [room (merhabh) for fue, and wouldest 
redeem, (phadltha) me] from evil. 

that it may not grieve me] R.V. that it be not to my sorrow; cp. last 

vv. 13—18.] I. CHRONICLES, IV. 21 

and Paseah, and Tehinnah the father of Irnahash. These 
are the men of Rechah. And the sons of Kenaz ; Othniel, 13 
and Seraiah : and the sons of Othniel ; Hathath. And 14 
Meonothai begat Ophrah : and Seraiah begat Joab, the 
father of the valley of Charashim ; for they were craftsmen. 
And the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh ; Iru, Elah, 15 
and Naam : and the sons of Elah, even Kenaz. And the 16 
sons of Jehaleleel ; Ziph, and Ziphah, Tiria, and Asareel. 
And the sons of Ezra were^ Jether, and Mered, and Epher, 17 
and Jalon : and she bare Miriam, and Shammai, and Ishbah 
the father of Eshtemoa. And his wife Jehudijah bare Jered 18 
the father of Gedor, and Heber the father of Socho, and 

12. These are the men of Rechah"] LXX. (B), the ?nen of Rechab ; cp. 
ii. 55, note. Targ. the men of the Great Synagogue, reading perhaps 
rabbah ("great") for Rechah. 

13. Othniel] the first of the Judges ; cp. Judg. i. 13 and iii. 9 — 11. 

14. Meonothai] perhaps a son of Othniel. 

the valley of Charashim] R.V. marg. the valley of craftsmen. It is 
mentioned Neh. xi. 35 along with Lod (the Lydda of Acts ix. 32) and 
therefore was probably near Lydda, 

15. Caleb the son of f ephunneh] Cp. ii. 42, note. 

the sons of Elah, even Kenaz] R.V. the sons of Elah ; and Kenaz. 
The sons of Elah and Kenaz are co-ordinated, as each representing a 
family descended from Caleb. 

16. 17. The connexion of these names with Judah does not appear. 
Ziph however is the name of a place in the south of Judah (i Sam. 
xxiii. 15, 19). 

17. and yalon: and she bare Miriam] As the text stands she\i2i% 
no antecedent. It has therefore been proposed to transfer from ver. 18 
the words And these are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, 
which Mered took, and put them after Jalon. Bithiah then appears as 
the mother of Miriam, Shammai and Ishbah, and the difficulty of the 
absence of her sons' names from ver. 18 disappears. Y ox father of 
Eshtemoa see ii. 24 note, and for Eshtemoa see Josh. xxi. 14. 

18. his wife] the wife of Mered, if the transposition mentioned in the 
last note be accepted. 

his wife Jehudijah] R.V. his wife the Jewess (so called in contrast to 
his Egyptian wife). 

Gedor] Cp. ver. 4, where a different person is perhaps by a different 
tradition called father of Gedor. Gedor is to be identified with the 
ruins of Jedur on the road between Jerusalem and Hebron {Badeker, 

P- 135). 

Socho] R.V. Soco. 

Socho .. .Zanoah] The two places are mentioned in the reverse order 
in Josh. XV. 34, 35 as situated in the lowland (Shephelah). Zanu'a still 
exists {Badeker, p. 161). 

22 I. CHRONICLES, IV. [vv. 19—23. 

Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah. And these are the sons of 

19 Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, which Mered took. And 
the sons of his wife Hodiah the sister of Naham, the father 
of Keilah the Garmite, and Eshtemoa the Maachathite. 

20 And the sons of Shimon were^ Amnon, and Rinnah, Ben- 
hanan, and Tilon. And the sons of Ishi ivere^ Zoheth, and 

21 The sons of Shelah the son of Judah were^ Er the father 
of Lecah, and Laadah the father of Mareshah, and the 
families of the house of them that wrought fine linen, of the 

22 house of Ashbea, and Jokim, and the men of Chozeba, and 
Joash, and Saraph, who had the dominion in Moab, and 

23 Jashubi-lehem. And these are ancient things. These were 
the potters, and those that dwelt amongst plants and 
hedges : there they dwelt with the king for his work. 

these are the sons of Bithiah'] See note on ver. 17. 

19. ^his wife Hodiah] R.V. of the wife of Hodiah. 

Keilah] a town of the Shephelah (Josh. xv. 44), the scene of one of 
David's exploits (i Sam. xxiii. i — 5). 

Eshtemoa the Maachathite] The epithet distinguishes this Eshtemoa 
from that of ver. 17. The Maachathite may mean the descendant of 
Maachah (ii. 48), the concubine of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel. 

21. Shelah] ii. 3. 
Lecah] an unknown place. 

Mareshah] ii. 42; 2 Chr, xi. 8; Josh. xv. 44 (mentioned with Keilah). 
A town in the south of Judah. 

the house of Ashbea] Nothing is known of such a family. We might 
render, Beth-Ashbea, but nothing is known of such a place. 

22. and Joash, and Saraph, %vho etc.] Targ. "and Joash who is 
Mahlon and Seraph who is Chilion who took wives of the daughters of 
Moab" (cp. Ruth i. 2, 4). There is little to be said for the identification, 
which rests on the fact that the Hebrew word for had dominion might 
be translated married. We find no other trace of these two as rulers of 

and Jashubi-lehem] Vulg. who returned to Bethlehem, a translation 
which requires only an easy emendation of the present Hebrew text. 
Mahlon and Chilion did not return. Joash and Saraph may have retired 
to Moab either (like Mahlon and Chilion) because of a famine, or to 
escape foreign oppression, e.g. that of the Chaldeans, married wives 
there, and subsequently returned to their own country. 

these are ajicient things] R.V. the records are ancient. 

23. those that dzoelt afnungst plants and hedges] R.V. The inhabit- 
ants of Netaim and Gederah. 

there they dwelt with the king for his work] In the days of the 
kingdom the inhabitants of these villages were clients of the king and did 
his work ; cp. i Kin. vii. 46. The simplicity of this statement seems to 

vv. 24—32.] I. CHRONICLES, IV. 23 

The sons of Simeon were^ Nemuel, and Jamin, Jarib, 24 
Zerah, and Shaul : Shallum his son, Mibsam his son, Mishma 25 
his son. And the sons of Mishma ; Hamuel his son, 26 
Zacchur his son, Shimei his son. And Shimei had sixteen 27 
sons and six daughters ; but his brethren had not many 
children, neither did all their family multiply, like to the 
children of Judah. And they dwelt at Beer-sheba, and 28 
Moladah, and Hazar-shual, and at Bilhah, and at Ezem, 29 
and at Tolad, and at Bethuel, and at Hormah, and at 30 
Ziklag, and at Beth-marcaboth, and Hazar-susim, and at 31 
Beth-birei, and at Shaaraim. These were their cities unto 
the reign of David. And their villages were^ Etam, and 32 

have been a stumbling-block to the early translators; LXX. They were 
strofig in his kingdom and dwelt there; Targ., They made their 
dwelling there with the Shekinah of the King of the World for the 
practice of the Law. 

24 — 27. The Genealogy of Simeon. 

24. The sons of Simeon'] In Gen. xlvi. 10 and Ex. vi. 15 we have 
six sons of Simeon named as against five here; — femuel (htxQ Nemuel), 
yamin (as here), (9Aa^ (not mentioned here), Jachin (here Jarib)^ Zohar 
(here Zerah), and Shaul (as here). In Num. xxvi. 12, 13 the same list 
is given as here (except that Jachin stands for Jarib), and descendants 
are ascribed to the five. Ohad is omitted from Num. and Chron., 
perhaps as having no children. 

27. six daughters] LXX. three daughters. 

28 — 33 (=Josh. xix. i — 8). The Territory of Simeon. 

28. Beer-sheba] at the southern extremity of Palestine, as Dan was 
at the northern (i Sam. iii. 20) . 

29. Tolad] In Josh. xix. 4 Eltolad, but el in this case is probably 
only the Arabic definite article. 

30. Bethuel] The name is elsewhere (Gen. xxii. 22, 23; xxiv. 15) 
the name of a person. In Josh. xix. 4 Bethul. 

Hormah] Num. xiv. 45 ; xxi. 3. 

Ziklag] xii. I, 20; I Sam. xxvii. 6; xxx. i. 

31. Beth-marcaboth . . . Hazar-susifu] These names mean respectively, 
House of chariots, and Court of horses. They may have been royal 
chariot-cities, i Kin. ix. 19. 

Shaaraim] i Sam. xvii. 52. 

These were their cities tinto the reign of David] This may be a 
reference to David's census, which doubtless shewed generally the 
possessions of tribes or families as well as their num.bers. It does not 
necessarily mean that these cities ceased to belong to Simeon after 
David's day. 

32. And their villages -wero] These villages [hdcertm) are called at 

24 I. CHRONICLES, IV. [vv. 33—41. 

33 Ain, Rimmon, and Tochen, and Ashan, five cities : and all 
their villages that were round about the same cities, unto 
Baal. These were their habitations, and their genealogy. 

34 And Meshobab, and Jamlech, and Joshah the son of 

35 Amaziah, and Joel, and Jehu the son of Josibiah, the son 

36 of Seraiah, the son of Asiel, and Elioenai, and Jaakobah, 
and Jeshohaiah, and Asaiah, and Adiel, and Jesimiel, and 

37 Benaiah, and Ziza the son of Shiphi, the son of Allon, the 
son of Jedaiah, the son of Shimri, the son of Shemaiah ; 

38 these mentioned by their names were princes in their 
families : and the house of their fathers increased greatly. 

39 And they went to the entrance of Gedor, even unto the east 

40 side of the valley, to seek pasture for their flocks. And they 
found fat pasture and good, and the land was wide, and 
quiet, and peaceable ; for they of Ham had dwelt there of 

41 old. And these written by name came in the days of 
Hezekiah king of Judah, and smote their tents, and the 
habitations that were found there, and destroyed them 
utterly unto this day, and dwelt in their rooms : because 

the end of the verse cities, but sometimes hd^erini are described as un- 
walled (Lev. xxv. 31) and sometimes as dependencies of cities (ver. 33 
of this ch.). In these two cases ha^erim would be distinguished from 

Etam'\ In the parallel passage, Josh. xix. 7, Etam is omitted and the 
villages ("cities") are reckoned ?Js,four not five. 

33. unto Baat] Baal ("lord") standing by itself is an unlikely 
name for a town ; the parallel passage, Josh. xix. 8, reads Baalath-beer, 
Raniah of the South ("the mistress of the well, the high place of the 
South"), a better reading. 

34 — 43. The Heroes of Simeon and their Exploits. 

38. the house of their fathers'\ R. V. their fathers' houses. 

39. the entrance of Gedor'] R.V. the entering in of Gedor. The 
Gedor of Josh. xv. 58 is identified with Jediir^ Ijdiir (north of Hebron, 
Bddeker, p. 135), the neighbourhood of which seems an unlikely scene 
in the days of Hezekiah for the exploit described in ver. 41. LXX. has 
Gerar (cp. Gen. xx. i; xxvi. i), perhaps rightly. 

40. they of Hani] Canaanites who had not been dispossessed at the 
Conquest and therefore expected no disturbance at a later time. 

41. and the habitations] R.V. and the Meunim. Cp. 2 Chr. xx. i 
(note) and xxvi. 7, R.V. 

destroyed them utterly] R.V. mg., devoted them (cp. Josh. vi. 18, 21, 

in their rooms] R.V. in their stead. Cp. Luke xiv. 8, A.V. and 

vv.42,43; I— 4-] I. CHRONICLES, IV. V. 25 

there was pasture there for their flocks. And some of them, 42 
even of the sons of Simeon, five hundred men, went to 
mount Seir, having for their captains Pelatiah, and Neariah, 
and Rephaiah, and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi. And they 43 
smote the rest of the Amalekites that were escaped, and 
dwelt there unto this day. 

Now the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel, (for he 5 
ivas the firstborn ; but, forasmuch as he defiled his father's 
bed, his birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph the 
son of Israel : and the genealogy is not to be reckoned 
after the birthright. For Judah prevailed above his brethren, -. 
and of him ca77ie the chief ruler; but the birthright ivas 
Joseph's :) the sons, I say^ of Reuben the firstborn of Israel 3 
were^ Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. The sons 4 

43. the rest of the Ajnalekites} R.V. the remnant of the Ama- 
lekites, i.e. the descendants of those who had escaped from Saul 
(r Sam. xv.). They had apparently found refuge in some part of the 
Edomite territory, for Momit Seir is a synonym for the land of Edoni. 

Ch. v. 1 — 10. The Genealogy of Reuben. 

1. he defiled^ Gen. xxxv. 22, xhx. 4. 

his birthright was given unto the sons of y oseph'\ Cp. Gen. xlviii. 5, 
"Ephraim and Manasseh, even as Reuben and Simeon, shall be mine"; 
words of Jacob which might be interpreted to mean that Reuben and 
Simeon are to be disinherited, and that Ephraim and Manasseh are to 
take their places. 

the genealogy is not to be reckoned after the birthright'] i.e. though the 
birthright of Reuben has been given to Joseph, yet the genealogy of 
Joseph is not to be given before that of Reuben. In ver. 2 it is shewn 
that Joseph, though possessing the birthright, was excelled by Judah. 
In this confusion of claims the natural order is followed and the 
genealogy of Reuben is given first. 

2. yudah prevailed above his brethren] Cp. Gen. xlix. 8 (Jacob to 
Judah) "Thy father's children shall bow down before thee." 

the chief ruler] R.V. the prince. The Heb. word is nagid, trans- 
lated "captain" (i Sam. xiii. 14, A.V.) and "ruler" (2 Sam. vii. 8, 
A. v.). The prophets seem to prefer this word to melech, "king" as 
the title of the head of the Israelite state. The immediate reference is 
to David (Saul being virtually ignored by the Chronicler), but (since 
David is a typical character) a further reference in the words is possible. 
The Peshitta (a Judaeo-Christian work) translates, From him shall 
come forth (ace. to another reading, hath come forth) King Messiah. 

3. The sons of Reuben] The same four names (with one unim- 
portant variation in spelling in A.V.) appear Gen. xlvi. 9; Ex. vi. 14. 

Ha7toch] the correct spelling of the familiar name Enoch ; cp. i. 3. 

26 I. CHRONICLES, V. [vv. 5—12. 

of Joel ; Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son, 

5,6 Micah his son, Reaia his son, Baal his son, Beerah his son, 

whom Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria carried away captive . 

7 he was prince of the Reubenites. And his brethren by 
their families, when the genealogy of their generations was 

8 reckoned, were the chief, Jeiel, and Zechariah, and Bela the 
son of Azaz, the son of Shema, the son of Joel, who dwelt 

9 in Aroer, even unto Nebo and Baal-meon : and eastward he 
inhabited unto the entering in of the wilderness from the 
river Euphrates : because their cattle were multiplied in the 

10 land of Gilead. And in the days of Saul they made war 

with the Hagarites, who fell by their hand : and they dwelt 

in their tents throughout all the east land of Gilead. 

n And the children of Gad dwelt over against them, in the 

12 land of Bashan unto Salchah : Joel the chief, and Shapham 

6. Tilgath-pilneser\ called Tiglath-pileser (2 Kin. xv. 29), and no 
doubt identical with Pul [ib. ver. 19). See F. Hommel in Hastings' 
Bible Diet., Assyria, p. 185. The Chronicler is therefore in error in 
speaking of Pul and Tilgath-pilneser as two persons ; cp. ver. 26. 

7. zvas reckoned, were the chief, Jeiel] R.V. was reckoned; the 
cMef, Jeiel. 

8. Aroer] now ^Ar'^dir, a heap of ruins near the wddy Mojib, i.e. the 
Arnon (josh. xii. 2). It passed from Sihon king of the Amorites 
into the hands of the Reubenites at the Conquest {ib. xiii. 16). See 
Bddeker, p. 191. 

Nebo and Baal-meon] A line drawn due N. from Aroer (see last 
note), passes close first to MaHn (which may be Baal-meon) and- then to 
yebel Nebd, which evidently preserves the name of Mount Nebo. 

Baal-meon] called more correctly Beth-baal-meon Josh. xiii. 17. 

10 in the days of Saut] Saul's great victory over the Ammonites 
(i Sam. xi.) may have paved the way for the expansion of Israel east of 

the Hagarites] R.V. the Hagrites as Ps. Ixxxiii. 6 (R.V. mg.). They 
were an Arab people. Details of the war are given vv. 18 — 22. 

the east land of Gilead] R.V. the land east of Gilead, i.e. the land 
between Gilead and the Euphrates (cp. ver. 9). 

11 — 17. The Genealogy and Settlements of Gad. 

11. Bashan] the wide district extending from the Jabbok on the S. 
to Hermon in the N. and from the Sea of Galilee on the W. to the 
mountains of Hauran on the E. Cp. ver. 23. 

Salchah] R.V. Salecali, is probably represented at the present day by 
the ruins of Salkhad due S. of the Jebel Hauran and almost due E. of 

vv. 13—17.] I. CHRONICLES, V. 27 

the next, and Jaanai, and Shaphat in Bashan. And their 13 
brethren of the house of their fathers ivere^ Michael, and 
Meshullam, and Sheba, and Jorai, and Jachan, and Zia, 
and Heber, seven. These are the children of Abihail the 14 
son of Huri, the son of Jaroah, the son of Gilead, the son 
of Michael, the son of Jesishai, the son of Jahdo, the son of 
Buz; Ahi the son of Abdiel, the son of Guni, chief of the 15 
house of their fathers. And they dwelt in Gilead in Bashan, 16 
and in her towns, and in all the suburbs of Sharon, upon 
their borders. All these were reckoned by genealogies in 17 
the days of Jotham king of Judah, and in the days of 
Jeroboam king of Israel. 

12. the next] R.V. the second. Cp. 2 Kin. xxv. 18. 

and yaanai, and Shapkat] LXX, koI 'lavelv 6 ypafifiare^i, **and 
Janin the scribe"; Targ., "and Janai the judge." 

13. of the house of their fathers... Jachan ..and Heber] R.V, of their 
fathers' houses... Jacan... and Eber. 

15. chief of the house of their fathers] R.V. chief of their fathers' 

16. in Gilead in Bashan] Read, in Gilead, in Jabesh; cp. x. 11, 
12. The phrase in Gilead in Bashan yields no good sense, for Gilead 
means the southern, and Bashan the northern part of the territory of 
Israel east of Jordan. 

suburbs] R.V. mg., pasture lands (as in xiii. 2). 

Sharon] The well-known Sharon is to be identified with the mari- 
time plain between Joppa and Caesarea. As however the text speaks 
here of the country E. of Jordan, some other Sharon at present 
unidentified, must be meant. 

upon their borders] R.V. as far as their borders. 

17. reckoned by genealogy] A specimen of this kind of reckoning is 
given in Neh. vii. 5 — 65. 

in the days of Jotham .. .and in the days of Jeroboam] " Reckoning 
by genealogy" is a phrase used only in the writings of the Chronicler 
(Chron., Ezra, Neh.), but the practice probably resembled what is 
called in other books "numbering the people." The object however 
was different and corresponded with the circumstances of the returned 
exiles, who found themselves in the midst of a Gentile population 
in Judaea. The people were "reckoned by genealogy" not so 
much to take a census of them, as to inquire into the purity of their 
Israelite descent. The ancient term "numbering" would probably be 
a more suitable description of a transaction belonging to the days of 
Jotham. For Jotham see 2 Chr. xxvii. and for Jeroboatn 2 Kin. xiv. 
23 — 29. The last years of the reign of Jeroboam II. synchronized with 
part at least of the reign of Jotham. 

28 I. CHRONICLES, V. [vv. 18—25. 

18 The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and half the tribe 
of Manasseh, of valiant men, men able to bear buckler and 
sword, and to shoot with bow, and skilful in war, were four 
and forty thousand seven hundred and threescore, that 

19 went out to the war. And they made war with the Hagarites, 

20 with Jetur, and Nephish, and Nodab. And they were 
helped against them, and the Hagarites were delivered into 
their hand, and all that were with them : for they cried to 
God in the battle, and he was intreated of them ; because 

21 they put their trust in him. And they took away their 
cattle ; of their camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two 
hundred and fifty thousand, and (?/" asses two thousand, and 

22 of men an hundred thousand. For there fell down many 
slain, because the war ivas of God. And they dwelt in 

23 their steads until the captivity. And the children of the 
half tribe of Manasseh dwelt in the land : they increased 
from Bashan unto Baal-hermon and Senir, and unto mount 

24 Hermon. And these were the heads of the house of their 
fathers, even Epher, and Ishi, and Eliel, and Azriel, and 
Jeremiah, and Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty men of valour, 

25 famous men, and heads of the house of their fathers. And 
they transgressed against the God of their fathers, and went 

18 — 22. The War of the Trans-Jordanic Tribes against 
THE Hagrites. 

18. forty and four thousand] According to Josh. iv. 13 "about 
forty thousand " from these tribes crossed the Jordan with Joshua to aid 
in the Conquest. 

that went out to the war] R. V. that were able to go forth to war. 

19. the Hagarites] R.V. the Hagrites (cp. vv. 10, 20). 

Jettir, and Naphish, and A^odab] Jetur, Naphish, Kedemah are 
given as sons of Ishmael in i. 31. 

20. they were helped] with divine assistance; cp. xv. 26. 

22. was of God] i.e. was prompted by God; cp. i Sam. xv. 2, 3. 

23, 24. The Half Tribe of Manasseh. 

23. Baal-hermon] In Judg. iii. 3 a mount Baal-hermon is men- 
tioned. Here probably a city is meant, possibly Banias. 

Senir] the name given by the Amorites to Hermon (Deut. iii. 9, 

24. of the house of their fathers] R.V. of their fathers' houses. 

25, 26. The Captivity of the Trans-Jordanic Tribes. 

25. they transgressea] R.V. they trespassed. The Hebrew verb 

vv. 26; I.] I. CHRONICLES, V. VI. 29 

a whoring after the gods of the people of the land, whom 
God destroyed before them. And the God of Israel stirred 26 
up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath- 
pilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even 
the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of 
Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and 
Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day. 

The sons of Levi; Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. 6 

has a special reference to unlawful or idolatrous worship and also to the 
violation of a consecrated thing; cp. Josh. xxii. 16, 20, 31. 

the people of the land\ R.V. tlie peoples of the land. Cp. R.V. 
Preface, pp. vi, vii. 

26. stirred up the spirit^ Cp. 2 Chr. xxi. 16; xxxvi. 22. 

Pul...and...Tilgath-pilnescr'\ Both here and in 2 Kin. xv. 19, 29 
{Pul ..Tiglath-pileser) the two names are used as though two different 
persons were meant, but there is no doubt that Ptil is the earlier and 
Tiglath-pileser the royal name of the same king. See note on ver. 6. 

u?ito Halah, etc.] In 2 Kin. xv. 29 it is said only, to Assyria; in 
2 Kin. xvii. 6 it is said that the Western tribes ("Samaria") were 
carried away and placed in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan 
and in the cities of the Aledes. 

Halah'] probably a district of Mesopotamia, but it has been proposed 
to identify it with Cilicia which was known to the Assyrians and was 
under their influence in the later days of their empire. 

Habor] a river flowing into the Euphrates from the E., known to the 
Greeks as Xa^c6/oas or 'A^dppas. 

and Hara] No place of this name is known ; the reading may be 
corrupt for and in the cities of the Medes {2 Kin. xvii. 6, xviii. 11). 

the river Gozan] R.V. the river of Gozan. Gozan was a province 
of Mesopotamia. 

Ch. VL 1 — 15 ( = v. 27 — 41 according to the Heb. division). The 
Descent of the High-priests from Levi. Their Line 
TO THE Captivity. 

Clearly the list of highpriests given in vv. 4 — 14 is not exhaustive. 
(i) In the first place allowing 20 years for each generation mentioned 
we get a space of 440 years only from the Mosaic age to the Captivity. 
The real interval must have been not less (and was probably much 
more) than 700 years. (2) In the second place some priests (doubtless 
highpriests) mentioned in the course of history find no place here, e.g. 
Eli, Ahimelech (son of Ahitub), Abiathar (David's fellow-exile), 
Azariah (the contemporary of the leper-king Uzziah), Urijah (the 
contemporary of king Ahaz), and Azariah (2 Chr. xxxi. 10). The 
object of the list seems to be simply to shew the legitimacy of the 
position of Jehozadak whose son Jeshua continued the succession after 
the Return. 

1. The sons of Levi] So Gen. xlvi. 11; Ex. vi. 16. 

30 I. CHRONICLES, VI. [vv. 2—15. 

2 x'\nd the sons of Kohath ; Amram, Tzhar, and Hebron, and 

3 Uzziel. And the children of Amram ; Aaron, and Moses, 
and Miriam. The sons also of Aaron ; Nadab, and Abihu, 
Eleazar, and Ithamar. 

4,5 Eleazar begat Phinehas, Phinehas begat Abishua, and 

6 Abishua begat Bukki, and Bukki begat Uzzi, and Uzzi 

7 begat Zerahiah, and Zerahiah begat Meraioth, Meraioth 

8 begat Amariah, and Amariah begat Ahitub, and Ahitub 

9 begat Zadok, and Zadok begat Ahimaaz, and Ahimaaz begat 

10 Azariah, and Azariah begat Johanan, and Johanan begat 
Azariah, (he // is that executed the priest's office in the 

11 temple that Solomon built in Jerusalem :) and Azariah 

12 begat Amariah, and Amariah begat Ahitub, and Ahitub 

13 begat Zadok, and Zadok begat Shallum, and Shallum begat 

14 Hilkiah, and Hilkiah begat Azariah, and Azariah begat 

15 Seraiah, and Seraiah begat Jehozadak, and Jehozadak went 
into captivity, when the Lord carried away Judah and 
Jerusalem by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar. 

2. the sons of Kohath'] So Ex. vi. 18. 

3. Aaron and Moses] The same order in Ex. vi. 20. Aaron was 
the elder (Ex. vii. 7). 

The sons also of Aaron] So Ex. vi. 23. 

Nadab and Abzhu] These two elder sons perished childless; Lev. 
X. 1—5. 

4. Phinehas] Num. xxv. 7 fF., xxxi. 6; Josh. xxii. 13 ff. 

8. Ahitub begat Zadok] From 2 Sam. viii. 17; xv. 29; xx. 25 it 
appears that there were two highpriests in David's day; Zadok however 
is always mentioned before his colleague. 

Ahimaaz] 2 Sam. xv. 27; xvii. 17 — 21; xviii. 19 ff. 

9. Azariah] This Azariah rather than the Azariah of ver. 10 would 
have been contemporary with Solomon, and therefore the notice at- 
tached to the name Azariah in ver. 10 {he it is that executed the 
priest's office in the house that Solomon built in Jerusalem) may really 
belong to ver. 9. Cp. i Kin. iv. 1. 

11. Amariah] apparently the contemporary of Jehoshaphat men- 
tioned in 2 Chr. xix. ii. 

13. Hilkiah] The highpriest who discovered the book of the Law 
in Josiah's reiga; 2 Kin. xxii. 8; 2 Chr. xxxiv. 14. 

14. Seraiah] slain soon after the capture of Jerusalem by the Chal- 
deans; 2 Kin. xxv. 18 — 21; Jer. lii. 24 — 27. 

Jehozadak] fozadak in Ezra iii. 2 ; v. 2. His son Jeshua was the 
first highpriest after the exile. 

vv. 16—28.] I. CHRONICLES, VI. 31 

The sons of Levi ; Gershom, Kohath, and Merari. And 16, 17 
these be the names of the sons of Gershom; Libni, and 
Shimei. And the sons of Kohath were^ Amram, and Izhar, is 
and Hebron, and Uzziel. The sons of Merari ; Mahli, and 19 
Mushi. And these are the families of the Levites according 
to their fathers. 

Of Gershom ; Libni his son, Jahath his son, Zimmah his son, 20 
Joah his son, Iddo his son, Zerah his son, Jeaterai his son. 21 

The sons of Kohath ; Amminadab his son, Korah his 22 
son, Assir his son, Elkanah his son, and Ebiasaph his son, ?3 
and Assir his son, Tahath his son, Uriel his son, Uzziah his 24 
son, and Shaul his son. And the sons of Elkanah ; Amasai, 25 
and Ahimoth. As for Elkanah : the sons of Elkanah ; 26 
Zophai his son, and Nahath his son, Eliab his son, Jeroham 27 
his son, Elkanah his son. And the sons of Samuel ; the 28 
firstborn Vashni, and Abiah. 

16—30 (=vi. 1 — 15 according to the Heb. division). The three 


THE Prophet. 

16. Gershom] elsewhere Gershon. Gershom was the name of Moses' 
son; Ex. ii. 22. 

17. Libni and Shimet] Ex. vi. 17; Libni is called Laadan (R.V. 
"Ladan") in xxiii. 7; xxvi. 21. 

18. And thf sons, etc.] This verse is a repetition of ver. 2. 

19. Mahli, and Mushi] xxiii. 21 ; xxiv. 26; Ex. vi. 19. 

22. Kohath; Amtninadab...Korah] In vv. 37, 38 the descent is 
traced as in Num. xvi. 1, Kohath, Izhar, Korah. Korah was the 
leader of the Levitic uprising against Moses. 

26. Zophai his son, etc.] We have here one of the three genea- 
logies of Samuel the prophet. Each list seems to have suffered in 
transcription; the three are given here for comparison. 

I Chr. vi. 26—28 ib. 33—35 i Sam. i. i ; viii. 2. 

Zophai Zuph Zuph 

Nahath Toah Tohu 

EUab Eliel Elihu 

Jeroham Jeroham Jeroham 

Elkanah Elkanah Elkanah 

Samuel Samuel Samuel 

[ ] and Joel Joel and 

Abiah Abijah 

28. The firstborn Vashni, and Abiah] Render (from an emenda- 
tion of the Heb. text) the firstbom Joel and the second Abijah (as 
I Sam. viii. 2). 

32 I. CHRONICLES, VI. [vv. 29—43- 

29 The sons of Merari ; Mahli, Libni his son, Shimei his 

30 son, Uzza his son, Shimea his son, Haggiah his son, Asaiah 
his son. 

31 And these are they whom David set over the service of 
song i?i the house of the Lord, after that the ark had rest. 

32 And they ministered before the dwelling place of the 
tabernacle of the congregation with singing, until Solomon 
had built the house of the Lord in Jerusalem : and then 

33 they waited on their office according to their order. And 
these are they that waited with their children. 

Of the sons of the Kohathites : Heman a singer, the son 

34 of Joel, the son of Shemuel, the son of Elkanah, the son of 

35 Jeroham, the son of Eliel, the son of Toah, the son of Zuph, 
the son of Elkanah, the son of Mahath, the son of Amasai, 

36 the son of Elkanah, the son of Joel, the son of Azariah, the 

37 son of Zephaniah, the son of Tahath, the son of Assir, the 

38 son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah, the son of Izhar, 
the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, the son of Israel. 

39 And his brother Asaph, who stood on his right hand, even 
<o Asaph the son of Berachiah, the son of Shimea, the son of 

41 Michael, the son of Baaseiah, the son of Malchiah, the son 

42 of Ethni, the son of Zerah, the son of Adaiah, the son of 

43 Ethan, the son of Zimmah, the son of Shimei, the son 
of Jahath, the son of Gershom, the son of Levi. 

31, 32 ( = 16, 17 according to the Heb. division). David's Singers. 

31. the ark had resi\ i.e. was brought into the city of David for a 
permanent resting-place. 

32. the dwelling-place of the tabernacle of the congregation^ R.V. the 
tabernacle of the tent of meeting. Cp. R.V. Prf'ace, p. vi. 

33 — 38 ( = 18 — 23 according to the Heb. division). The DESCENT OF 
Heman, David's singer, through Kohath from Levi. 

33. a singer] R.V. the singer. 

Shemuel] R.V. Samuel, the well-known prophet being the person 
meant. Samuel is a form derived from the LXX. through the Latin 
Vulgate ; but Shemuel is a more correct transUteration of the Hebrew 
name. Cp. vv. 26 — 28, notes. 

37, 38. the son of Korah, the son of Izhar] Cp. ver. 22, note. 

39 — 43 ( = 24—23 according to the Heb. division). The descent OF 
Asaph, David's singer, through Gershom frOxM Levi. 
39. his brother] i.e. his kinsman. 
43. Gershom] Cp. ver. 16, note. 

vv. 44—53-] I. CHRONICLES, VI. ^^ 

And their brethren the sons of Merari s^oo^ on the left 44 
hand : Ethan the son of Kishi, the son of Abdi, the son of 
Malluch, the son of Hashabiah, the son of Amaziah, the 45 
son of Hilkiah, the son of Amzi, the son of Bani, the son of 46 
Shamer, the son of MahH, the son of Mushi, the son 47 
of Merari, the son of Levi. 

Their brethren also the Levites were appointed unto all 48 
manner of service of the tabernacle of the house of God. 
But Aaron and his sons offered upon the altar of the burnt 49 
offering, and on the altar of incense, and were appointed for 
all the work of the place most holy, and to make an atone- 
ment for Israel, according to all that Moses the servant of 
God had commanded. And these are the sons of Aaron ; 50 
Eleazar his son, Phineas his son, Abishua his son, Bukki 51 
his son, Uzzi his son, Zerahiah his son, Meraioth his son, 52 
Amariah his son, Ahitub his son, Zadok his son, Ahimaaz 53 
his son. 

44 — 47 ( = 29—32 according to the Heb. division). The Descent of 
Ethan, David's singer, through Merari from Levi. 

47. Mahli, the son of Musht] Cp. xxiii. 23 ; xxiv. 30. Mushi had 
a son Mahli, named after his brother; ver. 19. 

48, 49 (=33, 34 according to the Heb. division). The distinction 
between Levites and Aaronites. 

48. Their brethren also the Levitesi R.V. And their brethren the 
Levites, i.e. and the other Levites. 

appointed'^ Heb. given, in allusion to Num. iii. 9 ; xviii. 6. 
tmto all manner of service'] R.V. for all the service. 

49. the altar of the burnt offermg] Ex. xxvii. i — 8. 
the altar of incense'] Ex. xxx. i — 10. 

to make an atonement] R.V. to make atonement; Ex. xxx. 10; 
Lev. xvi. 

50 — 53 ( = 35 — 38 according to the Heb. division). The Line of 
Aaron to Ahimaaz. 

This is a fragment, slightly changed in wording, of the genealogy 
given in vv. 4 — 14. It goes as far as the reign of David, or perhaps 
that of Solomon. 

54 — 81 ( = 39 — 66 according to the Heb. division). The forty-eight 

Levitic cities. 

This section has been adopted with some rearrangement from the 
parallel passage in Joshua. In Joshua the number of cities taken from 
each group of tribes and given to its respective division of the Levites 
is first stated, no city being named ; and next the names of the cities 


34 I. CHRONICLES, VI. [w. 54—57. 

54 Now these a7'e their dwelling places throughout their 
castles in their coasts, of the sons of Aaron, of the families 

55 of the Kohathites : for theirs was the lot. And they gave 
them Hebron in the land of Judah, and the suburbs thereof 

56 round about it. But the fields of the city, and the villages 

57 thereof, they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh. And to 
the sons of Aaron they gave the cities of Judah, namely, 
Hebron, the city of refuge, and Libnah with her suburbs, 

are given under each division of the Levites and under the name of 
the tribe from which the cities were taken. In Chron. the cities 
given to the Aaronites are first mentioned by name and reckoned to 
be thirteen in number (vv. 55 — 60); next the cities given to each re- 
maining division of the Levites are reckoned shortly by number only 
(vv. 61 — 63) ; lastly, these cities are separately reckoned at length by 
name only (vv. 66 — 81). This rearrangement is not happy; perhaps 
the Chronicler originally intended to give the Aaronite cities only by 
name as well as number, and so vv. 66 — 81 (containing the names of 
the non-Aaronite cities) may be a supplement to the original text. 
Notice that no names of cities taken from Simeon are given ; cp. ver. 
65 ; Josh. xxi. 9. 

(Critical Note on 54—81.) 
The text of the passage has suffered in transcription. In vv. 55 — 60 
eleven names are given, but thirteen are reckoned (ver. 60), the expla- 
nation being that the names Juttah and Gibeoit (Josh. xxi. 16, 17) 
have fallen out. In ver. 6r, after or before Manasseh the names of 
Ephraim and Dan have fallen out (cp. ver. 66 and Josh. xxi. 5); 
Manasseh contributed only two out of the ten cities. Before ver. 69 
we must restore from Josh. xxi. 23 the words, And out of the tribe 
of Dan, Eltckeh with her suburbs, Gibbethon ivith her suburbs. In ver. 
77 or immediately before ver. 78 two names of cities of Zebulun have 
fallen out; cp. ver. 63 ("twelve cities") with vv. 77 — 81 (ten cities only 
are named). 

54 — 60 (=Josh. xxi. 10 — 19). The [thirteen] cities of 
THE Aaronites. 

54. throughout their castles'] R.V. according to their encampments. 
The Hcb. word is used of the circular encampments of nomads. 

their coasts'] R.V. their borders. 

the lot] R.V. the first lot (cp. Josh. xxi. 4, 10). 

55. suburbs] cp. xiii. 2, note. 

56. to Caleb] Josh. xxi. 12; Judg. i. 20. 

57. the cities of Judah, namely, Hebron, the city of refuge] Render 
(with a slight correction of the Hebrew) the city of refuge, Hebron 
(cp. Josh. xxi. 13), Hebron being the only city of refuge here mentioned 
(Josh. XX. 7). 

Libnah] Josh. x. 29; 2 Kin. viii. 22, xix. 8. It was in the S.W. of 

vv. 58—64.] I. CHRONICLES, VI. 35 

and Jattir, and Eshtemoa, with their suburbs, and Hilen 58 
with her suburbs, Debir with her suburbs, and Ashan with 59 
her suburbs, and.Beth-shemesh with her suburbs: and out 60 
of the tribe of Benjamin; Geba with her suburbs, and 
Alemeth with her suburbs, and Anathoth with her suburbs. 
All their cities throughout their families were thirteen cities. 

And unto the sons of Kohath, which were left of the 61 
family of that tribe, were cities given out of the half tribe, 
namely^ out of the half tribe of Manasseh, by lot, ten cities. 
And to the sons of Gershom throughout their families out ^2 
of the tribe of Issachar, and out of the tribe of Asher, and 
out of the tribe of Naphtali, and out of the tribe of 
Manasseh in Bashan, thirteen cities. Unto the sons of 63 
Merari were given by lot, throughout their families, out 
of the tribe of Reuben, and out of the tribe of Gad, and out 
of the tribe of Zebulun, twelve cities. And the children of 64 

Eshtemoa] the modern es-Semu'a, three and a half hours S. of 

58. Hilen] In Josh. xxi. 15 Holon. 

Debir] called Kiriath-sepher (Judg. i. 11) and Kiriathsamiah (Josh. 
XV. 49). It was in the hill-country of Judah. 

59. Ashan] Josh. xxi. 16, Ain. 

with her suburbs] Josh. xxi. 16 adds, And Jiittah xvith her suburbs. 
Cp. the Critical Note at the head of this section. 

Beth-shemesh] Josh. xv. 10; i Sam. vi. 9; 2 Kin. xiv. 11, 13 
( = 2 Chr. XXV. 21, 23). A town in the S.W. of Judah, now 'Ain 
Shems, situated at the point at which the hill-country of Judah begins, 
as one goes by the railway from Jaffa to Jerusalem {Bddeker, p. 13). 

60. of Benjamin, Geba] In Josh. xxi. 17 Gibeon and her suburbs 
is inserted before Geba. Cp. the Critical Note at the head of this 

Alemeth] In Josh. xxi. 18, Almon. 

thirteen cities] Cp. the Critical Note at the head of this section. 

61 — 65 (cp. Josh. xxi. 26, 33, 40). Distribution of thirty-five 


61. the sons of Kohath which were left] R.V. the rest of the sons 
of Eohath, i.e. the Kohathites who were not sons of Aaron (ver. 54). 

of the family, etc.] R.V. were given by lot, out of the family of 
the tribe, out of the half tribe, the half of Manasseh, ten cities. 
The text is faulty ; cp. the Critical Note on vv. 54 — 81. 

62. the tribe of Manasseh in Bashan] i.e. the half tribe of Manasseh 
beyond Jordan. 

63. twelve cities] The total number of Levitic cities (ver. 60 thir- 
teen, ver. 61 ten, ver. 62 thirteen, ver. 63 twelve) was forty-eight (so 

36 1. CHRONICLES, VI. [w. 65— 70. 

Israel gave to the Levites these cities with their suburbs. 

65 And they gave by lot out of the tribe of the children of 
Judah, and out of the tribe of the children of Simeon, and 
out of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, these cities, 

66 which are called by their names. And the residue of the 
families of the sons of Kohath had cities of their coasts out 

67 of the tribe of Ephraim. And they gave unto them, of the 
cities of refuge, Shechem in mount Ephraim with her 

68 suburbs ; they gave also Gezer with her suburbs, and Jok- 
meam with her suburbs, and Beth-horon with her suburbs, 

69 and Aijalon with her suburbs, and Gath-rimmon with her 

70 suburbs : and out of the half tribe of Manasseh ; Aner with 

Josh. xxi. 41), of which the Kohathites, as the largest division (cp. 
XV. 5, note), received twenty-three or nearly half. 

65. by lot\ as a means of gaining Divine sanction for the assignment 
of cities. 

which are called by their names\ R.V. wMch are mentioned by 
name, i.e. above and below. 

66 — 70 (=Josh. xxi. 20 — 25). The [ten] cities of the 
non-Aaronite Kohathites. 

66. the residue of the families\ R.V. some of the families. 
of their coasts] R.V. of their borders. 

67. gave...oi the cities of refuge, Shechem] Render (with a slight 
correction of the Hebrew) gave.. .the city of refuge, Shechem. Cp. 
ver. 57, note. 

Shechem] Gen. xii. 6, xxxiii. 18; Josh. xxiv. i; Judg. ix. i; i Kin. 
xii. I. Shechem is the modern Nabulus, situated almost in the middle 
of Palestine. 

Gezer] Josh. xvi. 3; Judg. i. 29; i Kin. ix. 16. It is the modern 
Tell-Jezer about 18 miles N.W. of Jerusalem. Cp. Bddeker^ p. 13. 

68. jfokmeam] In Josh. xxi. 22 Kibzaim. The two words re- 
semble one another more closely in Hebrew, and are to be taken as 
various readings of the same name. Nothing is known of a Kibzaim in 
Ephraim. A fokmeam is mentioned i Kin. iv. 12. 

Beth-horon] Josh. x. 10, 11, xvi. 3, 5 ; i Mace. iii. 24. There were 
two cities, a lower and an upper Beth-horon, to which at the present 
day a lower and an upper Beitur, an hour's journey apart, correspond. 
Bddeker, p. 18. 

69. And Aijalon'] Aijalon and Gath-7'immon were in Dan; cp. 
Josh. xxi. 23, 24, and see the Critical Note on vv. 54 — 81. 

70. the half tribe of Manasseh] the western half tribe; the eastern is 
mentioned ver. 71. 

Ajter] Read Taanach, as in vii. 29; Josh. xxi. 25, R.V.); Judg. 
V. 19. 

vv. 71— 77.] 1- CHRONICLES, VI. 37 

her suburbs, and Bileam with her suburbs, for the family 
of the remnant of the sons of Kohath. 

Unto the sons of Gershom were given out of the family of 7t 
the half tribe of Manasseh, Golan in Bashan with her 
suburbs, and Ashtaroth with her suburbs : and out of the 72 
tribe of Issachar ; Kedesh with her suburbs, Daberath with 
her suburbs, and Ramoth with her suburbs, and Anem with 73 
her suburbs : and out of the tribe of Asher ; Mashal with 74 
her suburbs, and Abdon with her suburbs, and Hukok 75 
with her suburbs, and Rehob with her suburbs : and out of 76 
the tribe of Naphtali ; Kedesh in Galilee with her suburbs, 
and Hammon with her suburbs, and Kirjathaim with her 

Unto the rest of the children of Merari were given out 77 
of the tribe of Zebulun, Rimmon with her suburbs, Tabor 

Bileam] called Ibleam, Judg. i. 27; 2 Kin. ix. 27. In Josh. xxi. 25, 

71—76 (=Josh. xxi. 27 — 32). The thirteen cities of the 
SONS OF Gershom. 

71. Go/an] a city of refuge, Josh. xxi. 27. The name of this city is 
still preserved in yo/an [Jaulan], the name of a district E. of Jordan 
extending from Hermon to the Jarmuk. 

Ashtaroth] mentioned in Josh. ix. 10 as the capital of Og, king of 

72. Kedesh] Read EisMon with Josh. xxi. 28 (so ibid. xix. 20). 
Daberath] the modern Daburiyeh at the foot of Mount Tabor. Cp. 

Bddeker, p. 248. 

73. RamotK] yarmuth in Josh. xxi. 29. 

Anem] Read En-gannim with Josh. xxi. 29. Probably the modern 
large village of jfemn on the edge of the plain of Esdrelon. Cp. 
Bddeker, p. 227. 

74. Mashal] Mishal, Josh. xxi. 30 (cp. Josh. xix. 26, R.V.). 

75. Hukok] Read Helkath with Josh. xxi. 31 (cp. Josh. xix. 25). 

76. Kedesh in Galilee] called Kedesh-naphtali in Judg. iv. 6 ; it is 
the modern Kedes, situated on a lofty plateau overlooking the waters of 
Hilleh [Merom). It was a city of refuge, Josh. xxi. 32. 

Hammon. ..Kirjathaim] In Josh. xxi. 32, Ham.?noth-dor...Kartan. 

77 — 81 (=Josh. xxi. 34 — 39). The [twelve] cities of the 
SONS OF Merari. 

77. Rifnmon... Tabor] Against these two names there are four in 
Josh, xxi, 34, 35 ; yokneam, Kartah, Dimnah and Nahalal. As 
regards the number of the cities the text of Joshua is certainly right. 
See Critical Note on vv. 54 — 81. 

Tabor] No city, but only a mountain named Tabor is known to us, 

38 I. CHRONICLES, VI. VII. [vv. 78-81; 1,2. 

78 with her suburbs : and on the other side Jordan by Jericho, 
on the east side of Jordan, were given them oiit of the tribe 
of Reuben, Bezer in the wilderness with her suburbs, and 

79 Jahzah with her suburbs, Kedemoth also with her suburbs, 

80 and Mephaath with her suburbs: and out of the tribe 
of Gad ; Ramoth in Gilead with her suburbs, and Mahanaim 

81 with her suburbs, and Heshbon with her suburbs, and Jazer 
with her suburbs. 

7 Now the sons of Issachar were, Tola, and Puah, Jashub, 

2 and Shimron, four. And the sons of Tola; Uzzi, and 

Rephaiah, and Jeriel, and Jahmai, and Jibsam, and 

Shemuel, heads of their fathers' house, to wit, of Tola: 

as having certainly existed in Old Testament times. A city however 
named Tabor existed on the Mountain as early as 218 B.C., and it may 
have been as old as the times of the Chronicler, Mount Tabor was in 
Zebulun. Cp. Bddeker, p. 248. 

78. by Jericho] The crossing-place of the Jordan nearest to Reuben 
was at Jericho. For the phrase Jordan by Jericho cp. Josh. xvi. i. 

in the wilderness] further defined by the addition m the table-land 
(Deut. iv. 43, R.V. mg.). Bezer was among the high pasture lands 
of Reuben. It was a city of refuge. 

Jahzah] also called Jahaz. Cp. Judg. xi. 20; Is. xv. 4. 

80. Ramoth in Gilead] a city of refuge, Josh. xxi. 38. See i Kin. 
xxii. 3; 2 Kin. ix. i. 

Mahanai7n] Gen. xxxii. 2. 

81. Heshbon] Num. xxi. 25, 26 ; Is. xv. 4. 
Jazer] Num. xxi. 32 (R.V.) ; Is. xvi. 8. 

Chap. VII. 1 — 40. Genealogies of Six Remaining Tribes. 

The treatment of different tribes is unequal in this chapter. In the 
case of Issachar (1 — 5), Benjamin (6 — 12), and Asher (30 — 40), genea- 
logies are given and the number of fighting-men of each tribe is stated. 
To Naphtali is devoted a single verse, giving only the names of his sons. 
For Manasseh and Ephraim genealogies are given and their possessions 
are shortly enumerated. The mention of Dan is obliterated, owing to 
the state of the text of ver. 12. 

1 — 5. The Genealogy of Issachar. 

1. the sons of Issachar] Gen. xlvi. 13; Num. xxvi. 23, 24. 
Puah] In Gen. and Num. Puvah (R.V.), but in Judg. x, i Puah as 

here. A descendant of Puah named Tola was one of the Judges. 

Jashub] So in Num., but in Gen. lob (not lyob as in Job i. i, 
R.V. mg). 

2. of their fathers' house] R.V. of their fathers' houses. Cp. w. 
4, 9, 40. Fathers' houses is an awkward term for "clans, patriarchal 
families" (Greek iraTpLaL). 

vv. 3—6.] I. CHRONICLES, VII. 39 

they were valiant ftien of might in their generations ; whose 
number was in the days of David two and twenty thousand 
and six hundred. And the sons of Uzzi ; Izrahiah : and the 3 
sons of Izrahiah ; Michael, and Obadiah, and Joel, Ishiah, 
five : all of them chief inen. And with them, by their 4 
generations, after the house of their fathers, were bands 
of soldiers for war, six and thirty thousand men : for they 
had many wives and sons. And their brethren among all 5 
the families of Issachar were men of might, reckoned in 
all by their genealogies fourscore and seven thousand. 

7 he S071S of Benjamin ; Bela, and Becher, and Jediael, 6 

valiant men of might] R.V. mighty men of valour. 
in their generations] Render, after (or according to) their genera- 
tions, the rendering given to the same Heb. phrase in Gen. x. 32; xxv. 

their number] The divisions of Issachar vi'hich claimed Tola as an 
ancestor amounted to 22,600 fighting men. 

in the days of David] xxi. i ff. ( = 2 Sam. xxiv. i ff.). 

3. five] We can make up this number only by counting Izrahiah 
one and the sons of Izrahiah y^/^r. Reckoned thus the second Izrahiah 
would denote a fresh person. 

4. by their generations] I.e. according to descent. Each head com- 
manded men that were his kinsfolk. 

the house of their fathers] R.V. their fathers' houses. 
of soldiers for war] R.V. of the host for war. 

5. men of might] R.V. mighty men of valour (as ver. 2). 
fourscore and seven thousand] This was probably the strength of 

Issachar in David's day (cp. ver. 2). In Num. ii. 6 Issachar is reckoned 
at 54,400, and in Num. xxvi. 25 at 64,300. 

6 — 12 (cp. ch. viii. \ — 40). The Genealogy of Benjamin. 

6. The sons of Benjamin] The Heb. word for the softs ^ being just 
like the beginning of the word Benjamin has fallen out through an 
error of transcription. The names of these are also given in viii. i — 5 ; 
Gen. xlvi. 21 ; Num. xxvi. 38 — 41. There are variations of reading 
and probably also variations of tradition in the different lists ; e.g. 
here the sons of Benjamin are reckoned to be three in number, but 
in I Chr. viii. 2 to ho. five. 

Bela, and Becher, and Jediael] These three names come from Gen. 
xlvi. 21, Jediael (" Known to God ") being substituted for the heathen- 
sounding y^i'^<5'^/ (= /r<^^a«/, "Man of Baal"). The Chronicler in this 
case conforms literally to the principle laid down in Hos. ii. 17. (See 
note on Eshbaal, viii. 33.) In i Chr. viii. i on the contrary the three 
names Bela, Ashhely Aharah {=-Ahiram) are taken from Num. xxvi. 38 
without misgiving. 

40 I. CHRONICLES, VII. [w. 7—13. 

7 three. And the sons of Bela ; Ezbon, and Uzzi, and 
Uzziel, and Jerimoth, and Iri, five ; heads of the house 
of their fathers, mighty men of valour ; and were reckoned 
by their genealogies twenty and two thousand and thirty and 

8 four. And the sons of Becher ; Zemira, and Joash, and 
Eliezer, and Elioenai, and Omri, and Jerimoth, and Abiah, 
and Anathoth, and Alameth. All these are the sons of 

9 Becher. And the number of them, after their genealogy by 
their generations, heads of the house of their fathers, mighty 

10 vien of valour, was twenty thousand and two hundred. The 
sons also of Jediael ; Bilhan : and the sons of Bilhan ; 
Jeush, and Benjamin, and Ehud, and Chenaanah, and 

11 Zethan, and Tharshish, and Ahishahar. All these the sons 
of Jediael, by the heads of their fathers, mighty men of 
valour, were seventeen thousand and two hundred soldiers^ 

12 Jit to go out for war and battle. Shuppim also, and Huppim, 

the children of Ir, a?td Hushim, the sons of Aher. 

13 The sons of Naphtali ; Jahziel, and Guni, and Jezer, and 
Shallum, the sons of Bilhah. 

7. the sons of Bela] These are differently stated in viii. 3 — 5. 

and were reckoned by their genealogies} R. V. and they were reckoned 
by genealogy. 

8. Anathoth, and Alameth'\ both names of places ; vi. 60 {45, 
Heb., "AUemeth") ; Jer. i. i. Descendants of Bela inhabited these 

9. the number of them, after their genealogy by their generations} 
R.V, they were reckoned by genealogy, after their generations. 

of the house of their fathers'] R.V. of their fathers' houses. 

11. by the heads of their fathers] R.V. according to the heads of 
their fathers' houses. 

soldiers, yf/ to go out for war and battle] R.V. that were able to go 
forth in the host for war. The total armed strength of Benjamin ace. 
to verses 7, 9, 11 was 59,434 ; cp. Num. i. 37 ; xxvi. 41. 

12. Shuppim also, and Huppim] These names appear in Num. 
xxvi. 39 as Shephupham and Hupham, and in i Chr. viii. 5 as Shephu- 
phan and Huram. 

Ir] In ver. 7 Iri. 

Hushim, the sons of Aher] In Gen. xlvi. 23 (cp. Num. xxvi. 42), the 
sons of Da7i ; Hushim. In Chron. the word Dan is replaced by Aher, 
either the Chronicler himself or some copyist having found Dan illegible. 
The word Aher (lit. "another") is used in non-Biblical Hebrew to 
designate "a certain [unnamed] person." 

13. The Genealogy of Naphtali. 

13. yahziel .. .Shallum] In Gen. xlvi. 24, yahzeel...Shiilem. 

vv. 14—20.] I. CHRONICLES, VII. 41 

The sons of Manasseh ; Ashriel, whom she bare : {but 14 
his concubine the Aramitess bare Machir the father of 
Gilead : and Machir took to wife the sister of Huppim and 15 
Shuppim, whose sister's name was Maachah;) and the 
name of the second was Zelophehad : and Zelophehad had 
daughters. And Maachah the wife of Machir bare a son, 16 
and she called his name Peresh; and the name of his 
brother was Sheresh ; and his sons were Ulam and Rakem. 
And the sons of Ulam ; Bedan. These were the sons of 17 
Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh. And his 18 
sister Hammoleketh bare Ishod, and Abiezer, and Mahalah. 
And the sons of Shemida were, Ahian, and Shechem, and 19 
Likhi, and Aniam. 

And the sons of Ephraim ; Shuthelah, and Bered his son, 20 
and Tahath his son, and Eladah his son, and Tahath his 

14 — 17. The Genealogy of Eastern Manasseh. 

A difficult section. The text is much disturbed in vv. 14, 15 ; and 
there is hardly any material available for the illustration of vv. 16, 17. 

14. Ashriel^ whoffi she bare] R.V. Asriel, whom his wife bare. 
Num. xxvi. 31. 

his concubine the Aramitess^ The inhabitants of Gilead were thus in 
part Aramaeans (Syrians) by descent. 

15. took to wife the sister of Huppim and Shuppi77i\ R.V. took a 
wife of H. and Sh., i.e. allied himself by marriage to these two families. 

whose sister's name\ Render, and his (Machir's) sister's name. The 
statement regarding Maachah is ethnographical, and means that the 
people of Maachah (a district at the foot of Hermon) were related by 
blood to Machir (the Eastern Manassites). 

Zelophehad had daughters] Num. xxvii. i — 11. 

17. the sons of Ulam] Sons of Ulam are mentioned (viii. 40) 
among the descendants of Benjamin. A variation in the tradition of 
their descent is possible. 

18, 19. The Families of Western Manasseh. 

18. Abiezer] Gideon's family; Judg. vi. 11 ; cp. Josh. xvii. 1. 

19. Shechem] This name represents the Israelite portion of the in- 
habitants of Shechem : the rest of the inhabitants were Hivites or 
Canaanites. See Judg. ix. 

20 — 27. The Line of Ephraim to Joshua. 

20. Shuthelah... Bered... Tahath... Eladah] These four names are 
taken from Num. xxvi. 35, 36, where they appear to correspond with 
Shuthelah.. .Becher. . . Tahan.. . Bran. 

42 I. CHRONICLES, VII. [vv. 21—29. 

21 son, and Zabad his son, and Shuthelah his son, and Ezer, 
and Elead, whom the men of Gath that were born in that 
land slew, because they came down to take away their 

22 cattle. And Ephraim their father mourned many days, 

23 and his brethren came to comfort him. And when he 
went in to his wife, she conceived, and bare a son, and he 
called his name Beriah, because it went evil with his house. 

24 (And his daughter was Sherah, who built Beth-horon the 

25 nether, and the upper, and Uzzen-sherah.) And Rephah 
was his son, also Resheph, and Telah his son, and Tahan 

26 his son, Laadan his son, Ammihud his son, Elishama his 

27 son, Non his son, Jehoshua his son. 

28 And their possessions and habitations were^ Beth-el and 
the towns thereof, and eastward Naar^^.n, and westward 
Gezer, with the towns thereof; Shechem also and the towns 

29 thereof, unto Gaza and the towns thereof : and by the 

21. they came dowit] This phrase suits a descent from the hills of 
Ephraim, but not an invasion from Goshen. It therefore occurred 
probably after Israel was settled in Canaan, i.e. long after Ephraim was 
dead, and the conduct ascribed to Ephraim in vv. 22, 23 must be 
understood of the tribe personified in its ancestor. The clan Beriah 
became prominent after disaster had befallen the clans Ezer and Elead. 

23. Beriah, because it went evil] Heb. Beriali because it went 
beraah, a play on the sound of the name. Cp. Gen. xxx. 11. 

24. Beth-horon] See vi. 68, note. 

27. Non...yehoshtid\ R.V. gives the familiar form of these names, 
Nun... Joshua. 

28, 29. The Seats of the Sons of Joseph. 

It is difficult to say why the possessions of Ephraim (ver. 28) and 
Manasseh (ver. 29) are mentioned here, and also why having been 
mentioned, they are not more fully described. 

28. Beth-el] Judg. i. 22 — 25 ; i Kin. xii. 29, 32. Beth-el is per- 
haps the modern Beitin {Bddeker, p. 213). The city was on the border 
of Ephraim and Benjamin and in Josh, xviii. 22 is assigned to Benjamin, 
but it was originally conquered by Ephraim (Judg. i. 22), and during 
the division of the kingdom it belonged to the North : cp. 2 Chr. xiii. 
19, note. 

Naaraft] In Josh. xvi. 7, Naarath (R.V. Naarah), 

Gezer... Shechem] See vi. 67, note. 

unto Gaza] Gaza (Heb. Azzah) the well-known Philistine city was 
in the extreme south-west of Palestine and can hardly be intended here 
in a list of Ephraimite cities. Some Heb. MSS read Ayyah, a reading 
which is in part supported by LXX (B) ^ojj Vaidv. 

vv. 30—40.] I. CHRONICLES, VII. 43 

borders of the children of Manasseh, Beth-shean and her 
towns, Taanach and her towns, Megiddo and her towns. 
Dor and her towns. In these dwelt the children of Joseph 
the son of Israel. 

The sons of Asher ; Imnah, and Isuah, and Ishuai, and 30 
Beriah, and Serah their sister. And the sons of Beriah ; 31 
Heber, and Malchiel, who is the father of Birzavith. And 32 
Heber begat Japhlet, and Shomer, and Hotham, and Shua 
their sister. And the sons of Japhlet ; Pasach, and Bimhal, 33 
and Ashvath. These are the children of Japhlet. And 34 
the sons of Shamer; Ahi, and Rohgah, Jehubbah, and 
Aram. And the son of his brother Helem ; Zophah, and 35 
Imna, and Shelesh, and Amal. The sons of Zophah ; Suah, 36 
and Harnepher, and Shual, and Beri, and Imrah, Bezer, 37 
and Hod, and Shamma, and Shilshah, and Ithran, and 
Beera. And the sons of Jether; Jephunneh, and Pispah, 38 
and Ara. And the sons of Ulla ; Arah, and Haniel, and 39 
Rezia. All these were the children of Asher, heads of their 40 
fathers' house, choice and mighty men of valour, chief of 
the princes. And the number throughout the genealogy of 

29. Beth-shean'] In i Sam. xxxi. 10, 12 spelt Beth-shan. It is the 
Greek Scythopolis, the modern Beisan. Bddeker, p. 222. 

Taajiach] See vi. 70, note on Aner. 

Megiddo] Judg. v. 19; 2 Kin. xxiii. 29; Zech. xii. 11. A city (at 
present not certainly identified) which gave a name to the great plain 
watered by the Kishon and its tributaries. 

Dor] Josh. xvii. 11. 

the children of Joseph] The Ephraimites dwelt in the towns men- 
tioned in ver. 28, and the Manassites in those mentioned in ver. 29. 

30 — 40. The Genealogy of Asher. 

30. the sons of Asher] The names in vv. 30, 31 are derived from 
Gen. xlvi. 17 (cp. Num. xxvi. 44 — 46). There is no variation in the 
Heb. spelling of the names, but Isuah (R.V. Ishvah) is missing in 

Isuah, and Ishuai] R.V. Ishvah, and Ishvi. 

31. Birzavith] R.V. Birzaith, probably the name of a place, "The 
well of the olive-tree." 

34, 35. Shamer... Helem] Read perhaps Shomer... Hotham, to agree 
with ver. 32. In ver. 35 for so7i read sons (as R.V.). 

40. of \h€\x fathers' hoiise] R.V. of the fathers' houses. 

the number... to battle was] R.V. the number of them reckoned by 
genealogy for service in war was, etc. 

44 I. CHRONICLES, VIll. [vv. i— 12. 

them that weTe apt to the war and to battle was twenty and 
six thousand men. 
8 Now Benjamin begat Bela his firstborn, Ashbel the 

2 second, and Aharah the third, Nohah the fourth, and 

3 Rapha the fifth. And the sons of Bela were, Addar, and 

4 Gera, and Abihud, and Abishua, and Naaman, and Ahoah, 
5, 6 and Gera, and Shephuphan, and Huram. And these are 

the sons of Ehud : these are the heads of the fathers of the 
inhabitants of Geba, and they removed them to Manahath : 

7 and Naaman, and Ahiah, and Gera, he removed them, and 

8 begat Uzza, and Ahihud. And Shaharaim begat children 
in the country of Moab, after he had sent them away ; 

9 Hushim and Baara were his wives. And he begat of 
Hodesh his wife, Jobab, and Zibia, and Mesha, and 

10 Malcham, and Jeuz, and Shachia, and Mirma. These were 

11 his sons, heads of the fathers. And of Hushim he begat 

12 Abitub, and Elpaal. The sons of Elpaal ; Eber, and 
Misham, and Shamed, who built Ono, and Lod, with the 

twenty and six thousand^ In xii. 36 the men of war of Asher are 
reckoned at forty thousand (cp. Num. i. 41; xxvi. 47, where still higher 
reckonings are given). The numbers here and in verses 5, 7, 9, 11 (as 
well as in ver. 2, which see) seem to refer to the time of David. The 
numbers may be based on family traditions, but it would be unsafe to 
draw any important conclusions from them. 

Ch. VIII. 1—40 (cp. vii. 6— li). The Genealogy of Benjamin. 
The Benjamite Families which dwelt in Jerusalem. 

1. Bela... Ashbel... Aharahl See vii. 6, notes. 

3. Addar] perhaps to be read Ard, as Gen. xlvi. 21 ; Num. xxvi. 40. 

6. Shephziphan and Htii'ani] See vii. 12, note. 

6. And these are the sons of Ehud] Ehud (the deliverer of Israel 
from Moab) was descended from Gera (ver. 5; Judg. iii. 15). His 
genealogy is given somewhat fully. 

they removed them] R.V. they carried them captive. Probably 
some words have fallen out ; we cannot say who carried whom captive. 
to Manahath] Targ. to Manahath, to the land of the house of Esan. 

7. he removed them] R.V. lie carried them captive. He seems to 
refer back to Ehud, but the words yield no satisfactory sense. 

8. sent them aiuay ; Hushim and Baara were his wives] R.V. mg. 
sent away Hushim and Baara his wives. 

10. of the fathers] R.V. of fathers' houses. See vii. 2, note. 

12. Ono, and Lod] Ezra ii. 33; Neh. vii. 37; xi. 35. The two 
places were evidently well-known in post-exilic times, and were doubt- 
less near together. Lod is tlie Lydda of the N.T. (Acts ix. 32). Targ. 

vv. 13—31.] I. CHRONICLES, VIII. 45 

towns thereof: Beriah also, and Shema, who 'we7-e heads of 13 
the fathers of the inhabitants of Aijalon, who drove away 
the inhabitants of Gath : and Ahio, Shashak, and Jeremoth, 14 
and Zebadiah, and Arad, and Ader, and Michael, and 15, 16 
Ispah, and Joha, the sons of Beriah ; and Zebadiah, and ^^ 
Meshullam, and Hezeki, and Heber, Ishmerai also, and 18 
Jezliah, and Jobab, the sons of Elpaal ; and Jakim, and 19 
Zichri, and Zabdi, and Elienai, and Zilthai, and Eliel, and 20, 21 
Adaiah, and Beraiah, and Shimrath, the sons of Shimhi; 
and Ishpan, and Heber, and Eliel, and Abdon, and Zichri, 22, 23 
and Hanan, and Hananiah, and Elam, and Antothijah, and 24, 25 
Iphedeiah, and Penuel, the sons of Shashak ; and Sham- 26 
sherai, and Shehariah, and Athaliah, and Jaresiah, and 27 
Eliah, and Zichri, the sons of Jeroham. These were heads 28 
of the fathers, by their generations, chief men. These 
dwelt in Jerusalem. 

And at Gibeon dwelt the father of Gibeon ; whose wife's 29 
name was Maachah : and his firstborn son Abdon, and 30 
Zur, and Kish, and Baal, and Nadab, and Gedor, and 31 

adds, which the sons of Israel laid waste and burnt with fire, xuhen they 
made war in Gibeah with the tribe of Benjamin. 

13. of the fathers'\ R.V. of fathers' houses, as in ver. ro. 

drove away] R.V. put to flight. Probably an allusion to some fight 
the memory of which was kept alive in local song. Cp. vii. 21, 22. 
Aijalon] Josh. x. 12; i Sam. xiv. 31. 

14. And Ahio] LXX., and his brother. This verse is probably 
corrupt. If however we read And Elpaal his brother for And Ahio 
(cp. ver. 18), and Jeroham for Jereijioth (cp. ver. 27), we then find in 
ver. 13a and ver. 14 five names corresponding (with one transposition) 
with the five names of heads of families given below, viz., Beriah 
(ver. 16), Elpaal {wQv. 18), Shimei (ver. 21, ^.Y.,^Shetna), Shashak 
(ver. 25), and Jeroham (ver. 27). 

20. Elienai] Read, perhaps, iS'/zWwflz, a name meaning, "My eyes 
look towards Jehovah." 

28. of the fathers, by their generations] R.V. of fathers' houses 
throughout their generations. 

These dwelt in Jerusalem] i.e. in the writer's day the heads of families 
enumerated in vv. 15 — 27 dwelt in Jerusalem. Cp. ix. 2, 3; Neh. xi. 
I — 8. But the words may be a gloss brought in from ix. 34. 

29—32 ( = ch. ix. 35—38). The Genealogv of Jeiel. 

29. the father of Gibeon] R.V. the father of Gibeon Teiel: cp. 
ix. 35, R.V. 

30. and Baal] Add with LXX. (A) and ix. 36 and Ner. LXX. 

46 I. CHRONICLES, VIII. [vv. 32—39. 

52 Ahio, and Zacher. And Mikloth begat Shimeah, And 
these also dwelt with their brethren in Jerusalem, over 
against them. 

33 And Ner begat Kish, and Kish begat Saul, and Saul 
begat Jonathan, and Malchishua, and Abinadab, and 

34 Eshbaal. And the son of Jonathan was Merib-baal ; and 

35 Merib-baal begat Micah. And the sons of Micah were^ 

36 Pithon, and Melech, and Tarea, and Ahaz. And Ahaz 
begat Jehoadah ; and Jehoadah begat Alemeth, and Azma- 

37 veth, and Zimri ; and Zimri begat Moza, and Moza begat 
Binea : Rapha ivas his son, Eleasah his son, Azel his son : 

38 and Azel had six sons, whose names are these, Azrikam, 
Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and 

39 Hanan. All these were the sons of Azel. And the sons of 

(B) shews that a word is missing after Baal for it reads BaaXaKaifi 
( = BaaX Kai N . . . ?). 

31. and Zacher] Read with ix. 37, and Zecliariali, and Miklotli, 
the latter name having probably fallen out through homoeoteleuton. 

32. with their brethren etc.] i.e. with some of their brethren in 
Jerusalem over against other of their brethren in Gibeon and other 
places. Ver. 32 b. looks like the heading of a list which has been lost. 

ffver against them] R.V. over against their brethren. 

33 — 40 (cp. ix. 39 — 44). The Genealogy of the 
House of Saul. 

33. Abinadab] So in i Sam. xxxi. 2, but in i Sam. xiv. 49 R.V., 

Eshbaal] In 1 Sam. ii. 8 called Ish-bosheth. Cp. vii. 6, note on 
Jediael {-^Ashbel). In the (more generally read) Sam. text the offen- 
sive name Eshbaal "Man of Baal" has been changed to Ishbosheth, 
" Man of the Shameful-thing " (i.e. of the idol), but it has been left 
Standing in the less-used text of Chron. The title Baal ("Lord") was 
applied in early days (e.g. in the days of Saul) to the national God 
of Israel, but in later days (cp. Hos. ii. 17) the prophets objected to 
it because it was freely applied to Heathen gods. Thus to Saul and 
Samuel the name Eshbaal was acceptable as meaning "Man of the 
Lord," i.e. of Jehovah, while to the prophetic author or reviser of the 
book of Samuel it was offensive as signifying "Man of a Baal," i.e. of 
one of the gods worshipped by the neighbouring nations. 

34. Merib-baal] A name meaning "Baal pleadeth " ; in ch. ix. \ob 
(Heb.) it is written Meri-baal, i.e. "Man of Baal." The person meant 
seems to be Mephibosheth (2 Sam. ix. 6, 12). 

36. Tarea] In ix. 41, Tahrea. 

36. Jehoadah] R.V. Jehoaddah. In ix. 42, Jarak. 

37. Rapha] In ix. 43, Kephaiah. 

vv. 4o; 1,2.] I. CHRONICLES, VIII. IX. 47 

Eshek his brother were, Ulam his firstborn, Jehush the 
second, and Eliphelet the third. And the sons of Ulam 40 
were mighty men of valour, archers, and had many sons, 
and sons' sons, an hundred and fifty. All these are of the 
sons of Benjamin. 

So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies ; and behold, 9 
they ivere written in the book of the kings of Israel and 
Judah, who were carried away to Babylon for their trans- 

Now the first inhabitants that dwelt in their possessions 2 
in their cities were, the Israelites, the priests, Levites, and 

39. Jehush^ R.V. Jeush. 
Ch. IX. 1—17 (cp. Neh. xi. i — 19). The Heads of the Families 


Verses i — 17 contain the list of the heads of families of Judah (3 — 6), 
of Benjamin (7 — 9), of the priests (10 — 13), of the Levites (14 — 16), and 
of the porters (17), who dwelt in Jerusalem at some period after the 
Return (cp. note on ver. i). A similar list (with some variations which 
are recorded in their places in the following notes) occurs in Neh. xi. 
3 — 19. The theory which best explains the partial agreement coupled 
with the partial divergence of the two lists, is that both are extracts 
independently made from the same document, which the Chronicler has 
inserted, one in Chron., the other in Neh., lest the peculiarities of 
either list should be lost. We may conclude from Neh. xi. i, 2 that 
the two lists represent the population of Jerusalem, after Nehemiah had 
taken measures for increasing it. Cp. Ryle on Neh. xi. 3. 

1. they were written in the book\ This book is apparently referred 
to in V. 17. 

of Israel and yudah, who were carried away\ R.V. of Israel: and 
Judah was carried away captive. The statement that Judah was led 
captive calls attention to the fact that the list which follows refers to 
post-exilic times. 

2. The text of this verse seems to be faulty, but the meaning is 
probably the same as in Ezra ii. 70 (cp. ibid. ver. i). Noiv those %oho 
first returned from Babylon to dwell in yndaea again, dzvelt {not in 
y erusaletfi, but) in their own cities ; this did they all whether they were 
laymen, priests, Levites, or Nethinim. 

the first inhabitants^ The word "first" here corresponds with ihe 
phrase "the chiefs of the province" in Neh. xi. 3 (R.V.), and may be 
interpreted by it, for "first" gives no satisfactory sense if understood in 
reference to time. The list which follows (vv. 4 ff.) is a list of chief men. 
were] They belonged to the following four classes : 
the Israelites] R.V. Israel, i.e. laymen as distinguished from men of 
Levitical descent. According to ver. 3 Israel included at least Judah, 
Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh (cp. Ps. Ixxx, 2, where Judah — the 

48 I. CHRONICLES, IX. [vv. 3—7. 

3 the Nethinims. And in Jerusalem dwelt of the children of 
Judah, and of the children of Benjamin, and of the 

4 children of Ephraim, and Manasseh ; Uthai the son of 
Ammihud, the son of Omri, the son of Imri, the son of 

5 Bani, of the children of Pharez the son of Judah. And of 

6 the Shilonites ; Asaiah the firstborn, and his sons. And of 
the sons of Zerah ; Jeuel, and their brethren, six hundred 

7 and ninety. And of the sons of Benjamin ; Sallu the son 
of Meshullam, the son of Hodaviah, the son of Hasenuah, 

speaker— associates Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasseh with herself in 
her appeal to the God of Israel). This is a totally different usage from 
that of earlier times, when Israel meant the Northern kingdom, and 
Jtidah the Southern. 

Levites'] R.V. the Levites. 

Nethinims'] R.V. Nethinim. These were a class of Temple servants 
reckoned as inferior to the Levites. Perhaps they were of foreign 
extraction and included the Gibeonites (cp. Josh. ix. 23). They are 
mentioned nowhere else in the Old Testament except in the books of 
Ezra and Nehemiah. See Kyle's note on Ezra ii. 43. 

3 — 6 (cp. Neh. xi. 4 — 6). The Sons of Judah. 

3. And in yenisalem dwelt etc.] Jerusalem (cp. ver. 2) had hitherto 
been neglected, but now under Neheijiiah (we must supply some such 
note of time) and in consequence of Nehemiah's measures the following 
families (vv. 4 — 17) took up their abode within the city. 

and of the children of Ephraim, and Ma7iasseh\ This clause is not 
found in Neh. xi. 4. 

4. Uthai] In Neh. Athaiah. The two words are more alike in 
Heb. than in English and are perhaps to be regarded as various readings 
of one name. 

Pharez] R.V. Perez, as in ii. 4, 5 (R.V.) ; Gen. xxxviii. 29 (R.V.) ; and 
Neh. xi. 4 (A.V. also). We have here (vv. 4 — 6) a threefold division 
of the tribe of Judah into the descendants of Perez, Shelah, and Zerah, 
just as in Num. xxvi. 20. 

5. Shilonites] Spelt more correctly Shelanites in Num. xxvi. 20 ; 
they were descendants of Shelah. 

Asaiah] In Neh. xi. 5 Maaseiah, a kindred name. 

6. yeuel] In Neh. xi. 5 the " sons of Zerah" are missing. 

six hundred and ninety] Cp. Neh. xi. 6 {four hundred threescore 
and eight sons of Perez). 

7 — 9 (cp. Neh. xi. 7—9). The Sons of Benjamin. 

7. Sallu] His genealogy is differently stated in Neh. xi. 7, but see 
next note. 

the son of Hodaviah, the son of Hasenuah] Some critics would 
read "and Hodaviah the son of Hasenuah" and would identify this 
person with the "Judah the son of Has-senuah" of Neh. xi. 9. 

vv. 8—13.] 1. CHRONICLES, IX. 49 

and Ibneiah the son of Jeroham, and Elah the son of Uzzi, 8 
the son of Michri, and Meshullam the son of Shephathiah, 
the son of Reuel, the son of Ibnijah ; and their brethren, 9 
according to their generations, nine hundred and fifty and 
six. All these men were chief of the fathers in the house 
of their fathers. 

And of the priests ; Jedaiah, and Jehoiarib, and Jachin, 10 
and Azariah the son of Hilkiah, the son of Meshullam, the n 
son of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub, the 
ruler of the house of God ; and Adaiah the son of Jeroham, 12 
the son of Pashur, the son of Malchijah, and Maasiai the 
son of Adiel, the son of Jahzerah, the son of Meshullam, 
the son of Meshillemith, the son of Immer ; and their 13 
brethren, heads of the house of their fathers, a thousand 

8. Ibneiah, Elah, Afeshullam'] Not mentioned in Neh. xi. 

9. nine hundred afid fifty and six\ This number nearly agrees with 
the nine hundred twenty and eight of Neh. xi. 8. 

chief of the fathers in the house of their fathers^ R.V. heads of fathers' 
houses by their fathers' houses. 

10 — 13 (cp. Neh. xi. 10 — 14). The Priests. 

10. yehoiarib} Spelt Joiarib in Neh. xi. 10. Jehoiarib and 
Jedaiah occur as names of the first and second courses of the priests in 
xxiv. 7; Neh. xii. 6, 19. The Maccabees were of the course of Joarib 
(= Jehoiarib) ; i Mace. ii. i. 

Jachiri\ The name of the twenty-first course; xxiv. 17. 

11. Azariah^ In Neh. xi. 11, Seraiah. 

the rider of the house of God] This title could perhaps be borne by 
the highpriest (2 Chr. xxxi. 10, 13), but in any case it was not con- 
fined to him [ib. xxxv. 8, where several such "rulers" are mentioned). 

12. Malchijah'] The name of the fifth course ; xxiv. 9. 
Maasiai] R.V. Maasai. The reading of Neh. xi. 13 Amashai {K.V. 

Amashsai) is corrupt. The form given in Chron. is open to suspicion. 
Probably the true reading is lost. 

Adiel] In Neh. Azareel. 

Immer] The name of the sixteenth course ; xxiv. 14. 

13. heads of the house of their fathers] R. V. heads of their fathers' 

a thousand and seven hundred and threescore] Only the five 'courses' 
of priests mentioned above (viz., Jedaiah, Jehoiarib, and Jachin, ver. 10, 
and Malchijah and Immer, ver. 12) seem to be included in this 
reckoning. Some commentators however regard Azariah ( = vSeraiah) 
in ver. 1 1 as the name of a new course, which after the Exile took the 
place of one of the old courses reckoned in xxiv. 7 — 18. If this be 
right we have here the sum of six courses. 



I. CHRONICLES, IX. [vv. 14—17. 

and seven hundred and threescore ; very able men for the 
work of the service of the house of God. 

14 And of the Levites ; Shemaiah the son of Hasshub, the 
son of Azrikam, the son of Hashabiah, of the sons of 

15 Merari ; and Bakbakkar, Heresh, and Galal, and Mattaniah 

16 the son of Micah, the son of Zichri, the son of Asaph ; and 
Obadiah the son of Shemaiah, the son of Galal, the son of 
Jeduthun, and Berechiah the son of Asa, the son of 
Elkanah, that dwelt in the villages of the Netophathites. 

17 And the porters were^ Shallum, and Akkub, and Talmon, 

In Neh. xi. \i — 14 the number of the priests is giveii on a different 
plan ; eight hundred and twenty-two "did the work of the house"; two 
hundred and forty-two were " chiefs of fathers' houses" ; an hundred and 
twenty-eight were "mighty men of valour." The total falls far short of 
the thousand and seven hundred and threescore of Chron. We have not 
sufficient data on which to base any attempt at reconciling the two 

very able weft] Render, mighty men of valour. The Heb. is the 
same as in Neh. xi. 14. Cp. 2 Chr. xxvi. 17. 

14 — 16 (cp. Neh. xi. 15 — 18). The Levites. 

14. of the sons of Merari^ In Neh. the sons of Bunni, which is 
probably a corruption of the reading of Chron. Otherwise of the three 
great Levitical famihes, Merari, Asaph and Jeduthun mentioned here, 
only the last two appear in Neh. 

15. Bakbakkar, Heresh, and Galal\ The reading appears to be 
corrupt, for the analogy of the latter half of the verse as well as of 
vv. 14, 16 leads us to expect something more than bare names. Neither 
the LXX. nor the Vulg. give any real help for emending the clause. 
The corresponding words in Neh. (xi. 17) are Bakbukiah the second 
atfiong his brethren. 

16. Obadiah the son of Shemaiah"] In Neh. Abda the son of 
Shatnniua. Which was the reading of the original document cannot be 

Jeduthun] See note on xvi. 41. 

Be7-echiah...the son of Elkanah] Not mentioned in Neh. He prob- 
ably represented the Kohathite division of the singers; cp. vi. 33 — 38 
(18 — 23 Heb.), where the name Elkanah occurs several times in the 
genealogy of the Kohathites. 

the villages of the Netophathites] Cp. Neh. xii. 28, 29 (R.V.), 
whence it appears that these villages were close to Jerusalem. The 
exact site is uncertain. 

17 — 27 (cp. Neh. xi. 19; i Chr. xxvi. i — 19). Organisation and 
Duties of the Porters (Doorkeepers). 

17. porters] Render, doorkeepers as in xvi. 38 and xxvi. i (R.V.). 

vv. 18—20.] I. CHRONICLES, IX. 51 

and Ahiman, and their brethren : Shallum was the chief; 
who hitherto waited in the king's gate eastward : they were 18 
porters in the companies of the children of Levi. And 19 
Shallum the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of 
Korah, and his brethren, of the house of his father, the 
Korahites, were over the work of the service, keepers of the 
gates of the tabernacle : and their fathers, being over the 
host of the Lord, were keepers of the entry. And Phinehas 20 
the son of Eleazar was the ruler over them in time past, and 

In Solomon's Temple there were "keepers of the threshold," three in 
number (2 Kin. xxv. 18), priests in rank [ibid. xii. 9). 

Shallum... Ahiman'] These two names are absent from Neh. xi. 19 
together with the clause Shallum was the chief. This omission of all 
reference to Shallum must be accidental. 

Shalhcm, Akkub, and Talmojt] The three names represent families, 
not individuals ; cp. Ezra ii. 42 = Neh. vii. 45, where the fuller form is 
g^ven, the children 0/ Shallu?n,...the children of Talmon, the children of 
Akkub.... These names persist in the five lists of porters which refer to 
post-exilic times; Ezra ii. 42 = Neh. vii. 45; Neh. xi. 19=1 Chr. ix. 17 
[Shallum is to be supplied in Neh. from. Chron.); Neh. xii. 5 {Meshul- 
lam = Shalh(m). When however the reference is to the days of David 
the prominent names are Meshelemiah = Shelemiah [ = ShalliunT) ., Obed- 
edom, and Hosah; i Chr. xv. 18, 24; xvi. 38; xxvi. i, 4, 10. 

Ahiman] Elsewhere in the O. T. this name occurs only among the 
names of the sons of Anak, and it is probable that the Chronicler (or 
some scribe) made here an error of transcription, and that Ahiman has 
arisen from the word aheihem "their brethren" which follows. 

18. who] i.e. Shallum (ver. 17), called Shelemiah in xxvi. 14 
( = Meshelemiah, ib. ver. i). A family rather than an individual is 

the king's gate eastward] That the king had an entrance into the 
Temple named after him appears from 2 Kin. xvi. 18, and that this gate 
was on the East from Ezek. xlvi. i, 2. 

in the companies] R.V. for the camp. This expression is borrowed 
from Num. ii. 17, where it refers to the circumstances of the Wandering 
in the Wilderness. 

19. son of Ebiasaph] By a misreading Shallum {■= Meshelemiah', 
see above) is said to be "of the sons of Asaph*' (read "Ebiasaph") in 
xxvi. I. 

of the house of his father] R.V. of his father's house. 

being over the host of the Lord, were keepers] R.V. had been over 
the camp of the LORD, keepers. Nothing is said in the Pentateuch of 
"keepers of the entry to the tabernacle,'" and probably in the present 
passage the entry to the camp, not to the tabernacle, is meant. With 
this view agrees the mention of Phinehas (ver. 20), for it was the pro- 
fanation of the camp, not of the tabernacle, which Phinehas avenged 
(Num. xxv. 6 — 8), thus earning a blessing {ib. 11 — 13). 

52 I. CHRONICLES, IX. [vv. 21—26. 

21 the Lord was with him. And Zechariah the son of 
Meshelemiah was porter of the door of the tabernacle of 

22 the congregation. All these which were chosen to be 
porters in the gates ivere two hundred and twelve. These 
were reckoned by their genealogy in their villages, whom 
David and Samuel the seer did ordain in their set office. 

23 So they and their children had the oversight of the gates of 
the house of the Lord, namely, the house of the tabernacle, 

24 by wards. In four quarters were the porters, toward the 

25 east, west, north, and south. And their brethren, which 
were in their villages, were to come after seven days from 

26 time to time with them. For these Levites, the four chief 

21. Zechariah the son of Meshelet7iiah'\ Cp. xxvi. 2, 14, according to 
which Zechariah's watch was on the North. 

the tabernacle of the congregation'] R.V. the tent, of meeting. Cp. vi. 
32, note. The Temple is not mentioned because the reference is to the 
time of David ; cp. ver. 22. 

22. All these] Cp. Ezra ii. 42 ( = Neh. vii. 45); Neh. xi. 19. The 
discrepancy in numbers between Chron. and Neh. and also between 
Neh. vii. and Neh. xi. may be explained by supposing some difference 
in the manner of reckoning or some difference in the period referred to. 

in their villages] Cp. note on ver. 16. 

David and Samuel the seer] The Chronicler attributes to David the 
organisation of the priests (xxiv. 3), of the Levites (xxiii. 27 ; xxiv. 31), 
of the singers (xxv. i if.), and of the doorkeepers (in this passage). 
Samuel the seer is here associated with David in the work, perhaps as 
having himself exercised the doorkeeper's ofhce (i Sam. iii. 15). We 
have however no evidence outside Chron. of Samuel's organising work 
for the sanctuary. 

set office] R.V. mg. trust. The meaning is "office of trust"; cp. vv. 
26, 31; 2 Chr. xxxi. 15, 18. 

23. namely, the house of the tabernacle] R.V. even tlie house of the 
tabernacle (mg. Tent). A reminder that in David's days (ver. 22) the 
Temple was not yet built. 

24. In four quarters] R.V. on the four sides. Fuller details are 
given in xxvi. 14 — 18. 

25. which were in their villages] R.V. in their villages. No 
special villages inhabited by porters are mentioned, but perhaps porters 
as well as singers dwelt in the "villages of the Netophathites" (ver. 16; 
Neh. xii. 28, R- v.). 

after seven days] R.V. every seven days. 
with them] R.V. to be with them. 

26. For these Levites, the four chief porters, were in their set office] 
R.V. For the four chief porters, who were Levites, were in a set ofllce. 
It seems from this passage (and also from the structure of this chapter; 
cp. vv. 10, T4, 17) that the doorkeepers were not, as a body, Levites. 

vv. 27—31.] I. CHRONICLES, IX. 53 

porters, were in their set office, and were over the chambers 
and treasuries of the house of God. And they lodged 27 
round about the house of God, because the charge was 
upon them, and the opening thereof every morning pertained 
to them. And certain of them had the charge of the 2s 
ministering vessels, that they should bring them in and out 
by tale. Some of them also were appointed to oversee the 29 
vessels, and all the instruments of the sanctuary, and the 
fine flour, and the wine, and the oil, and the frankincense, 
and the spices. And so7?ie of the sons of the priests made 30 
the ointment of the spices. And Mattithiah, one of the 31 

Their leaders however, being Levites, were placed in positions of greater 
trust; cp. xxvi. 20 — 28. In 2 Chr. xxxiv. 9 Levites appear exercising 
the duties of doorkeepers, but this does not prove that all doorkeepers 
were Levites. 

chai7ibers\ i.e. store-chambers in which tithes and sacred vessels were 
kept; cp. 2 Chr. xxxi. 5, ir, 12; Neh. xiii. 4 — 9. The chambers were 
probably built as outbuildings round the Court of the Temple; cp. 
xxiii. 28 ; xxviii. 12. 

27. because... to thefti] R.V. because the charge thereof was upon 
them, and to them pertained the opening thereof morning by morn- 
ing. The reference is to the four "chief porters" (ver. 26). 

28, 29. Duties of the Levites. 

28. And certain of thejti] The reference is to the Levites. The 
contents of verses 28, 29 clearly refer to Levitical duties (cp. xxiii. 29), 
and the transition from porters to Levites is made easier by the fact that 
the four porters last mentioned (vv. 26, 27) are Levites. 

the ministering vessels] R.V. the vessels of service. 
that they shotdd bring them in and out by tale] R.V. for by tale were 
they brought in and by tale were they taken out. 

29. to oversee the vessels] R.V. over the furniture. 
all the instrwnents] R.V. over all the vessels. 

the fine flour] R.V. over the fine flour. Cp. xxiii. 29. 

30. A Priestly Duty. 

30. the sons of the priests] This phrase means merely "members of 
the priesthood, priests." Cp. 2 Chr. xxv. 13, "the soldiers of the army" 
(lit. "the sons of the troop") and the common expression "the sons of 
the prophets." 

the ointme7it] R.V. the confection. See Ex. xxx. 23 — 25. This 
"ointment" was peculiarly holy. The Levites might have charge of 
the oil and spices (ver. 29), but only the priests might make the con- 
fection. With the word "confection" cp. "confectionaries" (i Sam. 
viii. 13, A.V. and R.V.), "perfumers" R.V. mg. 

54 I. CHRONICLES, IX. [vv. 32—38. 

Levites, who was the firstborn of Shallum the Korahite, 
had the set office over the things that were made in the 

32 pans. And ot/ier of their brethren, of the sons of the 
Kohathites, were over the shewbread, to prepare // every 

33 sabbath. And these are the singers, chief of the fathers of 
the Levites, w/io remai?ting in the chambers were free : for 

34 they were employed in that work day and night. These 
chief fathers of the Levites were chief throughout their 
generations ; these dwelt at Jerusalem. 

35 And in Gibeon dwelt the father of Gibeon, Jehiel, whose 

36 wife's name was Maachah : and his firstborn son Abdon, 

37 then Zur, and Kish, and Baal, and Ner, and Nadab, and 

38 Gedor, and Ahio, and Zechariah, and Mikloth. And 
Mikloth begat Shimeam. And they also dwelt with their 
brethren at Jerusalem, over against their brethren. 

31, 32. Other Levitical Duties. 

31. who was the firstborn of Shallum^ In xxvi. 2 the firstborn of 
Meshelemiah ( = Shallum) is called Zechariah. Probably Mattithiah 
and Zechariah represent each a household belonging to an elder branch 
of the great family of Shallum. 

made in the pans'] R.V. baked in pans. Cp. xxiii. 29. 

32. the shewbread] Lit. the bread of the Row (or of the Pile), for it 
had to be arranged in order before the Lord (Lev. xxiv. 6). 

to prepare \i every sabbath] " Every sabbath he shall set it in order 
before the Lord continually" (Lev. xxiv. 8). In 2 Chr. ii. 4 ( = 11. 3, 
Hcb.) it is called the contimial sheivbread (lit. "the continual Row"). 

33. And these are] This verse may be intended as a colophon to 
verses 15, 16, for the names there given are those of singers; cp. Neh. 
xi. 17. On the other hand it may have been intended as the heading of 
such a list as appears in vi. 33—47 ( = i8--32, Heb.), the list itself 
on second thoughts being omitted. 

chief of the fathers of the Levites who remaining in the chaj?ibers were 
free] R.V. heads of fathers' houses of the Levites, who dwelt in the 
chambers and were free from other service. 

in that work] R.V. in their work. 

day and night] Cp. Ps. cxxxiv. i ; Rev. iv. 8. 

34. These chief ..generations] R.V. These were heads of fathers' 
houses of the Levites, throughout their generations, chief men. 

36—38 ( = viii. 29—32). Benjamites LIVING IN Gibeon 
AND IN Jerusalem. 

See notes on viii. 29 ff. The passage is probably repeated here in 
order to serve as an introduction to the story of the death of Saul. 

VV.39— 44; 1,2.] I. CHRONICLES, IX. X. 55 

And Ner begat Kish ; and Kish begat Saul ; and Saul 39 
begat Jonathan, and Malchishua, and Abinadab, and Esh- 
baal. And the son of Jonathan tvas Merib-baal : and 40 
Merib-baal begat Micah. And the sons of Micah were, 41 
Pithon, and Melech, and Tahrea, and Ahaz. And Ahaz 42 
begat Jarah ; and Jarah begat Alemeth, and Azmaveth, and 
Zimri ; and Zimri begat Moza ; and Moza begat Binea ; 43 
and Rephaiah his son, Eleasah his son, Azel his son. And 44 
Azel had six sons, whose names are these, Azrikam, 
Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and 
Hanan : these were the sons of Azel. 

Now the Philistines fought against Israel ; and the men 10 
of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and fell down slain 
in mount Gilboa. And the Philistines followed hard after 2 
Saul, and after his sons ; and the Philistines slew Jonathan, 

39 — 44 (=viii. 33 — 38). The Genealogy of the House 

OF Saul. 

For notes see on viii. 33 ff. 

Ch. X. 1 — 12 (=1 Sam. xxxi. i — 13). The Defeat, Death, 
AND Burial of Saul. 

There are several variations between the text given here and the text 
of I Sam., which are noticed as they occur in the following notes. 

1. in mount Gilboa] In the campaign of Gilboa the Philistines 
shewed new and skilful strategy. Instead of at once marching eastward 
up the ravines M'hich lead into Judah and Benjamin — in which there 
was no room for their chariots (2 Sam. i. 6) to manoeuvre — they first 
marched northward along the sea-coast and then turned eastward just 
before reaching Mount Carmel. This movement brought them into the 
great fertile plain watered by the Kishon, ground over which chariots 
could act with decisive effect. At the N.E. end of the plain rose the 
heights of Gilboa. When Saul and his Benjamites advanced to meet 
the Philistines, the latter succeeded in interposing themselves between 
the Israelite army and its base in Benjamin — an easy achievement for 
an enemy who by his chariots possessed a high degree of mobility. 
Saul was therefore driven to take up his position on the north side of 
the plain on Mount Gilboa, where he was attacked by the Philistines, 
probably from the S.W. , on which side the slopes of the mountain are 
comparatively gentle. The Israelites cut off from their homes, out- 
marched, outgeneralled, and probably outnumbered, were speedily 
routed. The battle of Gilboa was won like Hastings by cavalry 
(chariots) and archers (ver. 3) against infantry, which was obliged to 
stand on the defensive, under pain of being cut to pieces if it ventured 
to attack. 

I. CHRONICLES, X. [w. 3—9. 

3 and Abinadab, and Malchi-shua, the sons of Saul. And 
the battle went sore against Saul, and the archers hit him, 

4 and he was wounded of the archers. Then said Saul to his 
armourbearer. Draw thy sword, and thrust me through 
therewith ; lest these uncircumcised come and abuse me. 
But his armourbearer would not ; for he was sore afraid. 

5 So Saul took a sword, and fell upon it. And when his 
armourbearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise on 

6 the sword, and died. So Saul died, and his three sons, and 
all his house died together. 

7 And when all the men of Israel that wefe in the valley 
saw that they fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, 
then they forsook their cities, and fled : and the Philistines 

8 came and dwelt in them. And it came to pass on the 
morrow, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that 

9 they found Saul and his sons fallen in mourit Gilboa. And 
when they had stripped him, they took his head, and his 
armour, and sent into the land of the Philistines round 
about, to carry tidings unto their idols, and to the people. 

2. Malchi-shtia] This is the correct spelling, not Melchi-shua. 

3. the archers hit him, and he zvas wounded of the archers'] R.V. the 
archers overtook him ; and he was distressed by reason of the 

4. to his armourhearerl Cp. Judg. ix. 54 (the death of Abimelech). 
One function of an armourbearer was to give the "coup de grace" to 
fallen enemies (i Sam. xiv. 13), but sometimes the same office had to 
be executed for friends. 

and abicse me] i.e. wreak their cruel will upon me; cp. Judg. i. 6. 

a szvo7-d] R.V. his sword. 

6. fell likewise on the sword] R. V. likewise fell upon his sword. 

6. all his house] In Samuel "his armourbearer and all his men." 
The reference is rather to Saul's servants than to his family. 

7. that were in the valley] The "valley of Jezreel " (Hos. i. 5), 
called in later times the "plain of Esdrelon " (Esdraelon) is meant. 
Even those who lived east of Jordan took to flight; i Sam. xxxi. 7. 

forsook their cities] Among these was no doubt Beth-shan (Beisan) 
"the key of Western Palestine" (see G. A. Smith, Hist. Geog. p. 358 f.), 
where Saul's body was exposed (i Sam. xxxi. 12). 

and dwelt in them] Only perhaps until Abner reconquered this 
district for Ish-bosheth the son of Saul ; cp. 2 Sam. ii. 9, "[AbnerJ made 
him (Ish-ljosheth) king o\Qr... Jezreel.'' 

9. And when they had stripped him, they took] R.V. And they stripped 
him, and took. 

to carry tidings unto their idols] In Samuel, "to publish it in the 

vv. 10—13.] I- CHRONICLES, X. 57 

And they put his armour in the house of their gods, and 10 
fastened his head in the temple of Dagon. And when all n 
Jabesh-gilead heard all that the Philistines had done to 
Saul, they arose, all the valiant men, and took away the 12 
body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons, and brought them 
to Jabesh, and buried their bones under the oak in Jabesh, 
and fasted seven days. So Saul died for his transgression 13 

house (or houses) of their idols"; cp. i Sam. xxxi. 10. The news was 
published by the exhibition of trophies of the victory in the Philistine 
temples. The reading in Chron. is inferior. 

10. in the house of their .i.Wj] In Samuel (more definitely) "in the 
house {or houses) of Ashtaroth," Ashlaroth being the plural oi Ashtoreth, 
a goddess, who seems here to bear a martial character. She was 
apparently consort of the Phoenician Baal (Judg. ii. 13; x. 6). 

fastened his head in the temple of Dagon (lit. Beth-Dagon)] In Sam. 
fastened his body to the 7vall of Beth-shan. The reading of Chron. is 
almost certainly a misreading of the text of Sam,, yet the fact stated by 
the Chronicler is probably true. Saul's body was fixed to the wall of 
Beth-shan (Sam.), but his head (lit. his skull) and his armour (Chron. ; 
cp. I Sam. xxxi. 9) were probably sent into Philistia to be distributed 
as trophies among the Philistine temples. Beth-shan is N.E. of Gilboa, 
about four miles distant from the Jordan, and about a day's march 
(i Sam. xxxi. 12) from Jabesh (ver. 11), which was situated on the other 
side of Jordan in Gilead. 

11. yabesh- Gilead} See i Sam. xi. i — 11; 2 Sam. ii. 4 — 7. 

12. took away] i.e. from the walls of Beth-shan (so Pesh.). 

to Jabesh] Samuel adds " and burned them there." The Chronicler 
omits this statement perhaps because the bones were not destroyed by 
this burning; cp. 2 Sam. xxi. 12 — 14 (the bones of Saul and Jonathan 
brought from Jabesh in David's reign and re-interred in the family 
sepulchre). Burning was not a usual funeral rite among the Jews (cp. 
2 Chr. xvi. 14, note), and probably the perfunctory burning carried out 
by the men of Jabesh was merely a ruse to give the Philistines the 
impression that Saul's remains were destroyed and that therefore it was 
useless to disturb his grave. 

under the oak] R.V. mg., under the terebinth. Large trees, being 
rare in Palestine, frequently serve as landmarks; cp. Judg. iv. 5; 

1 Sam. xxii. 6 ("tamarisk tree" R.V. ). 

fasted seven days] P'asting involved abstinence from food during day- 
light. David fasted "till the evening" in mourning for Saul (2 Sam. i. 
12) and for Abner (jib. iii. 35). The fast of Jabesh was a sevenfold fast. 

13, 14 (peculiar to Chron.). The Moral of the Overthrow of 
THE House of Saul. 

Such reflexions as these are characteristic of the Chronicler ; cp. 

2 Chr. xii. 2 (note); xxii. 7; xxiv. 24; xxv. 27. They are not so 
frequent in Sam. and Kings. 

13. his transg}'ession] R.V. his trespass ; cp. 2 Chr. xxvi. 16. The 

58 I. CHRONICLES, X. XI. [vv. 14; 1—3. 

which he committed against the Lord, even against the 
word of the Lord, which he kept not, and also for asking 

14 counsel of one that had a famiHar spirit, to inquire of it ; and 

inquired not of the Lord : therefore he slew him, and 

turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse. 

11 Then all Israel gathered themselves to David unto 

Hebron, saying, Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh. 

■2 And moreover in time past, even when Saul was king, thou 
wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel : and the 
Lord thy God said unto thee, Thou shalt feed my people 
Israel, and thou shalt be ruler over my people Israel. 

3 Therefore came all the elders of Israel to the king to 
Hebron ; and David made a covenant with them in 
Hebron before the Lord; and they anointed David king 

reference is to Saul's sacrifice {i Sam. xiii. 13, 14), and disobedience 
(ib. XV. 23). 

even against the word'\ R. V. because of the word. 

also for asking] R.V. also for that lie asked. 

to inquire of it] R.V. to inquire thereby ; cp. i Sam. xxviii. 8. 

14. atid inquired not of the Lord] Cp. xiii. 3. The Chronicler does 
not count inquiries made too late; cp. i Sam. xxviii. 6 (Saul inquires 
of the Lord, but receives no answ^er). 

Ch. XL 1 — 3 ( = 2 Sam. v. i — 3). David made King over 
ALL Israel. 

1. Then"] Render, And. Chron. has nothing here corresponding to 
2 Sam. i. — iv., chapters which cover a period of seven years (2 Sam. v. 
5). David's earlier coronation by the men of Judah {2 Sam. ii. 4), the 
reign of Ish-bosheth over Northern and Eastern Israel {ib. ii. 8 fif. ), and 
the "long war" {ib. iii. i) with the house of Saul are omitteJ. Some 
reference to the civil war however occurs in xii. 23, 29. 

we are thy bone and thyfesh'] The phrase is not to be taken strictly 
as implying kinship, for only the tribe of Judah could say "The king is 
near of kin to us" (2 Sam. xix. 42). The other tribes mean that they 
will obey David as though he were their own kin. 

2. And t7ioreover'\ Omit these words with R.V. 

thou wast he that leddest out} R.V. it was thou that leddest out; cp. 
I Sam. xviii. 16. 
the Lord thy God said] Cp. vv. 3, 10; i Sam. xvi. i — 13. 
ruler] R.V. prince ; cp. v. 2, note. 

3. made a covenant] i.e. gave them a charter in which he promised 
to respect existing rights; cp. i Sam. x. 25 (Samuel writes the "manner" 
of the kingdom). 

before the Lord] One method of entering into a covenant "before 
the Lord" was to pass between the parts of a sacrificed animal; cp. 
Jer. xxxiv. 18, 19. 

vv. 4—6.] I. CHRONICLES, XL 59 

over Israel, according to the word of the Lord by 

And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, which is 4 
Jebus; where the Jebusites were^ the inhabitants of the 
land. And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David, Thou 5 
shalt not come hither. Nevertheless David took the castle 
of Zion, which is the city of David. And David said, Who- 6 
soever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain. 
So Joab the son of Zeruiah went first up, and was chief. 

Chron. has nothing here corresponding with 2 Sam. v. 4, 5 ; but cp. 
xxix. 27. 

4 — 9 (=2 Sam. v. 6—10). The "City of David" captured 


4. David and all Israel'^ Jn Samuel (more accurately) "The king 
and his vien,'" i.e. his household and body-guard; cp. x. 6, note. A 
picked force, not a large one, was necessary. 

which is Jehus] R.V. (the same is Jebus). Jerusalem (or Jebus) 
consisted, it seems (cp. ver. 8; Judg. i. 21), of a citadel inhabited by 
Jebusites and of a lower city inhabited by a mixed population of 
Jebusites and Benjamites. It was the citadel only which David 

zvhere the yebusites were, the inhabitants of the latid] R.V. and the 
Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, were there. The Jebusites are 
called "inhabitants of the land," because they were one of the "seven 
nations" dispossessed by Israel at the conquest (Deut. vii. i). 

5. Thou shalt not come hither] A longer speech of defiance is given 
in 2 Sam. v. 6 (see R.V. mg.) in which the Jebusites assert that their 
city is so strong by nature that a garrison of blind and lame is sufficient 
for its defence. 

the castle of Zion] R. V. the strong hold of Zion. The site of this 
(afterwards "the city of David") is on the S.E. of the present city, on 
the S. of the Haram (the Temple area), and on a level lower than that 
of the Haram (Socin-Benzinger in Bddeker, p. 22 ; Sir C. Wilson in 
Smith's Bible Diet. ed. 2, "Jerusalem," p. 1648). For the less probable 
view that the stronghold of Zion was on the S.W. of the present city 
see C. R. Conder in Hastings' Bible Dict.^ Art. "Jerusalem," vol. ii. 
p. 591. 

6. Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief attd captain] 
The Chronicler has simplified the very difficult phrase which occurs in 
the parallel passage (2 Sam. v. 8). 

'Joab the son of Zeruiah] Zeruiah was David's sister (ii. 16). It is 
not said in Samuel that Joab first became commander-in-chief on this 
occasion; on the contrary he appears in command (2 Sam. ii. 13) 
during the civil war against the house of Saul. Perhaps he was first 
formally acknowledged as commander at the capture of Jebus. 

6o 1. CHRONICLES, XL [vv. 7— lo. 

7 And David dwelt in the castle ; therefore they called it the 

8 city of David. And he built the city round about, even 
from Millo round about : and Joab repaired the rest of the 

9 city. So David waxed greater and greater : for the Lord of 
hosts icas with him. 

10 These also are the chief of the mighty 7?zen whom David 

7. the castle] R.V. the strong hold (as in ver. 5). 

8. even from Millo roiaid about] R.V. from Millo even round about. 
Millo, usually "the Millo," meaning perhaps "The filling up," was some 
part of the defences of the "city of David," either a solid tower or per- 
haps an armoury, or a piece of supplementary work intended to strengthen 
an existing wall (LXX. 2 Chron. xxxii. 5, avaX-qixixa, "support"). 

repaired] Render spared or kept alive; cp. Ex. i. 17. Pesh. 
translates : ' 'Joab gave his right hand to the rest of the men who were 
in the city." The "rest (remnant) of the city" included Benjamites as 
well as Jebusites (Judg. i. 21). 

10— 41a ( = 2 Sam. xxiii. 8 — 39). David's Mighty Men and 
THEIR Deeds. 

(The names of twelve of these heroes reappear in chap, xxvii. as the 
commanders of David's twelve "courses.") 

This section seems to consist of elements drawn from different sources 
and brought together (probably by the author of Samuel) in order to 
give as complete a list as possible of the heroes who at different times in 
David's career did good service to Israel. 

Vv. 11 — 14 ( = 2 Sam. xxiii. 8 — 12) deal with two (in Sam. three) 
heroes otherwise unknown. 

Vv. 15 — 19 i^ — ibid. 13 — 17) are independent of the foregoing and 
narrate an exploit of three unnamed heroes. 

Vv. 20 — 25 { = ibid. 18 — 23) seem in turn to be independent of 15 — 19, 
and vv. 21, 25 in particular seem to be quoted from some lost poem. 
These verses contain the eulogy of Abishai and Benaiah. 

Vv. 26— 41a ( = 2 Sam. xxiii. 24 — 39) contain thirty names of heroes 
whose exploits are not recorded. It is to be noted that Chron., vv. 
41b — 47, adds some sixteen names at the end which are not given in 

Joab is not included in the formal list because he has been already 
mentioned (ver. 6). 

Lists of names are favourite features in Oriental Histories. Thus ibn 
Hisham in his life of Mohammed gives a list of the 83 Moslems who 
took refuge in Abyssinia from the persecution of the Koreish, of the 75 
inhabitants of Medina who swore allegiance to the Prophet before the 
Hegira, and even of the 314 Moslems who were present at the battle of 

10. These also] R.V. Now these. This verse is the Chronicler's own 
heading which he prefixes to the list of heroes taken from Sam., while 
retaining (in ver. ii) the original heading given in Sam. 

vv. II— 13.] I. CHRONICLES, XL 61 

had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, 
and with all Israel, to make him king, according to the 
word of the Lord concerning Israel. And this is the 
number of the mighty men w^hom David had ; Jashobeam, a 
Hachmonite, the chief of the captains : he Hft up his spear 
against three hundred slain by him at one time. And after 
him tvas Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Ahohite, who was 
one of the three mighties. He was with David at Pasdam- 
mim, and there the Philistines were gathered together to 


who strengthened themselves with hwi\ Render with R.V. mg., who 
held strongly with him. Cp. xii. 23. 

and with all Israel] R.V. together with all Israel. 

11. this is the number'] More suitably in Samuel, "These be the 

Jashobeam] Called "Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel" in xxvii. •2. 
The name "Jashobeam" is however uncertain. In 2 Sam. (xxiii, 8, 
R.V.) it appears as "Josheb-basshebeth," which is certainly wrong. 
LXX. (B) varies in reproducing the name, but it seems to have read 
"Ish-bosheth" in Samuel, and "Ish-baal" (Esh-baal) in both places of 
Chron. These readings are probably right. For the identity of the 
names "Ish-bosheth," "Esh-baal" see viii. 33, note. 

a Hachmonite] R.V. the son of a Hachmonite; cp. xxvii. 32. In 
Samuel (wrongly) "a Tahchemonite." 

chief of the cciptains] So Heb. (K'rl), but the C'thib (which the R.V. 
follows) reads, chief of the thirty. Neither A.V. nor R.V. gives satis- 
factory sense. In 2 Sam. xxiii. 8 the LXX. gives, chief of the third part 
\pfthe army], cp. ib. xviii. 2 ; and this is perhaps right ; the Heb. text 
of Sam. (if not faulty) probably bears the same sense. 

he lift up his spear] Lit. "he aroused his spear" (a poetic expres- 
sion). Lift is an obsolete form of the past tense. 

against three hundred] Samuel "against eight hundred"; so Pesh. 
(good MSS.) of Chron. Some light is thrown on this exploit by i Sam. 
xviii. 25 — 27 ; the two hundred Philistines slain by David and his men 
were carefully counted and reckoned to the credit of David personally. 

slain by him at one time] R.V. and slew them at one time. 

12, 13. These verses answer in part to vv. 9 and 11 of Samuel, but 
since ver. 10 and parts of vv. 9, ir of Sam. have no equivalent in 
Chron., two incidents are confounded, and the name of a hero 
(Shammah) is omitted, his exploit being ascribed to Eleazar. 

12. Eleazar the son of Dodo] Probably to be identified with "Dodai 
the Ahohite," the commander of the second **course" ; xxvii. 4. 

the three mighties] R.V. the three mighty men, i.e. the three who 
were with David on the occasion mentioned in 2 Sam. xxiii. 9. 

13. at Pasdammim] The same place under the name "Ephes- 
dammim" is mentioned in i Sam. xvii. i as the gathering- place of the 
Philistines. It was in the S.W. of Judah. 

62 I. CHRONICLES, XI. [vv. 14—19. 

battle, where was a parcel of ground full of barley ; and the 

M people fled from before the Philistines. And they set 

themselves in the midst of that parcel, and delivered it, and 

slew the Philistines ; and the Lord saved them by a great 

»5 deliverance. Now three of the thirty captains went down 

to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam ; and the 

host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim. 

16 And David was then in the hold, and the Philistines' 

»7 garrison was then at Beth-lehem. And David longed, and 

said. Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the 

•8 well of Beth-lehem, that is at the gate. And the three 

brake through the host of the Philistines, and drew water 

out of the well of Beth-lehem, that was by the gate, and 

took //, and brought // to David : but David would not 

'9 drink of it, but poured it out to the Lord, and said. My 

God forbid it me, that / should do this thing : shall I drink 

a parcel of ground] R.V. a plot of ground. The same use of " parcel" 
occurs Gen. xxxiii. 19; Ruth iv. 3; John iv. 5 (even in R.V.). 

barley] Samuel "lentils." The two words resemble each other in 
Heb. and might be confused by an unwary scribe. 

14. set themselves] R.V. stood, i.e. "took their stand" (cp. i Sam. 
xvii. 16 "presented himself"). The subject of the verb in 2 Sam. xxiii. 
12 is Shammah, here David and Eleazar together. 

15. the thirty captains] R.V. the thirty chief. 

to the rock] Samuel " in the harvest-time." Perhaps both readings are 
wrong, the original reading being the name of a place. LXX. (B) in 
Sam. has eh KaScop. 

the cave of Adullam] Perhaps we should read here (and in i Sam, 
xxii. 1; 2 Sam. xxiii. 13) "strong hold of Adullam." It is called "the 
hold" (strong hold) in 1 Sam. xxii. 4. G. A. Smith {Hist. Geog. p. 229) 
suggests an identification with a commanding hill in the Shephelah 
called 'Aid-el-ma. It is about twelve miles to the S.W. of Beth-lehem. 

the valley of Rephaim] Probably the broad depression traversed by 
the road from Jerusalem to Beth-lehem. See Josh. xv. 8 ("vale of 
Rephaim" R.V.; "valley of the giants" A.V.). 

16. m the hold] Cp. note on the cave of Adullam (ver. 15). 

the Philistines' garrison] R.V. the g-arrison of the Philistines. The 
word may however mean "the Philistine governor" (so read in i Sam. 
xiii. 3, 4 for the same Heb. word). The parallel passage however 
(2 Sam. xxiii. 14) has "the garrison of the Philistines." 

17. give me drink of the tvater] R.V. give me water to drink. 
that is at] R.V. which is by (so Sam.). 

18. brake through the host] The word "host" in the Hebrew means 
a host encamped, not a host embattled. Perhaps this exploit took place 
by night; compare the deed of David and Abishai (i Sam. xxvi. 6—12). 

vv. 20—23.] I- CHRONICLES, XL 63 

the blood of these men that have put their lives in 
jeopardy ? for with the jeopardy of their lives they brought 
it. Therefore he would not drink it. These thifigs did 
these three mightiest. And Abishai the brother of Joab, he 20 
was chief of the three : for lifting up his spear against three 
hundred, he slew them, and had a name among the three. 
Of the three, he was more honourable than the two ; for he 21 
was their captain : howbeit he attained not to the first 
three. Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant 22 
man of Kabzeel, who had done many acts ; he slew two 
lionlike men of Moab : also he went down and slew a 
lion in a pit in a snowy day. And he slew an Egyptian, 23 
a man of great stature, five cubits high; and in the 

19. these men that .. .brought it\ Render, these men? Witli the 
jeopardy of their lives, yea, of their lives they brought it. 

three mightiest\ R.V. three mighty men (so Sam.). 

20. chief of the three"] In 2 Sam. xxiii. 18 (C'thib) Abishai is called 
by the same title (Heb. rosh hasshdlishi) as Josheb-basshebeth {ib. ver. 
8). This title probably means chief of the third part [of the arviy]; cp. 
ver. II, note. Chief of the three is a faulty reading. 

for lifting up his spear] R.V. for he lifted up his spear; cp. ver. 11, 

had a name atnong the three] Cp. ver. 34, where the same thing is 
said of Benaiah. The three meant are either the three of vv. 15 — 19 or 
else an unknown three; cp. next note. 

21. Of the three he was more honourable than the two] R.V. mg. " Of 
the three in the second rank he was the most honourable." The word, 
translated "in the second rank," is however certainly corrupt (cp. 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 19), and should be corrected. We then translate : He was more 
honourable than the three. The verse probably comes from a lost 
poem. What is meant by the three and by the first three cannot be 
determined owing to the loss of the context. 

22. Benaiah] See 2 Sam. viii. 18; i Kin. i. 8ff., ii. 25 — 35. 
Kabzeel] It was in the south of Judah ; Josh. xv. 21. 

done many acts] R.V. done mighty deeds. 

he slew two lionlike ??ie7t of Moab] R.V. '^the tzuo sons of Ariel of 
Moab''^ (so LXX. of 2 Sam. xxiii. 20). The phrase however is very 
difficult to interpret. Another translation is "he slew the two cham- 
pions of Moab." A fourth (perhaps the best) is "he smote the two 
altar-pillars of Moab," i.e. he overthrew the two high columns on which 
the sacred fire of the Moabites was kept (Robertson Smith, Religion of 
the Semites^ Additional Note L). To injure or defile the sacred place 
of an enemy was a common practice in ancient war. 

in a snowy day] R.V. in time of snow. 

23. of great stature] Heb. "of measurement." Samuel has a 

64 I. CHRONICLES, XL [vv. 24—28. 

Egyptian's hand ivas a spear like a weaver's beam ; and 
he went down to him with a staff, and pluckt the spear 
out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own 

24 spear. These things did Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and 

25 had the name among the three mighties. Behold, he was 
honourable among the thirty, but attained not to \h.^ first 
three : and David set him over his guard. 

26 Also the valiant men of the armies ivere, Asahel the 
brother of Joab, Elhanan the son of Dodo of Beth-lehem, 

275 28 Shammoth the Harorite, Helez the Pelonite, Ira the son of 

better reading, "a goodly man" (man of presence), "goodliness" 
according to the Hebrews consisting in being well-lniilt for warlike 

a staffs Heb. 'shebhet,' i.e. the "rod" or "club" carried by 
shepherds as a defence against wild-beasts; Ps. ii. 9 ("rod"); xxiii. 4 
("rod"); 2 Sam. xviii. 14 ("darts"). This "rod ' had a point at one 
end, so that it could on occasion be used as a stabbing weapon. 

24. had the name among the three 7nighties\ R.V. had a name 
among the three mighty men ; cp. v. 20. 

25. he was honourable afnong the thirty"] R.V. (cp. ver. 21), he was 
more honourable than the thirty. The verse probably comes from 
some poem written in praise of Benaiah. Cp. xxvii. 6. 

but attained not to the first three] Cp. note on ver. 21. 

guai'd] The same Heb. word, niishma^ath, is translated "council" 
in I Sam. xxii. 14. The literal meaning of the word is "obedience"; 
it seems both here and in Sam. (I.e.) to designate those who executed 
the king's commands, i.e. his ministers. (i)//«z.y/^r=" servant".) 

26. Also the valiant men of the armies were, Asahel] Render, And 
the valiant men of might; Asahel. Cp. ii. 16; 2 Sam. ii. 18 ff., iii. 27. 

Elhanan] Called here ( = 2 Sam. xxiii. 24) "son of Dodo," but 
probably to be identified with '• Elhanan the son of Jair" of xx. 5 
( = 2 Sam. xxi. 19) "son of Jaare-oregim," for "Jaare-oregim " is not to 
be taken as his father's name, and the "Jair" of Chron. appears to be a 
corruption of "Jaare." Elhanan was son of Dodo and belonged to a 
place the name of which was something like Jaare-oregim. 

27. the Harorite] Read, the Harodite (so Sam.). Cp. Judg. vi. 23; 
vii. I, whence it appears that Harod was in (or near) the valley of 
Jezreel. Cp. also i Chr. xxvii. 8 ("Shamhuth the Izrahite"), where 
the same person seems to be meant. "Elika the Harodite" (Sam.) is 
not fouiid in Chron. 

Helez the Pelonite] Cp. xxvii. 10, where he is described as a captain 
of the children of Ephraim. In 2 Sam. xxiii. 26 however it is Helez 
the Paltite, i.e. (apparently) "the inhabitant of Beth-pelet " in the south 
of Judah (Josh. xv. 27). 

28. Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite] Cp. xxvii. 9. For Tekoa see 
3 Chr. XX. 20, note. 

vv. 29—34.] I. CHRONICLES, XL 65 

Ikkesh the Tekoite, Abi-ezer the Antothite, Sibbecai the 29 
Hushathite, Ilai the Ahohite, Maharai the Netophathite, 30 
Heled the son of Baanah the Netophathite, Ithai the 31 
son of Ribai of Gibeah, that pertained to the children 
of Benjamin, Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hurai of the 32 
brooks of Gaash, Abiel the Arbathite, Azmaveth the 33 
Baharumite, Eliahba the Shaalbonite, the sons of Hashem 34 

Abi-ezer the Antoihite\ R.V. Abi-ezer the Anathothite ; xxvii. \i and 
2 Sam. xxiii. 27. Anathoth was in Benjamin; it was Jeremiah's village 
(Jer. i. i; xi. 21 fF.), now Andta, 2J miles N.N.E. of Jerusalem. 

29. Sibbecai] So xxvii. 11, but in 2 Sam. xxiii. 27 "Mebunnai." 
the Hushathite'] Hushah is probably the name of some place near 

Beth-lehem (iv. 4). Shuah [ib. ver. 11) is perhaps another form of the 

Hat] In 2 Sam. xxiii. 28 "Zalmon." The two words are more alike 
in Hebrew than in English, and seem to be various readings of the name 
which originally appeared in the list. 

the Ahohite] He was of a Benjamite family; viii. 4 ("Ahoah"). 

30. Maharai the Netophathite] So in xxvii. 13, with "of the 
Zerahites" (R.V.) added. A Netophathite might come either from 
Netophah (a village in Judah not far from Beth-lehem), or from the 
"villages of the Netophathites" (ix. 16, note). 

Heled] In xxvii. 15 "Heldai," a name found in Zech. vi. 10. 
"Heleb" in 2 Sam. xxiii. 29 is probably a wrong reading. 

31. Ithai] In 2 Sam. xxiii. 29 "Ittai," the same name as in 

1 Sam. XV. 19 ; xviii. 2, but a different person is meant. 
that pertained to] R.V. of. 

Benaiah the Pirathonite] So in xxvii. 14; 2 Sam. xxiii. 30. Pira- 
thon was a town in Ephraim; Judg. xii. 15. Probably the place is 
mentioned also in i Mace. ix. 50 {ry\v Qafxvdda ^apaddbv). 

32. Hurai] In 2 Sam. xxiii. 30, "Hiddai." The true form of the 
name is uncertain; neither form occurs elsewhere. 

Gaash] A mountain in Ephraim ; Judg. ii. 9 (=Josh. xxiv. 30). 

Abiel] In 2 Sam. xxiii. 31 "Abi-albon." "Arbathite" means 
"inhabitant of Beth Arabah"; Josh. xv. 6, a town on the border 
between Judah and Benjamin. 

33. Baharumite] In 2 Sam. xxiii. 31 **Barhumite." We should 
read in both places, Bahurimite, i.e. "inhabitant of Bahurim," a town 
of Benjamin (2 Sam. iii. 16). 

Shaalbonite] i.e. "inhabitant of Shaalbim" (Judg. i. 35), or *'ShaaI- 
abbin" (Josh. xix. 42), a town in Dan. 

34. the sons of Hashetn the Gizonite] The corresponding clause in 

2 Sam. xxiii. 32 is simply "the sons of Jashen." The text is corrupt in 
both places. LXX. (Chron.) for the sons of has the proper name 
"Benaiah." Read perhaps "Jashen the Gunite" (cp. Num. xxvi. 48) 
omitting the sons of (Heb. bene) as arising from a mistaken repetition of 
the last three letters of Shaalbonite (Heb. form). 


66 I. CHRONICLES, XI. [w. 35—42. 


the Gizonite, Jonathan the son of Shage the Hararite, 

35 Ahiam the son of Sacar the Hararite, Eliphal the son of 

36, 37 Ur, Hepher the Mecherathite, Ahijah the Pelonite, Hezro 

' 38 the Carmelite, Naarai the son of Ezbai, Joel the brother of 

39 Nathan, Mibhar the son of Haggeri, Zelek the Ammonite, 

Naharai the Berothite, the armourbearer of Joab the son of 

40, 41 Zeruiah, Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite, Uriah the Hittite, 

Zabad the son of Ahlai, Adina the son of Shiza the Reu- 

benite, a captain of the Reubenites, and thirty with him, 

Jonathan the son of Shage] Cp. 1 Sam. xxiii. 32, 33, where the right 
reading seems to be "Jonathan the son of Shammah." Nothing is 
known of the meaning of "Hararite," nor is the reading certain, 

35. Sacar] In 2 Sam. " Sharar." 

35. 36. Eliphal the son of Ur, Hepher the Mecherathite] In 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 34 "Eliphelet the son of Ahasbai, the son of the Maachathite." 
Chron. has two heroes against one in 2 Sam. 

36. Ahijah the Pelonite] A mutilated reading of 2 Sam. xxiii. 34, 
"Eham the son of Ahithophel the Gilonite." For "Ahithophel" see 
xxvii. 33, note. "Gilonite" means "inhabitant of Giloh," a town in 
the hill country of Judah (Josh. xv. 51). 

37. Hezro] So 2 Sam. xxiii. 35 (R.V. following the Cthib) ; but 
Hezrai (A.V. following the Kri). 

the Carmelite] i.e. inhabitant of Carmel, a town in the hill country of 
Judah (i Sam. xxv. 2 ff.). 

Naarai] In 2 Sam. xxiii. 35, "Paarai." The true form of the name 
is lost. 

the son of Ezbai] In 2 Sam. "the Arbite" (simply), i.e. (probably) 
"inhabitant of Arab" (Josh. xv. 52), a town in the hill country of Judah. 

38. Joel the brother of Nathaji, Mibhar] Mibhar is a corruption of a 
word ("of Zobah") belonging to the first clause of the verse; cp. 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 36, " Igal the son of Nathan of Zobah." For "Zobah" cp. xviii. 3. 

the son of Haggeri] In 2 Sam. "Bani the Gadite." 

39. the Berothite] Spelt generally " Beerothite." Beeroth was a 
Benjamite town ; 2 Sam. iv. 2. 

40. the Ithrite] i.e. "member of the family (or 'clan') of Jether." 
Cp. ii. 17, note. 

41. Uriah the Hittite] Cp. 2 Sam. xi. 3. The list in 2 Sam. xxiii. 
closes with this name and with the note "thirty and seven in all." In 
Chron. the list is extended to include sixteen additional names. 

41 b — 47 (no parallel in 2 Sam). Continuation of the List of 
David's Mighty Men. 

42. ajid thirty with hiin] This clause is probably a marginal note 
taken into the text at the wrong place. It was apparently meant to 
stand after the name of Uriah the Hittite (ver. 41) by some scribe who 
followed our present text and referred "the sons of Hashem" (ver. 34) 
to Azmaveth and Eliahba (ver. 33), thus reckoning just thirty names 

VV.43— 47; 1,2.] I. CHRONICLES, XI. XII. 67 

Hanan the son of Maachah, and Joshaphat the Mithnite, 43 
Uzzia the Ashterathite, Shama and Jehiel the sons of 44 
Hothan the Aroerite, Jediael the son of Shimri, and Joha 45 
his brother, the Tizite, Eliel the Mahavite, and Jeribai, and 46 
Joshaviah, the sons of EInaam, and Ithmah the Moabite, 
Eliel, and Obed, and Jasiel the Mesobaite. 47 

Now these are they that came to David to Ziklag, while 12 
he yet kept himself close because of Saul the son of Kish : 
and they were among the mighty men^ helpers of the war. 
They were armed with bows, and could use both the right 2 
hand and the left in hurling stones and shooting arrows out 

from Asahel to Uriah. The clause should be read either "and up to 
him are thirty" or "and all of them are thirty" (cp. 2 Sam. xxiii. 39). 

44. the Ashterathite'] i.e. inhabitant of Ashtaroth (vi. 71 [56 Heb.]), 
a city of Manasseh east of Jordan. 

and Jehiel the sons of Hothan] R.V. and Jeiel the sons of Hotham. 

the Aroerite] i.e. inhabitant of Aroer. There were two cities of this 
name, both east of Jordan; cp. Josh. xiii. 16, 25. 

46. the Mahavite] Read perhaps, "the Mahanite," i.e. inhabitant 
of Mahanaim, a town east of Jordan ; cp. 2 Sam. xvii. 27. 

47. the Mesobaite] R.V. the Mezobaite. Read perhaps, "of Zobah"; 
cp. ver. 38, note. 

Ch. XII. I — 11 (not in Samuel). David's Adherents in exile. 
The statements (drawn probably from family traditions) given in 
these verses throw light on the last campaign of Saul and in part 
explain the catastrophe of Gilboa. The king, it seems, after his rupture 
with David grew continually weaker through the desertion of some 
of the boldest spirits of the nation who joined the exiled hero. Some 
of Saul's own tribe attached themselves to David at Ziklag (vv. i, 2). 
During the campaign of Gilboa men of Manasseh joined David wher 
he was actually following the Philistines to battle against Saul (ver. 19). 
An Israel divided against itself could not stand. 

1 — 7. Benjamite Adherents of David. 

1. to Ziklag] David at Ziklag was a client of Achish, king of Gath 
(i Sam. xxvii. 5, 6), so that the Benjamites in joining him were putting 
themselves under their hereditary enemies the Philistines. The yoke 
of Saul seemed heavy even to his own tribe (cp. i Sam. viii. 11 — 18). 

while he yet kept himself close] Render, while he was yet shut up. 
David was shut in, as in a prison, and unable to move freely through 
the land of Israel. 

helpers of the war] R.V. his helpers in war. 

2. both the right hand and the left] On the occasion described in 
Judg. XX. the Benjamites are said to have had seven hundred men 
lefthanded who could sling stones at a hair and not miss {ib. ver. 16). 
<^P- J"dg. iii. 15. 

68 I. CHRONICLES, XII. [vv. 3—i 

3 of a bow, eve/i of Saul's brethren of Benjamin. The chief 
was Ahiezer, then Joash, the sons of Shemah the Gibeathite ; 
and Jeziel, and Pelet, the sons of Azmaveth ; and Berachah, 

4 and Jehu the Antothite, and Ismaiah the Gibeonite, a 
mighty man among the thirty, and over the thirty; and 
Jeremiah, and Jahaziel, and Johanan, and Josabad the 

5 Gederathite, Eleuzai, and Jerimoth, and BeaHah, and 

6 Shemariah, and Shephatiah the Haruphite, Elkanah, and 
Jesiah, and Azareel, and Joezer, and Jashobeam, the Kor- 

7 hites, and Joelah, and Zebadiah, the sons of Jeroham of 

8 Gedor. And of the Gadites there separated themselves 
unto David into the hold to the wilderness men of might, 

even of SatiPs brethren of Beiijamifi\ R.V. they were of Saul's 
brethren of Benjamin. Brother is used in Heb. and Arabic iox fellow - 
tribesman; cp. 2 Sam. xix. 12. 

3. The chief vfa.% A., then y.] Read (cp. LXX.) A. the chief, J. the 
son (sing.) of Shemaah. 

Jehu the Antothite'] R.V. the Anathothite, i.e. man of Anathoth. 
See xi. 28, note. 

4. a?no}7g the thirty and over the thirty'] Ismaiah's name does not 
occur among the thirty (2 Sam. xxiii. 24 — 39) ; the phrase is therefore 
perhaps only a kind of superlative ; Ismaiah was worthy to be ranked 
with the thirty or even above them. Probably however the list in 
ch. xi. and that in ch. xii. belong to different times. 

the Gedei-athite] i.e. the man of Gederah. The only Gederah known 
was in the Judsean Shephelah (Josh. xv. 36), so that it would seem 
that some men of Judah are reckoned along with the Benjamites in 
these verses. Similarly in ver. 7 men of the Judiean town of Gedor 
(iv. 4; Josh. XV. 58) are mentioned. It is possible that some words 
introducing the names of Judasan heroes have dropped out. 

6. the Korhites] R.V. the Korahites. Probably not the Levitic but 
the Calebitic sons of Korah (ii. 43), who belonged to Judah, are meant. 

8 — 15. Gadite Adherents of David. 

8. And of the Gadites] The Gadites had the name of marauders 
(Gen, xlix. 19), and David's mode of life would attract them. Chrono- 
logically ver. 8 should precede ver. i; David was first "in the hold" 
and afterwards in Ziklag. 

separated themselves] i.e. left their brethren E. of Jordan and came W. 
to join David. 

into the hold to the wilderness] R.V. to the hold in the wilderness. 
It is uncertain whether this hold be or be not the cave of Adullam. See 
xi. 15, 16, notes. 

men of might, and men of 7var fit for the battle] R.V. mighty men ot 
valour, men trained for war. 

vv. 9—17.] I. CHRONICLES, XII. 69 

and men of war fit for the battle, that could handle shield 
and buckler, whose faces 7ver€ like the faces of lions, and 
were as swift as the roes upon the mountains : Ezer the 9 
first, Obadiah the second, Eliab the third, Mishmannah 10 
the fourth, Jeremiah the fifth, Attai the sixth, Eliel the n 
seventh, Johanan the eighth, Elzabad the ninth, Jeremiah 12, 13 
the tenth, Machbanai the eleventh. These were of the 14 
sons of Gad, captains of the host : one of the least was 
over an hundred, and the greatest over a thousand. These 15 
are they that went over Jordan in the first month, when 
it had overflown all his banks ; and they put to flight all 
them of the valleys, both toward the east, and toward the 
west. And there came of the children of Benjamin and r6 
Judah to the hold unto David. And David went out to 17 
meet them, and answered and said unto them, If ye be 

that could handle] Lit. "ordering." 

shield and buckler\ R. V. shield and speax. A.V. follows a mistake 
of several early editions of the printed Heb. text. There is hardly any 
MS. authority for buckler. The reference is to the manner of fighting 
in David's day. At the threat of an attack an army was drawn up in 
close array, shield touching shield and spears at the charge. Only in a 
high state of discipline could men quickly and effectively handle shield 
and spear thus (i Sam. xvii. 2, 8, 21). See Smith, Bib. Diet., ed. 2, 
PP- ^75? 6 for illustrations. 

and were as swift'] R.V. and they were as swift. 

as the roes] In David's lament (2 Sam. i) Jonathan is compared to a 
lion (ver. 23) and to a. gazelle (ver. 19 marg., the same Heb. word as for 
roe here). 

10. yeremiah the fifth] Cp. ver. 13, yercmiah the tenth. A very 
slight difference of spelling distinguishes the two in the Heb. 

14. These... the host] R.V. These of the sons of Gad were captains 
of the host. 

one of the least., etc.] R.V. he that was least was equal to an 
hundred, and the greatest to a thousand. Cp. Lev. xxvi. 8; Is. 
XXX. 17. 

15. in the first month] In Nisan (the month of harvest) when the 
snow was melting and filling all streams; cp. Josh. iii. 15. 

all them of the valleys] i.e. all inhabitants of the valleys who in the 
interest of Saul sought to bar their march westward to join David. 

16 — 18. Amasai and his Companions. 

16. to the hold] See ver. 8, notes. 

17. David went out to meet them] Instead of letting himself be 
surprised he took up a favourable position in advance from which he 
could hold parley with them. The south of Judah with its ravines and 
clifts affords many such positions. 

70 I. CHRONICLES, XII. [vv. 18—20. 

come peaceably unto me to help me, mine heart shall be 
knit unto you : but if ye he co?jie to betray me to mine 
enemies, seeing there is no wrong in mine hands, the God of 

18 our fathers look thereon^ and rebuke it. Then the spirit came 
upon Amasai, who was chief of the captains, and he said, 

Thine are we, David, 
And on thy side, thou son of Jesse : 
Peace, peace be unto thee. 
And peace be to thine helpers \ 
For thy God helpeth thee. 
Then David received them, and made them captains of 

19 the band. And there fell some of Manasseh to David, 
when he came with the Philistines against Saul to battle : 
but they helped them not : for the lords of the Philistines 
upon advisement sent him away, saying, He will fall to his 

20 master Saul to the jeopardy of our heads. As he went to 

18. the spirit came upon A.] Lit. a spirit (i.e. from God) clothed itself 
with (i.e. entered into) Amasai. Cp. 2 Chr. xxiv. 20 ; Judg. vi. 34. 

Amasai] Probably to be identified with " Amasa" (2 Sam. xvii. 25 ; 
xix. 13). 

c/iief of the captains] So A.V. rightly, following the K'rI. The 
"captains" are Amasai's companions. R.V., following the C'thib, 
reads "chief of the thirty"; cp. xi. 15, 25. 

Thine are we, David, and on thy side] Lit. "For thee, David, and 
with thee." 

for thy God helpeth thee] The belief that David's frequent escapes 
from Saul were due to Divine protection influenced Amasai and his 
companions in joining David. 

19—22. Manassite Adherents. 

19. And there fell some of Manasseh] R.V. Of Manasseh also there 
fell away some. 

when he came with the Philistines] See i Sara, xxviii. 1,2; xxix. 
I — II. 

but they helped them not] David's men did not help the Philistines, 

upon advisement] "After consideration"; lit. "by counsel." Cp. 
xxi, 12, "advise thyself." 

fall] R.V. faU away. 

/<? the jeopardy of our heads] Rather, at the price of our heads. 
David once became son-in-law to Saul at the price of the lives of two 
hundred of the Philistines (r Sam. xviii. 27); their lords here (in 
Chron.) express their dread lest David reconcile himself to Saul by 
some act of treachery and slaughter done against his present Philistine 
patrons; cp. i Sam. xxix. 4 ("with" = "at the price of"). 

20. As he 7aent] i.e. As he returned (r Sam. xxx. i). 

vv. 21—24.] I- CHRONICLES, Xll. 71 

Ziklag, there fell to him of Manasseh, Adnah, and Jozabad, 
and Jediael, and Michael, and Jozabad, and Elihu, and 
Zilthai, captains of the thousands that were of Manasseh. 
And they helped David against the band of the rovers : for 21 
they were all mighty men of valour, and were captains in 
the host. For at t/iat time day by day there came to 2a 
David to help him, until it was a great host, like the host 
of God. 

And these are the numbers of the bands that were ready 23 
armed to the war, and came to David to Hebron, to turn 
the kingdom of Saul to him, according to the word of the 
Lord. The children of Judah that bare shield and spear 24 

yozabad\ This name occurs twice; possibly in the original list 
different patronymics were attached to the two mentions of the name. 

captains of the thousands^ R.V. captains of thousands; cp. xv. 25 ; 
Mic. V. 2. Tribes were divided into "thousands" which were sub- 
divided into "hundreds." These divisions were of civil as well as of 
military significance. 

21. against the band of the rovers] The reference is to the 
Amalekites who burnt Ziklag (i Sam. xxx. 1 ff). The Heb. ■wordgedUd, 
here translated "band," is translated "troop" {ib. vv. 8, 15, R.V.). 

and were captains'] Render, and they became captains. 

22. For at that time day by day] R.V. For from day to day. 

the host of God] The phrase comes from Gen. xxxii. 2 ; cp. Ps. 
Ixviii. 15 (R.V.) "a mountain of God." The epithet "of God" is used 
to distinguish a thing as "very great." 

23 — 40 (cp. 2 Sam. v. i). The Forces which came to Hebron 
TO MAKE David King. 

23. of the bands that were ready arfned to the ivar, and came] R.V. 
of the heads of them that were armed for war, which came ("heads" 
= " persons"). 

24. The children of Jicdah, etc.] The hst which follows suggests 
two questions, (i) Whence did the Chronicler derive it? (2) Are the 
statements of numbers contained in it trustworthy? 

In answer to the first question it may be confidently said that the list 
as it stands is the composition of the Chronicler himself, for the syntax 
and vocabulary of the passage are his. Its statements may, however, be 
based on those of some ancient document. As to the second question it 
must be confessed that the numbers given to the Northern tribes, 
especially the trans-Jordanic tribes, are surprisingly large, especially when 
compared with those of the Southern ; thus while the totals of Judah, 
Simeon, Levi, and Benjamin taken together amount to 25,200 warriors, 
those of Zebulun, Naphtali, Dan, and Asher amount to 155,600. Yet 
compare the numbers given in 2 Sam. xxiv. 9 (800,000 men in Israel 
who drew sword). 

72 I. CHRONICLES, XII. [w. 25— 33. 

7vere six thousand and eight hundred, ready armed to the 

25 war. Of the children of Simeon, mighty men of valour for 

26 the war, seven thousand and one hundred. Of the children 

27 of Levi four thousand and six hundred. And Jehoiada 
7vas the leader of the Aaronites, and with him were three 

28 thousand and seven hundred ; and Zadok, a young man 
mighty of valour, and of his father's house twenty and two 

29 captains. And of the children of Benjamin, the kindred 
of Saul, three thousand : for hitherto the greatest part of 

30 them had kept the ward of the house of Saul. And of the 
children of Ephraim twenty thousand and eight hundred, 
mighty ttien of valour, famous throughout the house of their 

31 fathers. And of the half tribe of Manasseh eighteen thou- 
sand, which were expressed by name, to come and make 

32 David king. And of the children of Issachar, which were 
men that had understanding of the times, to know what 
Israel ought to do ; the heads of them were two hundred ; 

33 and all their brethren were at their commandment. Of 
Zebulun, such as went forth to battle, expert in war, with 

25. Simeon'] The most southerly of the tribes (iv. 24 — 31). The 
tribes are mentioned in order from South to North. 

27. of the Aaronites] R.V. of the house of Aaron. Jehoiada was 
not high-priest, but leader of the warriors of the house of Aaron. He 
may be the same person as the father of Benaiah (xi. 22). Leader 
(Heb. nagid) is the title given to the "Captain" of the Temple (ix. 11, 
A.V. "ruler"). 

28. Zadok] In xxvii. 17 he seems to occupy the position assigned 
to Jehoiada in ver. 27. Perhaps he succeeded him. 

29. hitherto] i.e. up to the time referred to in 2 Sam. v. i. 

kept the ward of the house of Saul] R.V. kept their allegiance to the 
house of Saul. 

30. famous., fathers] R.V. famous men in their fathers' houses. 

31. which were expressed by name] The document followed by 
the Chronicler probably contained not the names of the 18,000 in- 
dividuals, but the names of the heads of the families to which they 

32. which were men] R.V. men (simply). 

that had understanding of the times] Cp. Esth. i. 13, "which knew 
the times." "Times" are "opportunities," "vicissitudes" (cp. xxix. 30), 
"experiences," good or bad (cp. Ps. xxxi. 15). The phrase means, 
therefore, "men of experience, having knowledge of the world." 

33. went forth to battle, expert in war, zvith all instruments] R.V. 
were able to go out in the host, that could set the battle in array, 
with all manner of instruments. This description is intended to 

vv. 34— 40-] I- CHRONICLES, XII. H 

all instruments of war, fifty thousand, which could keep 
rank : they were not of double heart. And of Naphtali a 34 
thousand ' captains, and with them with shield and spear 
thirty and seven thousand. And of the Danites expert in 35 
war twenty and eight thousand and six hundred. And of 36 
Asher, such as went forth to battle, expert in war, forty 
thousand. And on the other side of Jordan, of the Reuben- 37 
ites, and the Gadites, and of the half tribe of Manasseh, 
with all manner of instruments of war for the battle, an 
hundred and twenty thousand. All these men of war, that 38 
could keep rank, came with a perfect heart to Hebron, to 
make David king over all Israel : and all the rest also of 
Israel were of one heart to make David king. And there 39 
they were with David three days, eating and drinking : for 
their brethren had prepared for them. Moreover they that 40 
were nigh them, even unto Issachar and Zebulun and Naph- 
tali, brought bread on asses, and on camels, and on mules, 
and on oxen, a?id meat, meal, cakes of figs, and bunches 
of raisins, and wine, and oil, and oxen, and sheep abun- 
dantly : for there was joy in Israel. 

exclude mere lads (such as David appeared to be, i Sam. xvii. 33) who 
might be in attendance on the warriors. 

which could keep rank: they were not of double heart] R.V. that 
could order the battle array and were not of double heart ; i.e. who 
moved as one man in battle array; cp. ver. 8, note on shield and 
buckler. For "of double heart" cp. 2 Chr. xxx. i?, "one heart." 

35. expert in war] R.V. that could set the battle in array ; cp. ver. 33. 

36. went forth to battle, expert in war] R.V. were able to go out in 
the host, that could set the battle in array; cp. ver. 33. 

37. an hundred and twenty thousand] Evidently a round number, 
giving 40,000 to each tribe; cp. ver. 36. 

38. men of war, that could keep rank] R.V. being men of war, that 
could order the battle array. 

with a perfect heart] i.e. with whole, undivided heart. 

39. eating and drinking] The feasting probably began with the 
sacrificial meal with which a covenant was usually ratified; cp. Gen. 
xxxi. 46, 54. 

40. they that were nigh unto them] The relatives of the assembled 
warriors cared for their needs. 

even tmto Issachar] R.V. even as far as Issachar. Even those warriors 
who came from the northern districts were provisioned by their kinsfolk. 

and meat, meal] R.V. victual of meal. 

bunches of raisins] R.V. clusters of raisins; as i Sam. xxv. 18; 
xxx. 12; cp. 2 Sam. xvi. r. 

74 I. CHRONICLES, XIII. [vv. i, 2. 

13 And David consulted with the captains of thousands and 
2 hundreds, and with every leader. And David said unto 
all the congregation of Israel, If it seem good unto you, 
and that it be of the Lord our God, let us send abroad 
unto our brethren every where, that are left in all the land 
of Israel, and with them also to the priests and Levites 

Ch. XIII. 1 — 14 ( = 2 Sam. vi. i — 11). Removal of the Ark 


Death of Uzzah. 

The connexion of the removal of the ark with the preceding events is 
more clearly seen in the account given in Samuel. David captures the 
stronghold of Zion from the Jebusites (2 Sam. v. 7), makes it his 
capital {ib. ver. 9), builds himself a palace there {ib. ver. 11), increases 
his state by taking more wives {ib. ver. 13), beats off the Philistines, 
who attack him through fear of his growing power (ib. w. 17 — 25), and 
then in an interval of rest seeks to obtain religious sanction for his new 
capital by bringing the ark into it [ib. vi. i — 19). 

It is to be noticed that the Chronicler believes the Tabernacle 
{Mishkan) of the Lord (Ex. xxxv. — xl.) "which Moses made in the 
wilderness" (r Chr. xxi. 29) to be in existence in David's day and to be 
standing at Gibeon (xvi. 39). Yet when the ark was taken into the 
city of David it was placed, not in the Mishkan, but "in the tent 
{Okel) which David pitched for it" {ib. ver. 1=2 Sam. vi. 17). Thus 
in Chron. the two holy things, the ark and the Tabernacle, are repre- 
sented as separated, and a separate daily service is connected with each; 
Asaph and his brethren minister before the ark in the city of David 
(1 Chr. xvi. 37), and Zadok and his brethren before the Tabernacle at 
Gibeon {ib. ver. 39). Nothing however is said of this in Sam., and it is 
more probable that Moses' Tabernacle was destroyed before David's day, 
perhaps at the time of the death of Eli and his sons (cp. Ps. Ixxviii. 
60). The passage i Kin. viii. 4, which asserts that the "tabernacle 
of the congregation" {tent of meeting, R.V.) was "brought up by the 
Levites" with the ark at the dedication of Solomon's Temple, is pro- 
bably an interpolation, for neither the tent of meeting nor the Levites are 
mentioned elsewhere in Kings. 

1. David consulted with the captains, etc.] The Chronicler is fond 
of associating the people with the king in religious measures so as to 
minimise the appearance of arbitrary power which is suggested by the 
language of the books of Samuel and of Kings; cp. ver. 4 {the assembly 
said that they would do so), also 2 Chr, xxx. 2, 4. Similarly in xxviii. 2 
the king addresses the elders as My brethren. Doubtless the Chronicler 
had in mind Deut. xvii. 20. 

2. let us send abroad'] The Heb. phrase is peculiar ; let tis send 
abroad widely, let the invitation be no liviited one! 

all the land of Israel] R.V. mg. lands; cp. 2 Chr. xi.23; xv. 5; xxxiv.33. 
the priests and Levites] In Samuel no mention of the Levites is 
made in the account of the removal of the ark. 

vv. 3—8.] I. CHRONICLES, XIII. 75 

which are in their cities and suburbs, that they may gather 
themselves unto us : and let us bring again the ark of our 3 
God to us : for we inquired not at it in the days of Saul. 
And all the congregation said that they would do so : for 4 
the thing was right in the eyes of all the people. So David 5 
gathered all Israel together, from Shihor of Egypt even 
unto the entering of Hemath, to bring the ark of God from 
Kirjath-jearim. And David went up, and all Israel, to 6 
Baalah, that is, to Kirjath-jearim, which belo7iged to Judah, 
to bring up thence the ark of God the Lord, that dwelleth 
between the cherubims, whose name is called on it. And ^ 
they carried the ark of God in a new cart out of the house 
of Abinadab : and Uzza and Ahio drave the cart. And 8 

in their cities and subiirbs] R.V. mg. in their cities that have 
pasture-lands. It is laid down in the Hexateuch that cities are to be 
assigned to the Levites with "suburbs for their cattle and for their 
substance, and for all their beasts." (Num. xxxv. 1 — 7; cp. Josh. xiv. 
4 ; xxi. 2). 

3. we inquired not at zV] R.V. we sought not unto it. The meaning 
of the Heb. verb is to seek with care, to care for. 

5. fro77i Shihor of Egypt'\ R.V. from SMhor the brook of Egypt. 
Shihor (spelt elsewhere wrongly in A.V., Sihor) was the name of the 
brook (now wady el Arish) which divided Palestine from Egypt (Josh. 
xiii. 3; XV. 4; Jer. ii. 18). 

the entering of Hemath'] R.V. the entering in of Hamath. Hainath 
(now Hama) is on the Orontes. The entering in of Hamath is to be 
identified with the Beka'a, a broad valley between Lebanon and Anti- 
Libanus Avatered by the Orontes {Bddeker, pp. 305, 376). It is 
mentioned as on the northern frontier of Israel in Josh. xiii. 5 and 

6. to Baalah, that is, to Kiria,th-jea7'im'\ Cp. Josh. xv. 9 ; in Josh. xv. 
60 Kiriath-baal. Its site has not been certainly identified; cp. Kirk- 
patrick's note on 1 Sam. vi. 2. 

that dwelleth between the cherubims'\ R.V. that sitteth upon the 
cherubim; cp. Ezek. i. 26. 

whose name is called on it] R.V. which is called by the Name; 
the God whose is the ark is here distinguished from the gods of the 
nations as the God who bears the ineffable Name. 

7. a nezv cart] A new cart was chosen as one which had not been 
profaned by common work. So (Judg. xvi. 11, 12) new ropes "where- 
with no work hath been done" were used in the attempt to bind the 
consecrated man, Samson. So also (Mark xi. 2, 7) our Lord rode into 
Jerusalem on a colt "whereon no man ever yet sat." 

the house of Abinadab] Here the ark had been for at least twenty 
years under the charge of a man sanctified to keep it (i Sam. vii. i, 2). 

76 I. CHRONICLES, XIII. [w. 9— 13. 

David and all Israel played before God with all their might, 
and with singing, and with harps, and with psalteries, and 
9 with timbrels, and with cymbals, and with trumpets. And 
when they came unto the threshingfloor of Chidon, Uzza 
put forth his hand to hold the ark ; for the oxen stumbled. 

10 And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Uzza, and 
he smote him, because he put his hand to the ark : and 

11 there he died before God. And David was displeased, 
because the Lord had made a breach upon Uzza: where- 

12 fore that place is called Perez-uzza to this day. And 
David was afraid of God that day, saying. How shall I 

13 bring the ark of God ho7ne to me ? So David brought 
not the ark ho7ne to himself to the city of David, but 
carried it aside into the house of Obed-edom the Gittite. 

8. played'\ The Heb. word means to sport, to dance (cp. xv. 29). 
with all their might, and with singing] A better reading than that of 

2 Sam. vi. 5, with all manner ^instruments made oifir wood. 

and with sitiging\ R. V. even witli songs. 

psalteriesi The instrument here meant (Heb. nebhel) "is generally 
identified at the present day with an instrument called the santir still in 
use among the Arabs. This consists of a long box with a flat bottom 
covered with a somewhat convex sounding-board over which the strings 
are stretched." (Nowack, Hebrdische Archdologie, I. 275.) The "harp" 
(Heb. kinnor) was a simpler instrument, a lyre rather than a true harp. 

For a full discussion of nebhel and kinnor see Driver, Amos, p. 234. 

9. the threshi7igfloor of Chidon] LXX. (B) omits of Chidon. In 
2 Sam. vi. 6, Macon's threshing-floor. 

to hold the ark] The Chronicler from a feeling of reverence shrinks 
from saying, and took hold of it (2 Sam. vi. 6). 

stumbled] R.V. mg. threw it down, but the meaning is perhaps 
rather, let it go, i.e. let the cart on which the ark was slip backwards. 
The same Heb. word is used 2 Kin. ix. 33 ; there Jehu in his mocking 
humour says not, Throtv her dozvn, but, Let her go, an ambiguous 
command meant to throw as much responsibility as possible upon those 
who obeyed it. 

10. before God] In 2 Sam. vi. 7, by the ark of God. 

11. was displeased] Rather, was wroth, presumably against his 
advisers for not warning him that the method adopted for the removal 
of the ark was wrong; cp. xv. 13. 

had 7tiade a breach] R.V. had broken forth; cp. Ex. xix. 22. 

13. David brought not] R.V. David removed not. 

Obed-edom the Gittite] As Gittite means man of Galh, Obed-edom 
was doubtless of Philistine origin; perhaps he attached himself to 
David during David's sojourn among the Philistines. In xv. 18, 24; 
xvi. 38 an Obed-edom is mentioned who was a Levite and a porter 

vv. i4;i— 3-J I- CHRONICLES, XIIl. XIV. ^^ 

And the ark of God remained with the family of Obed- 14 
edom in his house three months. And the Lord blessed 
the house of Obed-edom, and all that he had. 

Now Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and 14 
timber of cedars, with masons and carpenters, to build him 
a house. And David perceived that the Lord had con- 2 
firmed him king over Israel, for his kingdom was lift up 
on high, because of his people Israel. 

And David took m(Je wives at Jerusalem : and David 3 ; 

(doorkeeper) for the ark, but the Chronicler does not identify him with 
the Gittite of the same name. 

14. with the family of Obed-edom in his house'] Render, by (i.e. 
near) the house of Obed-edom in its own house. The Chronicler 
(regarding Obed-edom as a foreigner if not also an idolater) qualifies the 
expression found in 2 Sam. vi. 11, *'in the house of Obed-edom the 

blessed] Targ. blessed 7uith sons and sons' sons. The household, 
father, sons and grandsons amounted to 81 persons according to the 

Ch. XIV. ( = 2 Sam. v. 11—25). David at Jerusalem. Two 
Philistine Attacks repulsed. 

The Chronicler derives this ch. from Samuel but gives it in a setting 
of his own. To agree w^ith Samuel it should immediately follow i Chr. 
xi. 9 and should immediately precede i Chr. xiii. i. In Samuel the two 
attempts to remove the ark to the city of David, the first unsuccessful, 
the second successful, are related in immediate succession ; the Chronicler 
interposes between them the double repulse of the Philistines, 

1, 2. Hiram's [first] Embassy to David. 
The dislocation of the narrative mentioned in the last note has 
concealed the occasion of Hiram's embassy. The narrative of 2 Sam. v. 
9 — II suggests that Hiram heard of the building works which David 
was carrying on at Jerusalem and so sent materials and workmen to 
assist. David accepted the welcome offer (which ultimately led to an 
alliance) as a sign of Divine favour. 

1. Hiram'] Other forms of this name are Huram and (i Kin. v. 
10, 18) Hirom. 

2. confirmed him king... was lift up... because of his people Isi-aeT] 
R.V. established him king. ..was exalted. ..for his people Israel's 
sake (cp. 2 Sam. v. 12). 

3 — 7 ( = iii. 5 — 8 and 2 Sam. v. 13 — 16). David's Family 
IN Jerusalem. 

3. moe wives] In 2 Sam. v. 13 more concubines and ivives. The 
Chronicler is inclined to omit or modify statements which tend to 
David's discredit. moe=more. 

78 I. CHRONICLES, XIV. [vv. 4— ii. 

i\ 4 begat mae sons and daughters. Now these are the names 

of his children which he had in Jerusalem ; Shammua, and 

5 Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon, and Ibhar, and Elishua, 

6, 7 and Elpalet, and Nogah, and Nepheg, and Japhia, and 

Elishama, and Beeliada, and Eliphalet. 

8 And when the Philistines heard that David was anointed 
king over all Israel, all the Philistines went up to seek 
David. And David heard of it^ and went out against them. 

9 And the Philistines came and spread themselves in the 

10 valley of Rephaim. And David inquired of God, saying. 
Shall I go up against the Philistines ? and wilt thou deliver 
them into mine hand? And the Lord said unto him, Go 

1 1 up ; for I will deliver them into thine hand. So they came 
up to Baal-perazim ; and David smote them there. Then 
David said, God hath broken in upon mine enemies by 
mine hand like the breaking forth of waters • therefore they 

4. these are the names] The names seem better preserved here than 
in either of the parallel passages; cp. notes on iii. 5 — 8. 

Shammua... Solomoii] All these four are attributed to Bathshua 
( = Bath-sheba) in iii. 5. 

8 — 17 ( = 2 Sam. v. 17 — 25). The Double Repulse of the 

8. over ail Israel] in 2 Sam. v. 17, over Israel. In both passages 
the reference is no doubt to the later anointing by the whole people 
(2 Sam. V. 3). 

all the Philistines'] The Philistines were thoroughly alarmed at 
finding all Israel reunited under a king of David's prowess, and so 
invaded Judah in force. 

went 2ip] i.e. from their own low-lying territory by the sea into the 
hill-country of Judah. 

went out against the^n] R.V. mg. went out before them, i.e. 
anticipated them, did not wait for them to attack him. In 2 Sam. v. 17 
a different expression is used, went down to the hold, i.e. into some part 
of the difficult hill-country of Judah in which he had long defied Saul. 

9. spread themselves] R.V. made a raid. In fact both renderings 
are right; the Philistines scattered themselves in search of spoil. 

the valley of Rephaim] to be identified probably with the shallow 
valley, now called Beka'a, across which runs the road from Jerusalem 
to Beth-lehem {Bddeker, p. 120). 

10. hiquired of God] probably by means of Urim and Thummim. 
Cp. Kirkpatrick's notes on r Sam. x. 22 ; xxiii. 6. 

11. Baal-perazit?i] probably to be identified with the Mount Perazim 
of Is. xxviii. 21, but the situation is unknown. 

like the breaking forth of waters] R,V. like tlje breach of waters, i.e. 

vv. 12—15.] I- CHRONICLES, XIV. 79 

called the name of that place Baal-perazim. And when 12 
they had left their gods there, David gave a commandment, 
and they were burnt with fire. And the Philistines yet 13 
again spread themselves abroad in the valley. Therefore 14 
David inquired again of God ; and God said unto him, 
Go not up after them; turn away from them, and come 
upon them over against the mulberry trees. And it shall 15 
be, when thou shalt hear a sound of going in the tops of 
the mulberry trees, that then thou shalt go out to battle: 

like the breach made by w'^aters. Probably the scene of the victory was 
a hill deeply scarred with water-courses. The force with which God 
broke through the army of the Philistines is compared with that of a 
torrent breaking its way through all obstacles. Baal-perazim ■=\\\& place 
of breakings forth (R.V. mg.). 

12. And what they had left their gods there, David etc.] R.V. And 
they left their gods there ; and David etc. 

David gave a commafidment, and they were burnt^ In 2 Sam. v. 21 
(R.V.) David and his men took them away. The Law (Deut. vii. 5, 25) 
enjoined that graven images M^ere to be burnt with fire. 

13. yet again'\ This invasion of "all the Philistines" (ver. 8) was 
too serious to be repelled by a single defeat. 

spread themselves ab7-oad] R.V. made a raid (as ver. g). 
in the valley^ in 2 Sam. v. 22, in the valley of Rephai77U 

14. Therefore David] R.V. And David. 
Go not up] R.V. Thou shalt not go up. 

Go not up after them] In 2 Sam. v. 23 the words after them are 
connected with the following verb : Thou shalt not go up: make a circuit 
behind them. In Samuel the command is to assail the rear of the enemy, 
in Chronicles to avoid the rear (which was perhaps protected by a rear- 
guard) and to attack (presumably) the flank. The reading in Chronicles 
is to be preferred as a harder reading, which yields good sense on exami- 

frofn them] The Heb. word suggests that David occupied a com- 
manding position from which he would be tempted to attack. 

over against the balsam trees] Render, along, parallel to. The 
line of David's attack is to be parallel to a line of balsam trees (or to a 
ridge on which balsam trees sto6d) situate probably at right angles to 
the line of the Philistine march. Thus David's advance would be 
concealed from the Philistines until the very moment of the attack, 
which would fall on the flank of the Philistine march. 

mulberry trees] R.V. mg. balsam trees. Some kind of tree or shrub 
from which gum exudes seems to be meant. 

15. a sound of going] R.V. the sound of marching. Targ. the somid 
of angels coming to thy help. LXX. the sound of shaking. 

thou shalt go out to battle] Samuel has a more vivid phrase, thou 
shalt bestir thyself. 

8o I. CHRONICLES, XIV. XV. [vv. i6, 17; i— 5. 

for God is gone forth before thee to smite the host of the 

16 Philistines. David therefore did as God commanded him : 
and they smote the host of the Philistines from Gibeon 

17 even to Gazer. And the fame of David went out into all 
lands; and the Lord brought the fear of him upon all 

15 And David made him houses in the city of David, and 
prepared a place for the ark of God, and pitched for it a 

2 tent. Then David said, None ought to carry the ark of 
God but the Levites : for them hath the Lord chosen to 
carry the ark of God, and to minister unto him for ever. 

3 And David gathered all Israel together to Jerusalem, to 
bring up the ark of the Lord unto his place, which he had 

4 prepared for it. And David assembled the children of 

5 Aaron, and the Levites : of the sons of Kohath ; Uriel the 

smote the host of the Philistines from Gibeon eveti to Gazer] This 
victory was decisive ; the main army of the Philistines was routed. 
Gazer] R.V. Gezer. Cp. vi. 67, note. 

Ch. XV. 1 — 24. David's Preparations for Bringing Home 

THE Ark. 

There is no parallel in Samuel to this section; on the other hand 
Chronicles omits the reason given in 2 Sam. vi. 12 for the renewal of 
David's attempt to bring home the ark, viz., that David heard of the 
blessing which had befallen Obed-edom, in whose house the ark had 
been left. 

1. made him houses] Cp. 2 Sam. v. 9. 

a tent] a new tent, not the old tabernacle (xvi. 39). Cp. the pre- 
fatory note to ch. xiii. 

2. None... but the Levites] Num. i. 50; vii. 9. Nothing is said in 
the parallel place (2 Sam. vi. 13) of the Levites, but bearers (and not a 
cart) are spoken of with regard to this second attempt. Cp. 2 Chr. v. 4, 

3. ^a^//<?;r(^/«///s-r<z^//^^^//^ifr] R.V. assembled all Israel. It was a 
solemn religious assembly (Heb. Qahdl, Greek eKKX-qaia). 

his place] RV. its place, his being the obsolete genitive of ?V. 

5. the sons of Kohath: Uriel] Kohath had four sons (Ex. vi. i8 = 
I Chr. vi. 18) Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. Here the de- 
scendants of Amram (exclusive of the priests, the Aaronites) repre- 
sented by Uriel head the list (ver. 5), and the descendants of Izhar, 
Hebron, and Uzziel appear in vv. 8, 9, 10 respectively. Elizaphan 
(ver. 8), either stands for the Izhar of Ex. vi. 18, or is the name of some 
prominent descendant of Izhar after whom the whole family was named. 
As regards number the Kohathites were 512 against 350 of the sons of 
Meiari and the sons of Gershom combined. In vi. 60 — 63 (45 — 48 

vv. 6— 14.] I. CHRONICLES, XV. 8i 

chief, and his brethren an hundred and twenty : of the sons 6 
of Merari ; Asaiah the chief, and his brethren two hundred 
and twenty : of the sons of Gershom ; Joel the chief, and ^ 
his brethren an hundred and thirty : of the sons of Eli- 8 
zaphan ; Shemaiah the chief, and his brethren two hundred : 
of the sons of Hebron ; Eliel the chief, and his brethren 9 
fourscore : of the sons of Uzziel ; Amminadab the chief, 10 
and his brethren an hundred and twelve. 

And David called for Zadok and Abiathar the priests, n 
and for the Levites, for Uriel, Asaiah, and Joel, Shemaiah, 
and Eliel, and Amminadab, and said unto them, Ye ate 12 
the chief of the fathers of the Levites : sanctify yourselves, 
both ye and your brethren, that you may bring up the ark 
of the Lord God of Israel unto the place that I have 
prepared for it. For because ye did it not at the first, 13 
the Lord our God made a breach upon us, for that we 
sought him not after the due order. So the priests and the 14 
Levites sanctified themselves to bring up the ark of the 

Heb. division) 23 cities are reckoned to Kohath against 25 to Merari 
and Gershom combined. The Kohathites formed the largest and most 
important of the three divisions of the Levites. 

11. Zadok and Abiathar] This double priesthood (2 Sam, viii. 17; 
XV. 29, 35; xix. 11; XX. 25) came to an end in the reign of Solomon 
(i Kin. ii. 27, 35). Zadok is always mentioned first as being descended 
from Eleazar the third son of Aaron, while Ithamar from whom A- 
biathar (Ahimelech) was descended through Eli (i Kin. ii. 27) was the 
fourth son (xxiv. 1, 3). In two of the passages quoted in this note 
Abiathar (probably being confused with his father) is called Ahimelech 
ox Abimelech (2 Sam. viii. 17=1 Chr. xviii. 16; i Chr. xxiv. 3). Con- 
versely in Mark ii. 26 Ahimelech is called Abiathar. In the Chronicler's 
list of highpriests (vi. 4 — 14) Zadok alone is mentioned, the line of 
Eleazar alone being given. Cp. Kirkpatrick on 2 Sam. vi. (Prefatory 
Note); and on ib. viii. 17. 

the priests] Only the two chief priests are mentioned here. Other 
priests blew with the trumpets in front of the ark (ver. 24). 

12. the chief of the fathers of the Levites] R.V. the heads of the 
fathers' houses of the Levites. 

sanctfy yourselves] Cp. 2 Chr. xxix. 5. For the method of sanctify- 
ing cp. Ex. xix. 10, 15. 

13. ye did it not] R.V. ye bare it not. 

made a breach] xiii. 11 (cp. R.V.); xiv. 11 (cp. R.V. mg.). 

we sought him not] Render, we sought not unto it. Cp. note on 
xiii. 3. 

after the due order] R.V. according to the ordinance. Cp. ver. 15 
for the observance of the ordinance. 


82 I. CHRONICLES, XV. [w. 15—21. 

15 Lord God of Israel. And the children of the Levites bare 
the ark of God upon their shoulders with the staves there- 
on, as Moses commanded according to the word of the 

16 Lord. And David spake to the chief of the Levites to 
appoint their brethren to be the singers with instruments 
of musick, psalteries and harps and cymbals, sounding, by 

17 lifting up the voice with joy. So the Levites appointed 
Heman the son of Joel ; and of his brethren, Asaph the 
son of Berechiah ; and of the sons of Merari their brethren, 

t8 Ethan the son of Kushaiah ; and with them their brethren 
of the second degree, Zechariah, Ben, and Jaaziel, and 
Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Unni, EHab, and Benaiah, 
and Maaseiah, and Mattithiah, and Elipheleh, and Mik- 

19 neiah, and Obed-edom, and Jeiel, the porters. So the 
singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, were appointed to sound 

20 with cymbals of brass ; and Zechariah, and Aziel, and 
Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Unni, and Eliab, and 

21 Maaseiah, and Benaiah, with psalteries on Alamoth ; and 
Mattithiah, and Elipheleh, and Mikneiah, and Obed-edom, 

16. the Levites bare... upon their shoulders] Num. i. 50; vii. 9. 
the staves'] Ex. xxv. 13, 14. 

16. psalteries] See note on xiii. 8. 

sounding, by lifting up] R.V. sounding- aloud and lifting up. So 
ver. 19 ; xvi. 42. 

17. Hefuan the son of Joel] a descendant of Samuel the prophet ; 
vi. 33 (vi. 18, Heb,). Cp. Ps. Ixxxviii. (title). As Heman was descended 
from Kohath, Asaph from Gershom, and Ethan from Merari, each 
division of the Levites was represented by a chief musician. Heman 
was king's seer (xxv. 5). 

Asaph the son of Berechiah] a descendant of Gershom; vi. 39 — 43 
(24 — 28, Heb.). Asaph was the chief of the musicians; xvi. 5, 7. One 
of the small collections of Psalms from which our Psalter was compiled 
was named after him ; cp. the titles of Pss. 1., Ixxiii. — Ixxxiii. 

Ethan the son of Kushaiah] a descendant of Merari ; vi. 44 — 47. 
Cp. Ps. Ixxxix. (title). He is apparently called Jeduthtcn in xxv. 
I — 6. 

18. their brethren] The names of these are repeated in vv. 20, 21, 
where they are distributed according to musical instruments. 

Be7i] This word, which means "son," seems to have slipped in by 

the porters] R.V. the doorkeepers, the Heb. word being the same as 
in vv. 23, 24. See the notes on ix. 17. 

19. to sotcnd] R.V. to sound aloud. 

20. on Alamoth] R.V. set to Alamoth ; cp. Ps. xlvi. (title) R.V. 

vv. 22—27.] I. CHRONICLES, XV. 83 

and Jeiel, and Azaziah, with harps on the Sheminith to 
excel. And Chenaniah, chief of the Levites, was for song : 22 
he instructed about the song, because he was skilful. And 23 
Berechiah and Elkanah were door-keepers for the ark. 
And Shebaniah, and Jehoshaphat, and Nethaneel, and 24 
Amasai, and Zechariah, and Benaiah, and Eliezer, the 
priests, did blow with the trumpets before the ark of God : 
and Obed-edom and Jehiah were door-keepers for the ark. 

So David, and the elders of Israel, and the captains over 25 
thousands, went to bring up the ark of the covenant of the 
Lord out of the house of Obed-edom with joy. And it 26 
came to pass, when God helped the Levites that bare the 
ark of the covenant of the Lord, that they offered seven 
bullocks and seven rams. And David was clothed with 27 

21. Azaziah'\ a name not found in ver. 18. 

on the Shemmith to excel^ R.V. set to the Sheminitli to lead. Cp. 
Ps. vi. (title, R.V. mg.). 

22. was for song] The Heb. word (massa) used here twice for 
*'song" (lit. "burden") means sometimes "burden" in a physical 
sense ; hence R.V. mg. was over the carrying of the ark. 

23. were door-keepers for the ark] The same statement is made in 
ver. 24 concerning Obed-edom and Jehiah. 

24. the priests] In Num. x. r — 10 it is enjoined to make two silver 
trumpets to be blown by the priests on days of joy and on feast-days. 
This festal trumpet was different from the "cornet" (ver. 28), properly 
a ram's horn, which was freely used for secular purposes. See Driver, 
Amos, p. 144 ff. (with illustrations). 

25 — XVI. 3 (=2 Sam. vi. 12 — 20). The Bringing Home of the 
Ark. Michal despises David. 

25. 26. So David, and the elders .. .went .. .And it catne to pass. ..that 
they etc.] Render, And it came to pass that David and the elders... 
who went to bring up the ark..., It came even to pass when the Lord 
helped the Levites... that they (i.e. David and the elders) offered seven 
bullocks and seven rams. The phrase, it came to pass (ver. 25) is 
repeated in ver. 26 because of the length of the parenthesis which 
separates it from the words, that they offered, which complete the 
construction. The awkwardness of the whole sentence arises from the 
fact that the Chronicler has filled out the briefer statement of 2 Sam. 

vi. 13- 

26. %vhen God helped the Levites] In 2 Sam. vi. 13, when they that 
bare the ark of the Lord had gone six paces. The Chronicler interprets 
the safe start as a sign of Divine a.-!.sistance. 

seven bullocks and seven rams] In Sam. an ox and a falling (so R.V., 
not, oxen atid fallings as A.V.). The smaller sacrifice of Samuel is 

84 I. CHRONICLES, XV. XVI. [vv.28,29; 1—3. 

a robe of fine linen, and all the Levites that bare the ark, 
and the singers, and Chenaniah the master of the song 
with the singers : David also had upon him an ephod of 

23 linen. Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant 
of the Lord with shouting, and with sound of the cornet, 
and with trumpets, and with cymbals, making a noise with 

29 psalteries and harps. And it came to pass, as the ark of 
the covenant of the Lord came to the city of David, that 
Michal the daughter of Saul looking out at a window saw 
king David dancing and playing : and she despised him in 
16 her heart. So they brought the ark of God, and set it in 
the midst of the tent that David had pitched for it : and 
they offered burnt sacrifices and peace offerings before God. 

2 And when David had made an end of offering the burnt 
offerings and the peace offerings, he blessed the people 

3 in the name of the Lord. And he dealt to every one 

represented as the king's own offering, the larger sacrifice of Chron. as 
that of the king and his elders combined. 

27. the master of the song\ R.V. mg., the master- of the carrying of 
the ark. Cp. ver 22, note. 

an ephod of linen'] A linen ephod was the ordinary vestment for all 
priests (i Sam. xxii. 18). The highpriest's ephod was a more elaborate 
garment (Ex. xxviii. 6 — 12), fitted with the means of divination (i Sam. 
xxiii. 6, 9 — 12). 

28. with shouting] The Heb. word {teril^ah) is technical in the 
sense of a blast with the festal trumpets (Num. x. i — 10), and in this 
sense it should be taken here, since the Chronicler has expanded the 
account given in Samuel by introducing a mention of these trumpets. 

29. looking out at a window saw] R.V. looked out at the window 
and saw. 

playing] a synonym of dancing, obsolete in modern English. The 
closest rendering is perhaps, leaping as in sport. The unrestrained 
joyousness of this action might easily degenerate (as in idolatrous 
worship) into licence. The Chronicler omits to say that the dancing 
was "before the Lord" (2 Sam. vi. 16). David's subsequent interview 
with Michal {ib. vv. 20 — 23) is also passed over in Chron. 

Ch. XVL 

1. the tent] Cp. xv. i, note. 

they offered] In 2 Sam. vi. 17, David offered. The Chronicler as- 
sociates the elders with David as in xv. 26. 

burnt sacrifices] R.V. burnt offeringB (as ver. 2). Cp. Lev. i. i — 9. 

peace offerings] The "peace offering" (Heb. shelem) was a thank- 
ofTering or an offering made in expiation of a vow; cp. Prov. vii. 14. 

2. blessed the people] Cp. 2 Chr. vi. 3. 

vv. 4—9.] I. CHRONICLES, XVI. 85 

of Israel, both man and woman, to every one a loaf of 
bread, and a good piece of Jlesh, and a flagon of wine. 
And he appointed certain of the Levites to minister before 4 
the ark of the Lord, and to record, and to thank and praise 
the Lord God of Israel : Asaph the chief, and next to 5 
him Zechariah, Jeiel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and 
Mattithiah, and Eliab, and Benaiah, and Obed-edom : and 
Jeiel with psalteries and with harps ; but Asaph made a 
sound with cymbals ; Benaiah also and Jahaziel the priests 6 
with trumpets continually before the ark of the covenant 
of God. 

Then on that day David delivered first this psalm to 7 
thank the Lord into the hand of Asaph and his brethren. 

Give thanks unto the Lord, call upon his name, 8 

Make known his deeds among the people. 

Sing unto him, sing psalms unto him, 9 

3. a loaf of bread] A flat round cake such as is still made in Egypt 
is meant. 

a good piece of flesh] R.V. a portion of flesh (mg. "of wine"). The 
meaning of the Heb. word is unknown. Of flesh is rightly in italics 
here as in 2 Sam. vi. 19. 

a flagon of wine] R.V. a cake of raisins. Cp. Is. xvi. 7 (R.V.) 
where the same Heb. word is used. 

4 — 6 (cp. w. 37, 38). David's Arrangements for Ministration 


4. to record] R.V. to celebrate. The literal meaning is to call to 
mind; cp. ver. 12 {remember). Cp. Pss. xxxviii., Ixx. (titles). 

5. Asaph] Cp. XV. 17, note. 

but Asaph made a sound xvith cymbals] R.V. and Asaph with C3mibals, 
sounding aloud. Cp. xv. 16, 19. 

6. Benaiah also and fahaziel] Two priests for the two trumpets. 
Benaiah] In xxvii. 5, 6 a Benaiah son of Jehoiada the priest (R.V.) 

is mentioned who is identified with the Benaiah who was one of the 
thirty heroes (xi. 24, 25). Cp. also xii. 27. 

7 — 36. The Psalm of Praise. 

7. David delivered first this psalm to thank the LoRD into the hand 
etc.] R.V. did David first ordain to give thanks unto the LORD, by the 
hand etc. The psalm which follows consists of Pss. cv. i — 15, xcvi. 
I b—iia, cvi. I, 47, 48. 

8—22 (=Ps. cv. I — 15). 

8. his deeds among the people] RV. his doings among the peoples. 

9. sing psabns] R.V. sing" praises. 

86 I. CHRONICLES, XVI. [vv. 10—19. 

Talk you of all his wondrous works. 

10 Glory ye in his holy name : 

Let the heart of them rejoice that seek the Lord. 

11 Seek the Lord and his strength, 
Seek his face continually. 

12 Remember his marvellous works that he hath done, 
His wonders, and the judgments of his mouth ; 

13 O ye seed of Israel his servant, 

Ye children of Jacob, his chosen ones. 

14 He is the Lord our God ; 

His judgments are in all the earth. 

15 Be ye mindful always of his covenant ; 

The word which he commanded to a thousand genera- 
tions ; 

16 Even of the covenant which he made with Abraham, 
And of his oath unto Isaac ; 

17 And hath confirmed the same to Jacob for a law, 
And to Israel ^r an everlasting covenant, 

18 Saying, Unto thee will I give the land of Canaan, 
The lot of your inheritance ; 

19 When ye were but few, 

talk you\ R.V. mg. Meditate ye. Meditation leads to fresh proclama- 

wondrous works] R.V. marvellous works (cp. ver. 12), i.e. works 
beyond man's expectation ; cp. Gen. xviii. 14, Is anything too hard 
[wonderful, R.V. mg.) for the LoRD? 

11. and his strength] Perhaps (altering the points only of the Heb. 
word) and be ye strong. So LXX. koX laxi<y^'^^ (in Ps. cv. 4 koL 
Acparaici^Tjre) . A promise is sometimes expressed in Heb. by the 

12. his wonders] i.e. the plagues of Egypt; Ps. cv. 27 — 36. 
of his mouth] Deut. iv. 33, 36. 

13. of Israel] Ps. cv. 6, of Abraham. 

14. His judge77ients are in all the earth] Cp. w. 10 — 11. 

15. Be ye mindftcl] Read (with Ps. cv. 8) He hatli remembered. 
Cp. Ex. xxiv. 3 — 8 ; xxxiv. 10 — 27. 

17. for a law] R.V. for a statute. The same Heb. word is trans- 
lated dec7'ee in Ps. ii. 7. 

18. the lot] The Heb. word ("hebel") means a portion not assigned 
by lot but measured by line; cp. R.V. mg. Canaan is co-extensive with 
Israel's inheritance. 

inheritance] All nations receive an inheritance from God; Deut. 
xxxii. 8. 

19. when ye were] Ps. cv. 12, when they ivere. 

vv. 20—27.] I- CHRONICLES, XVJ. 87 

Even a few, and strangers in it. 

And whe7i they went from nation to nation, 20 

And from otie kingdom to another people j 

He suffered no man to do them wrong : 21 

Yea, he reproved kings for their sakes, 

Sayings Touch not mine anointed, 22 

And do my prophets no harm. 

Sing unto the Lord, all the earth ; 23 

Shew forth from day to day his salvation. 

Declare his glory among the heathen ; 24 

His marvellous works among all nations. 

For great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised : 25 

He also is to be feared above all gods. 

For all the gods of the people are idols : 26 

But the Lord made the heavens. 

Glory and honour are in his presence ; 27 

Strength and gladness are in his place. 

strangers] R.V. sojourners. The patriarchs were not simply 
strangers^ but strangers who made a long sojourn in Canaan. 

20. kingdom... people] The "kingdom" is Egypt (Gen. xii.); the 
"people" the Canaanite and Perizzite (Gen. xiii.). 

21. he reproved kings] Gen. xx. 3 — 7. 

22. mine anointed] R.V. mine anointed ones ; LXX. tCov xp^arwv 


my prophets] Gen. xx. 7. 

23—33 ( = Ps. xcvi. 1 — 13). 

23. Sing unto the Lord] In Ps. xcvi. i, 2 this burden is thrice 
repeated ; in Chron. it is once given. Note that 23 b corresponds with 
2 b of the Ps. 

24. the heathen .. .all nations] R.V. the nations... all the peoples. 

25. to be feared above all gods] i.e. to be feared as being above all 
"that are called gods," these being "things of nought" (ver. 26, R.V. 
mg.). The real existence of false gods is not assumed. 

26. the people] R.V. the peoples. 

made the heavens] Cp. Jer. x. ii, The gods that have not made the 
heavens. . .shall perish from the earth. 

27. Glory and honour] R.V. Honour and majesty. 

are in his presence] R.V. are before him, i.e. are His, belong to Him 
as His attributes. Perhaps also before him refers to God's abode in 
heaven, while the parallel expression in his place (Ps. xcvi. 6, in his 
sanctuary) refers to His temple on earth. 

strength and gladness] Ps. xcvi. 6, strength and beauty. The refer- 
ence seems to be to the strength and gladness (or beauty) which God 
bestows on Israel (Ps. Ixviii. 35; Is. Ixi. 3). 

88 I. CHRONICLES, XVI. [vv. 28—34. 





28 Give unto the Lord, ye kindreds of the people, 
Give unto the Lord glory and strength. 
Give unto the Lord the glory due unto his name : 
Bring an offering, and come before him : 
Worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness. 
Fear before him, all the earth : 

The world also shall be stable, that it be not moved. 
Let the heavens be glad, and let the earth rejoice : 
And let men say among the nations. The Lord reigneth. 
Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof : 
Let the fields rejoice, and all that is therein. 

33 Then shall the trees of the wood sing out at the presence 

of the Lord, 
Because he cometh to judge the earth. 

34 O give thanks unto the Lord ; for he is good ; 
For his mercy endureth for ever. 

in his place] Read with Ps. xcvi. 6, in Ms sanctuary. Cp. the two 
preceding notes. 

28. ^ the people] R.V. Of the peoples. An expectation that the 
Gentiles will turn to the worship of the true God is expressed not rarely 
in the Psalms; cp. Pss. xxii. 27; Ixviii. 31, 32. 

29. before him] Ps. xcvi. 8, into his courts. 

worship the LoRD in the beauty of holiness] Render, "worship the 
LORD for the majesty of [his] holiness. God's beauty (majesty) is His 
holiness. To translate (as R.V. mg.) iti holy array, attributing the beauty 
of holiness to the worshipper is no doubt wrong; cp. 2 Chr. xx. 21. 

30. Fear] R.V. Tremble. 

the world also shall be stable, that it be not moved] In Ps. xcvi. i o this 
clause is preceded by the words, Say atnong the heathen that the Lord 
reigneth, and followed by the words, He shall Judge the people 

shall be stable] R.V. is established. 

31. and let men say] Ps. xcvi. 10, say [ye]. The clause is displaced 
in Chron.; cp. note on ver. 30. 

The Lord reigneth] i.e. the Lord is claiming His kingdom over the 
earth by coming to judge the earth; cp. ver. 33. Contrast Hab. i. 14, 
where the prophet complains that Jehovah is not asserting Himself as 
ruler of men. 

33. to Judge the earth] The joy with which the coming judgement is 
greeted arises from the fact that the Hebrews regarded a judge as a 
champion of the oppressed and not as a pedantic interpreter of statutes. 

34—36 ( = Ps. cvi. I, 47, 48). 

34. his mercy ewAuxeih. for ever] Cp. Ex. xx. 6, "shewing mercy 
unto a thousand generations of them that love me" (R.V. mg.). 

vv. 35—41.] I. CHRONICLES, XVI. 89 

And say ye, 35 

Save us, O God of our salvation, 

And gather us together, and deliver us from the heathen, 

That we may give thanks to thy holy name, 

And glory in thy praise. 

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel for ever and ever. 36 

And all the people said. Amen, and praised the Lord. 

So he left there before the ark of the covenant of the 37 
Lord Asaph and his brethren, to minister before the ark 
continually, as every day's work required : and Obed-edom 38 
with their brethren, threescore and eight; Obed-edom also 
the son of Jeduthun and Hosah to be porters : and Zadok 39 
the priest, and his brethren the priests, before the tabernacle 
of the Lord in the high place that was at Gibeon, to offer 40 
burnt offerings unto the Lord upon the altar of the burnt 
offering continually morning and evening, and to do accord- 
ing to all that is written in the law of the Lord, which he 
commanded Israel; and with them Heman and Jeduthun, 41 

35. gather us together] From this prayer one would judge that Ps. 
cvi. is not Davidic but post-exilic ; and such no doubt is the case. 

the heathen] R.V. the nations. 

that we may give thanks... Kn^ glory] R.V. to give thanks... And to 
triumph (as Ps. cvi. 47). 

36. said^ Amen, and praised the Lord] Render, said, Amen, and, 
Praise to the LORD ! 

37 — 43. The Service before the Ark and the Service 

AT Gibeon. 

As Zadok alone is mentioned in ver. 39 as "before the tabernacle," 
Abiathar (Ahimelech) the other highpriest may have been in charge of 
the ark. Cp. xv. 11, note. 

The Deuteronomic law that there should be one sanctuary only was 
not yet recognised even by kings of a religious reputation. In i Kin. 
iii. Solomon is said to have sacrificed at Gibeon (ver. 4) and before the 
ark at Jerusalem (ver. 15). 

38. Obed-edom with their brethren] Probably one or more names 
are missing after Obed-edom. LXX. however has koX ol ddeXcpol airoO, 
i.e. and his brethren. 

porters] R.V. doorkeepers. See the notes on ix. 17. 

39. the tabernacle of the Lord in the high place that was at Gibeon] 
See prefatory note to ch. xiii. 

40. the altar of the burnt offerifjg] 2 Chr. i. 5, 6. 
morning afid evening] Ex. xxix. 38, 39 ( = Num. xxviii. 3, 4). 

41. yeduthun] Pss. xxxix., Ixii., Ixxvii. (titles). In vi. 33 — 47; 
XV. 17, 19 the names of the leading singers are given as Heman, 

90 I. CHRONICLES, XVI. XVII. [vv.42,43; 1,2. 

and the rest that were chosen, who were expressed by 
name, to give thanks to the Lord, because his mercy 

42 endiireth for ever ; and with them Heman and Jeduthun 
with trumpets and cymbals for those that should make 
a sound, and with musical instruments of God. And the 

43 sons of Jeduthun were porters. And all the people de- 
parted every man to his house : and David returned to 
bless his house. 

17 Now it came to pass, as David sat in his house, that 

David said to Nathan the prophet, Lo, I dwell in a house 

of cedars, but the ark of the covenant of the Lord re- 

2 maineth under curtains. Then Nathan said unto David, 

Asaph and Ethaw, in xvi. 41; xxv. i ff. however Jeduthun seems to 
take the place of Ethan. Probably there was a variation in the 
tradition as to the third name, two families competing each for the 
honour of its own ancestor. 

to give thanks'] Cp. ver. 34. 

42. a?id with the?n etc.] The words with them are probably re- 
peated in error from ver. 41. Render, And Heman aiMi Jeduthun had 
trumpets and cymbals. For triwipets cp. xv. 24 (note). 

viake a sound, and with musical instruments of God] R.V. sound 
aloud, and with instruments for the songs of God; xxiii. 5; 2 Chr. 
vii. 6, xxix. 27 (all R.V.). 

sons of yedtiihtm] Cp. ver. 38. 

were porters'] R.V. to be at the gate. David's organisation of the 
doorkeepers is given in xxvi. i — 19. 

Ch. XVII. 1 — 27 ( = 2 Sam. vii. 1—29). God's Answer to David's 


This passage is a reproduction Mdth some omissions (cp. vv. i, 5, 12, 
13, 27) and variations (cp. vv. 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17, 18, 19, 23, 27) of 
2 Sam. vii. The text is generally smoother in Chron., and in some 
cases (e.g. in ver. 21) we cannot doubt that the Chronicler has emended 
the earlier text. Some variations given in the A.V. are not found in the 
Heb. text. Such variations are corrected in the R.V. 

1. as David sat] R.V. when David dwelt. 

in his ho-use] Samuel adds, and the Lord had given him rest round 
about fro/n all his enemies. The Chronicler omits these words probably 
because his next three chapters (xviii. — xx.) are devoted to wars (cp. 
2 Sam. viii. and x.). 

of cedars] R.V. of cedar (as Sam.). 

the ark of the covenant] So called because it contained the two tables 
of the covenant, \ Kin. viii. 9. 

remaineth] R.V. dwelleth (as Sam.). 

vv. 3— lo.] I. CHRONICLES, XVII. 91 

Do all that is in thine heart ; for God is with thee. And 3 
it came to pass the same night, that the word of God came 
to Nathan, saying. Go and tell David my servant, Thus 4 
saith the Lord, Thou shalt not build me a house to dwell 
in : for I have not dwelt in a house since the day that s 
I brought up Israel unto this day; but have gone from 
tent to tent, and from one tabernacle to another. Where- 6 
soever I have walked with all Israel, spake I a word to 
any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to feed 
my people, saying, Why have ye not built me a house of 
cedars ? Now therefore thus shalt thou say unto my 7 
servant David, Thus saith the Lord of hosts, I took thee 
from the sheepcote, even from following the sheep, that 
thou shouldest be ruler over my people Israel : and I have 8 
been with thee whithersoever thou hast walked, and have 
cut oif all thine enemies from before thee, and have made 
thee a name like the name of the great men that are in 
the earth. Also I will ordain a place for my people Israel, 9 
and will plant them, and they shall dwell in their place, 
and shall be moved no more; neither shall the children 
of wickedness waste them any more, as at the beginning, 
and since the time that I commanded judges to be over my 10 
people Israel. Moreover I will subdue all thine enemies. 

2. in thine heart] The heart according to Heb. thought is the 
seat of intention and purpose. 

3. the same night] Gen. xx. 3; i Sam. iii. 2, 3; i Kin. iii. 5; 
Job iv. 12, 13. 

5. I brought up Israel] i.e. out of Egypt (so Sam.). 

but have gone from tent to tent and from one tabernacle to another] 
Sam. but have zualked in a tent and in a tabernacle. The Heb. text of 
Chron. defies translation; that of Sam. is better. 

6. the judges] A better reading than the tribes (Sam.). 
of cedars] R.V. of cedar ; cp. ver. i. 

7. sheepcote] Better as R.V. mg. pasture. 
ruler] R.V. prince. Cp. v. 2, note. 

8. thou hast walked] R.V. thou wentest (as Sam.). 
ajid have made thee] R.V. and I will make thee. 

9. Also I will ordain... aftd they shall dwell in their place ■, and shall 
be moved. at the begiftning] R.V. And I will appoint... that they 
may dwell in their own place, and be moved... as at the first. 

waste thefn] ^dscv. ajfflict them. 

10. and since the time... Israel. Moreover... Furthermore...] R.V. 
and as from the day . . . Israel ; and . . . Moreover . . . 

92 I. CHRONICLES, XVII. [vv. ii— 17. 

Furthermore I tell thee that the Lord will build thee a 

11 house. And it shall come to pass, when thy days be 
expired that thou must go to be with thy fathers, that I 
will raise up thy seed after thee, which shall be of thy 

12 sons ; and I will stablish his kingdom. He shall build me 

13 a house, and I will stablish his throne for ever. I will 
be his father, and he shall be my son: and I will 
not take my mercy away from him, as I took // from him 

14 that was before thee : but I will settle him in mine house 
and in my kingdom for ever : and his throne shall be 

15 established for evermore. According to all these words, 
and according to all this vision, so did Nathan speak unto 

16 And David the king came and sat before the Lord, and 
said, Who am I, O Lord God, and what is mine house, 

17 that thou hast brought me hitherto ? And yet this was a 
small thing in thine eyes, O God ; for thou hast also spoken 
of thy servant's house for a great while to come, and hast 
regarded me according to the estate of a man of high 

subdue all thine enemies'^ Sam. (R.V.) cause thee to rest from all thine 

build thee a house'] Sam. 7?iake thee an house, the house meant being 
a dynasty, and not a building. 

11. be expired] R.V. be fulfilled, as Sam. 

that thou must go to be with] Sam. and thou shall sleep with, 
which shall be of thy sons] Sam. which shall proceed out of thy 

12. 7ne a house] Sam. an house for my name. 

13. my son] Here Sam. adds, If he commit iniquity^ I zuill chasten 
him with the rod of men and with the stripes of the children of ?nen. 

as I took it from him that was before thee] Sam. as I took it from 
Said whom I put away before thee. 

14. I will settle him in mine house and in my kingdo?n for ever] Sam. 
And thine house and thy kingdoiti shall be established for ever before thee. 

in mine house] Num. xii. 7; cp. i Tim. iii. 15. 

16. And. ..came] R.V. Then... went in (as Sam.), i.e. into the tent 
which he had pitched for the ark; xvi. i. 

sat before the Lord] So LXX. and 2 Sam. vii. 18. The Targ. rightly 
paraphrases, "and tarried in prayer before Jehovah." The same use of 
the verb "sit" to imply continuance is found in the Creeds; in which 
it is said that Christ "silteth" on the right hand of the Father. 

hitherto] R.V. thus far. 

17. atid hast regarded fne according to the estate of a man of high 
degree] Better as in 2 Sam. vii. 19, and this too after the manner of 

vv. 18—25.] I. CHRONICLES, XVII. 93 

degree, O Lord God. What can David speak more to 18 
thee for the honour of thy servant? for thou knowest thy 
servant. O Lord, for thy servant's sake, and according 19 
to thine own heart, hast thou done all this greatness, in 
making known all these great things. O Lord, there is 20 
none like thee, neither is there any God besides thee, 
according to all that we have heard with our ears. And 21 
what one nation in the earth is like thy people Israel, 
whom God went to redeem to be his own people, to make 
thee a name of greatness and terribleness, by driving out 
nations from before thy people, whom thou hast redeemed 
out of Egypt ? For thy people Israel didst thou make 22 
thine own people for ever ; and thou, Lord, becamest their 
God. Therefore now. Lord, let the thing that thou hast 23 
spoken concerning thy servant and concerning his house 
be established for ever, and do as thou hast said. Let it 24 
even be established, that thy name may be magnified for 
ever, saying, The Lord of hosts is the God of Israel, even 
a God to Israel : and let the house of David thy servant 
be established before thee. For thou, O my God, hast told 25 

men (an exclamation). The Heb. phrase is not quite the same in the 
two passages, and there is nothing in Sam. corresponding with the 
words of high degree, but the text of Chron. seems to be derived from 
that of Sam. David says that God deals with him with the sympathy 
with which one man might deal with another. No satisfactory transla- 
tion or explanation has yet been given of the Heb. word translated of 
high degree. 

18, speak more'\ R.V. say yet more. 

for the honour of thy servant^ R.V. concerning the honour which is 
done to thy servant. Samuel omits these words. 

thou knowest thy servant"] Approvest, acceptest; cp. Ps. i. 6, ci. 4; 
Jer. i. 5. 

19. for thy servant's sake] 2 Sam. vii. 21, for thy word's sake, a 
better reading. 

21. what one nation in the earth is like thy people Israel] Better as 
R.V. mg., who is like thy people Israel, a nation that is alone in the 
earth. Cp. Targ. a people unique and chosen in the earth. 

of greatness and terribleiiess] R V. by great and terrible things. 

23. let the thing. established] Lit. let the word. . .he made Amen 
(i.e. "sure.") 

24. Let it even be established, that thy name may be magnified] 
Render with R.V. mg. Yea, let it be established, and let thy name be 

25. hast told] R.V. hast revealed to, lit., hast uncovered tJie ear of. 

94 I. CHRONICLES, XVII. XVIII. [vv.26,27; i. 

thy servant that tJiou wilt build him a house : therefore thy 

26 servant hath found in his heart to pray before thee. And 
now, Lord, thou art Godj and hast promised this goodness 

27 unto thy servant : now therefore let it please thee to bless 
the house of thy servant, that // may be before thee for 
ever : for thou blessest, O Lord, and // shall be blessed 
for ever. 

18 Now after this it came to pass, that David smote the 
Philistines, and subdued them, and took Gath and her 

hath... found... to pray\ i.e. hath found words and courage to pray. 

26. this goodfiess] R. V. this good thing. 

27. now therefore let it please thee. ..that it may be...\\. shall be 
blessed^ R.V. and now it hath pleased thee... that it may continue... it 
is blessed. 

thou blessest, LORD, and xi shall be blessed] 2 Sam. vii. 29, thou, O 
Lord God, hast spoken it; and with thy blessing let the house of thy 
servant be blessed for ever. 

Ch. XVIII. 1—17 ( = 2 Sam. viii. i — 18). A Summary of David's 
Foreign Wars, David's Officials. 

This chapter like the last is taken from 2 Sam. with a few omissions 
and variations. The Chronicler paraphrases (w. i, 17), omits (ver. 2), 
has a different reading (w. 4, 8, 10, 12). In some cases the better 
reading is in Chron. 

The campaigns (except perhaps that against Moab) seem to be 
narrated in chronological order. David first makes sure of his most 
pressing enemy the Philistines (ver. i) ; then feeling safe towards 
the S.W. he turns towards the N.E. to secure on the Euphrates a 
station (valuable for trade) held by the Syrians of Zobah (ver. 3); 
the Syrians of Damascus fearing to be excluded from the River by 
David's success come to the help of their kinsmen (ver. 5) ; lastly 
the Edomites, urged perhaps by the Syrians to make a diversion in 
their favour and thinking it safe to attack Judah during the absence 
of David, join in the war, but are signally defeated by a detachment 
under Joab and Abishai (ver. 12). 

The war with Moab (ver. 2) is surprising, if it took place at an early 
date in David's reign, for he seems to have been on specially friendly 
terms with the king of Moab during his exile ; cp. i Sam. xxii. 3, 4 and 
Kirkpatrick on 2 Sam. viii. 2. 

Ch. XVIII. 1—13 ( = 2 Sam. viii. i — 14). A Summary of 
David's Foreign Wars. 
1. after this] The phrase is adopted from 2 Sam. viii. i and pro- 
bably came originally from a still earlier book of annals, in which the 
context may have been different. We cannot therefore say at what 
period of David's reign the conquest of Gath took place. 

took Gath and her towns] In 2 Sam. viii. i, took the bridle of the 

vv. 2— 6.] I. CHRONICLES, XVIll. 95 

towns out of the hand of the PhiHstines. And he smote 2 
Moab ; and the Moabites became David's servants, and 
brought gifts. And David smote Hadarezer king of Zobah 3 
unto Hamath, as he went to stabHsh his dominion by the 
river Euphrates. And David took from him a thousand 4 
chariots, and seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thou- 
sand footmen : David also houghed all the chariot horses^ 
but reserved of them an hundred chariots. And when the 5 
Syrians of Damascus came to help Hadarezer king of 
Zobah, David slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand 
men. Then David put gar?-isons in Syria-damascus ; and 6 
the Syrians became David's servants, and brought gifts. 

mother city (R.V.), a poetical expression which the Chronicler has 
turned into prose. 

2. smote Moab'\ The Chronicler at this point omits, as he often 
omits, some obscure words of Samuel. 2 Sam. viii. 2 seems to say tliat 
David put two thirds of the Moabites (presumably the warriors) to 
death, but the meaning of the verse is uncertain. 

brought gifts\ R.V. brougM presents, i.e. tribute. It is the action 
of an inferior acknowledging the superiority of another. The same 
Heb. phrase (translated " bring an offering ") is used Ps. xcvi. 8 of 
sacrificing to Jehovah. 

3. Hadarezer] So spelt in 2 Sam. x. 16 — 19, but in 2 Sam. viii. 
3 — 12, Hadadezer, the right form (as inscriptions shew). 

Zobah unto Hamath] Render as R.V. mg. Zobah by Hamath, the 
position of Zobah being fixed by the note tliat it was near Hamath. 

Hamath] The modern Hama on the Orontes, midway between 
Antioch and Damascus, but somewhat further to the E. than either. 
Bddektr, p. 396 ; Kirkpatrick on 2 Sam. viii. 9. 

as he went to stablish his dominion] He refers to David. 2 Sam. 
viii. 3 reads, to recover his dominion (R.V.). Saul had probably gained 
some dominion on the Euphrates in his war with Zobah (i Sam. xiv. 47), 
which was lost in the confusion which followed his death. David now 
recovers it. 

4. a thousand chariots^ and seven thousand horsemen] Sam. a thousand 
and seven hundred horsemen (so Heb. but LXX. of Sam. agrees with 
Chron.). /!'<77/_§-A(?<2'= "hamstrung. " 

5. Damascus] The name is variously written in Heb., Darmesek 
(Chron.), Dayniyiesek (Gen., i Kin.), Dummesek (2 Kin. xvi. 10). In 
Arabic it is Dimishk. See Bddeker, p. 306 ff. and Kirkpatrick on 2 Sam. 
viii. 5. 

came to help] By interposing between David and his own land and 
threatening his rear. 

6. put garrisons in Syria of Damascus] To secure his rear in any 
future operations towards Hamath or towards the Euphrates. 

brought gifts] See note on ver. 2. 

96 I. CHRONICLES, XVIII. [vv. 7—10. 

Thus the Lord preserved David whithersoever he went. 

7 And David took the shields of gold that were on the 
servants of Hadarezer, and brought them to Jerusalem. 

8 Likewise from Tibhath, and from Chun, cities of Hadarezer, 
brought David very much brass, wherewith Solomon made 
the brasen sea, and the pillars, and the vessels of brass. 

9 Now when Tou king of Hamath heard how David had 
10 smitten all the host of Hadarezer king of Zobah ; he sent 

Hadoram his son to king David, to inquire of his welfare, 
and to congratulate him, because he had fought against 
Hadarezer, and smitten him ; (for Hadarezer had war with 
Tou ;) and with him all manner of vessels of gold and 

preserved David'] R.V. gave victory to David. 

7. shields of goldl " shields " = Heb. ^////^/m. The meaning of the 
Heb. word is doubtful; most probably it does not mean "shield," for 
(i) a shield would not be described as "upon" the person to whom it 
belonged, (2) the early authorities, i.e. the LXX. translators, the Targum, 
and the Peshitta (on 2 Sam. viii. 7 ; 2 Kin. xi. 10 ; Jer. li. 11; Ezek. 
xxvii. 11) never give "shield, "but either leave the word untranslated or 
give various conjectural renderings. A later authority (Targ. on i Chr. 
xviii. 7; 2 Chr. xxiii. 9) gives "shield," wfeile LXX. gives "collars 
(/cXotoi^s)," and " arms," or "shields" (rd oirKa) in 2 Chr. 

The most probable rendering of the word is " suit of armour"; cp. 
R.V. mg. on Jer. li. 11. 

and brought them iojerusaleni] So Heb. LXX. Targ., but the Peshitta 
(all important MSS.) omits the words, and they may be a gloss intro- 
duced from 2 Sam. viii. 7. 

8. Likewise from] R.V. and from. 

Tibhath] Cp. Tebah, the name of an Aramaean family, Gen. xxii. 
24. Nothing is known certainly of the position of the city ; but cp. 
Sayce, Higher Criticism, p. 317. In 2 Sam. viii. 8 Betah (= Tebah). 

Chun] R.V. Cun; 2 Sam. viii. 8, " Berothai." Nothing is certainly 
known of a city of either name; but "Berothai" may be the same as- 
**Berothah" (Ezek. xlvii. 16). 

very much brass] Cp. xxii. 14; xxix. 2. 

brass] Not the metal generally so called. R.V. (mg. note to Gen. 
iv. 22) gives copper as an alternative rendering. The "brass" of the 
ancients (xaX'c6y, LXX.) corresponded rather to bj'onze. 

the brasen sea, etc.] Cp. 2 Chr. iv. 11 — 18. 

9. Tou] In 2 Sam. viii. 9 "Toi" (so Heb., but LXX. "Tou"). 

10. Hadoram] In 2 Sam. viii. 10, " Joram." Both these forms are 
probably Heb. adaptations of the real name. 

to inquire of his welfare, and to congratulate him] R.V. to salute 
him, and to bless him (as Sam.). 

and with him all manner of vessels] Such informal tribute was an 
acknowledgment of David's suzerainty made in order to claim David's 

vv. II— 16.] I. CHRONICLES, XVIII. 97 

silver and brass. Them also king David dedicated unto n 
the Lord, with the silver and the gold that he brought 
from all these nations ; from Edom, and from Moab, and 
from the children of Ammon, and from the Philistines, and 
from Amalek. Moreover Abishai the son of Zeruiah slew 12 
of the Edomites in the valley of salt eighteen thousand. 
And he put garrisons in Edom ; and all the Edomites 13 
became David's servants. Thus the Lord preserved David 
whithersoever he went. 

So David reigned over all Israel, and executed judgment 14 
and justice among all his people. And Joab the son of 15 
Zeruiah was over the host ; and Jehoshaphat the son of 
Ahilud, recorder. And Zadok the son of Ahitub, and 16 
Abimelech the son of Abiathar, were the priests; and 

protection in war. Cp. the action of Asa (i Kin. xv. r8, 19) and of 
Ahaz (2 Kin. xvi. 7, 8). In all three cases the policy was the same, i.e. 
to acknowledge a distant suzerain in order to gain the benefit of a 
valuable alliance, while losing the minimum of independence. 

11. from Amalek] So 2 Sam. viii. 12, but we have no record of any 
war of David with Amalek except the account in i Sam. xxx. 

12. Abishai the son of Zeruiah'] In 2 Sam. viii. 13 David, and in 
Ps. Ix. (title) Joab, receives the credit of this victory. Probably Abishai 
commanded in the battle, while Joab (cp. i Kin. xi. 16) completed the 
conquest of the country. 

of the Edomites] Lit. "of Edom," so Ps. Ix. (title), but in 2 Sam. "of 
the Syrians," lit. "Aram." The two words "Edom" and "Aram" when 
written in Heb. are very much alike and are easily confused. The 
reading "Edom" is right here. Cp. Kirkpatrick on 2 Sam. viii. 13. 

the valley of salt] Probably the marshy flat {Bddeker, p. 144) at the 
S. end of the Dead Sea. This valley is dominated by the Jebel Usdum, 
a hill consisting " almost entirely of pure crystallised salt " {Badeker, 
p. I4.S)- 

eighteen thousand] Ps. Ix. (title), "twelve thousand," not an im- 
portant variation. 

13. preserved David] See ver. 6, note. 

14 — 17 (=2 Sam. viii. 15 — 18 j cp. ?(5. xx. 23 — 26). David's Officials. 

14. among all his people] R. V. unto all Ms people. David was his 
own chief justice, but probably the work was too much for one man ; 
cp. 2 Sam. XV. 2 — 4 with Kirkpatrick's note. 

15. recorder] R.V. marg., chronicler; LXX., virofivrjixaToypdrpos. 

16. Abimelech the son of Abiathar] In 2 Sam. viii. 17, Ahimelech 
the son of Abiathar, but read Abiathar son of Ahimelech in both pas- 
sages. Cp. XV. 11; xxiv. 2, notes ; and Kirkpatrick on 2 Sam. viii. 17. 


^g I. CHRONICLES, XVllI. XIX. [vv. 17; 1,2. 

17 Shavsha was scribe ; and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was 
over the Cherethites and the Pelethites ; and the sons of 
David we7'e chief about the king. 

19 Now it came to pass after this, that Nahash the king of 

the children of Ammon died, and his son reigned in his 

2 stead. And David said, I will shew kindness unto Hanun 

Shavsha\ 1 Sam. viii. 17, Seraiah; ib. xx. 25 Sheva; and i Kin. iv. 3 
(perhaps), Shisha. Shisha and Shavsha probably represent two different 
attempts to pronounce a foreign name ; Seraiah and Sheva are mere 
errors of transcription. Foreigners were admitted to posts of authority 
in the empire of David and Solomon ; Ittai the Gittite and Uriah the 
Hittite are instances. 

scribe'\Y..^ . mg., secretary. See ^ Kin. xii. 10; xviii. 18; xxii. 3; 
op. 1 Kin. XXV. 19, a passage which suggests that there was a second 
scribe with military duties. The first, the king's scribe, would formu- 
late the king's orders and conduct his correspondence with foreign 

17. Benaiah'] Cp. xi. 22 — 25. 

the Cherethites and the Pelethites'] David's bodyguard. The Chereth- 
ites were almost certainly Philistines (i Sam. xxx. 14 ; Ezek. xxv. 16; 
Zeph. ii. 5), the Pelethites were probably also Philistines (2 Sam. xv. 
18). Neither were heard of after the time of David unless the Carites 
of 2 Kin. xi. 4 (R-V.) are the Cherethites. Foreign bodyguards are 
well-known in history. 

chief about the king] Lit., the chief at the king's hand, i.e. formed 
the executive to carry out his commands ; cp. Neh. xi. 24. In 2 Sam. 
viii. 18 (R.V.) David's sons are described 2iS priests. (Consult Baudissin, 
AT liches Priesterthujn, p. 191.) 

Ch. XIX. 1 — 19 ( = 2 Sam. x. i — 19). War with the 
Ammonites and their Aramaean Allies. 

Chron. here omits the story of David's kindness in seeking out and 
befriending Mephibosheth (Meribbaal) the son of Jonathan (2 Sam. ix); 
the Court History of David which occupies an important place in 
2 Sam. is passed over altogether in Chron. 

There are several variations in text between 2 Sam. x. and i Chr. 
xix. e.g. vv. 6, 7 (addition in Chron.), 16 (omission from Chron.), 
18 (variation in reckoning). 

1. after this] The war with Ammon has already been referred to 
by anticipation in xviii. 11. 

Nahash] Probably not the Nahash mentioned i Sam. xi. i. 

Ammon] The Ammonites were a kindred race to the Hebrews, 
being descended according to tradition from Lot, the nephew of 
Abraham ; cp, Deut. ii. 19. The two Ammonite names here given 
are pure Hebrew, Nahash (= "Serpent") and Hannn ( = " Favoured, 
Fortunatus"); the Ammonite language, like the Moabite, was probably 
near akin to Hebrew. 

vv. 3—6.] I. CHRONICLES, XIX. 99 

the son of Nahash, because his father shewed kindness 
to me. And David sent messengers to comfort him con- 
cerning his father. So the servants of David came into 
the land of the children of Ammon to Hanun, to comfort 
him. But the princes of the children of Ammon said to 3 
Hanun, Thinkest thou that David doth honour thy father, 
that he hath sent comforters unto thee ? are not his servants 
come unto thee for to search, and to overthrow, and to 
spy out the land ? Wherefore Hanun took David's servants, 4 
and shaved them, and cut off their garments in the midst 
hard by their buttocks, and sent them away. Then there 5 
went certain^ and told David how the men were served. 
And he sent to meet them : for the men were greatly 
ashamed. And the king said, Tarry at Jericho until your 
beards be grown, and then return. And when the children 6 
of Ammon saw that they had made themselves odious to 
David, Hanun and the children of Ammon sent a thousand 
talents of silver to hire them chariots and horsemen out 
of Mesopotamia, and out of Syria-maachah, and out of 

2. sent messengers to comfort hint] A usual piece of international 
courtesy; cp. 2 Kin. xx. 12. Its breach was resented. In the Tell- 
el-Amarna letters (x. 16) the king of Kardunias writes, " Should not my 
brother (i.e. the king of Egypt) have heard that I am sick ? Why has 
he not comforted me ? Why has he not sent his messenger, not looked 
into it?" (ed. H. Winckler, p. 23). 

3. the /and] 2 Sam. x. 3, tAe city, i.e. Rabbah. 

4. shaved them] 2 Sam. x. 4, shaved off the one half of their beards. 
Of course a great insult ; cp. Is. 1. 6. 

cut off their gar?nenis\ Jewish ambassadors are represented on the 
Black Obelisk (a monument of Shalmaneser II, king of Assyria, now 
preserved in the British Museum) as wearing robes reachmg to the feet; 
Hanun reduced ambassadors to the level of captives; cp. Is. xx. 4. 

5. Tarry at jfericho] Thus (i) the feelings of the ambassadors 
would be spared, (2) the insult would be less widely known until it had 
been avenged. 

6. a thousand talents of silver] A very large sum ; for a hundred 
talents Amaziah hired a hundred thousand men (2 Chr. xxv. 6). 

chariots and horsemen] The Israelite armies on the contrary con- 
sisted chiefly of infantry, the country being for the most part unsuitable 
for horses. 

Mesopotamia] Heb. "Aram (Syria) of the two rivers" (cp. Gen. xxiv. 
10, R.V. mg.) i.e. probably the land between the Euphrates and the 
Chaboras. The Greeks used the term Mesopotamia of a wider district, 
i.e. of the country between the Euphrates and the Tigris. This 


loo I. CHRONICLES, XIX. [vv. 7—13. 

7 Zobah. So they hired thirty and two thousand chariots, 
and the king of Maachah and his people ; who came and 
pitched before Medeba. And the children of Ammon 
gathered themselves together from their cities, and came 

8 to battle. And when David heard of it, he sent Joab, and 

9 all the host of the mighty men. And the children of 
Ammon came out, and put the battle in array before the 
gate of the city : and the kings that were come were by 

10 themselves in the field. Now when Joab saw that the 
battle was set against him before and behind, he chose 
out of all the choice of Israel, and put them in array against 

11 the Syrians. And the rest of the people he delivered unto 
the hand of Abishai his brother, and they set themselves in 

12 array against the children of Ammon. And he said, If 
the Syrians be too strong for me, then thou shalt help me : 
but if the children of Ammon be too strong for thee, then 

13 I will help thee. Be of good courage, and let us behave 
ourselves valiantly for our people, and for the cities of 

mention of Mesopotamia Is probably premature, for in ver. 16 the 
summons of Syrians from beyond the Euphrates is spoken of as a new 
thing. The corresponding expression in 2 Sam. x. 6 is Beth-rehob, a 
district which has not yet been identified. 

Syria-maacha}i\ R.V. Aram-maacah. Cp. vii. 15, note; Deut. iii. 
14; Josh. xii. 5, xiii. 11. 

Zobah^ Cp. xviii. 3 note. 

7. thirty and two thousand chariots] Cp. 2 Sam. x. 6, which reckons 
the army (including Maacah) at 33,000, of whom 20,000 are expressly 
described as footmen. The word "chariots" has probably slipped in 
from ver. 6 instead of " men." 

Medeba"] In the territory of Reuben; Josh. xiii. 16. The country 
round is a table-land suited for the manoeuvres of chariots. The place 
of the rendezvous of the allies is not mentioned in 2 Sam. x, some words 
having probably fallen out of the text. 

8. David... sent Joab] Why in such a crisis did he not go himself? 
Perhaps because he could watch the gathering of the more serious storm 
described in vv. 16 — iq better from Jerusalem. 

10. he chose out of all the choice^ R.V. he chose of all the choice 
mem The Syrians were the more formidable because of the chariots 
they had J Joab therefore opposed to them the flower of his army. 

13. let us behave ourselves valiantly'] R.V. let us play the men, as 
in 2 Sam. x. 12. 

the cities of our God] The cities which our God has given us and in 
which He is worshipped. If these were captured by the enemy, false 
gods would be worshipped in them. Religious feeling often supplies 
the place of patriotism in the East. 

vv. 14—18.] I. CHRONICLES, XIX. loi 

our God : and let the Lord do that which is good in his 
sight. So Joab and the people that were with him drew 14 
nigh before the Syrians unto the battle; and they fled 
before him. And when the children of Ammon saw that 15 
the Syrians were fled, they likewise fled before Abishai his 
brother, and entered into the city. Then Joab came to 

And when the Syrians saw that they were put to the 16 
worse before Israel, they sent messengers, and drew forth 
the Syrians that were beyond the river : and Shophach the 
captain of the host of Hadarezer went before them. And 17 
it was told David ; and he gathered all Israel, and passed 
over Jordan, and came upon them, and set the battle in 
array against them. So when David had put the battle 
in array against the Syrians, they fought with him. But 18 
the Syrians fled before Israel; and David slew of the 
Syrians seven thousand men which fought in chariots, and 
forty thousand footmen, and killed Shophach the captain 

14. drew nigh before the Syrians'] Without fear for their own rear 
advanced against the Syrian front. 

15. Joab came to yerusale}7i\ Probably because he was wanted for 
the new danger gathering in the North. 

16 — 19. The End of the Aramaean War. 
Three stages are apparent in the war with Zobah, {a) that in which 
David secured a position on the Euphrates, xviii. 3—8, {b) the stage 
during which troops from Zobah acted as auxiliaries to the Ammonites, 
xix. 6—15, (<:) the final stage which ended in the conclusion of a formal 
peace, ib. 16 — 19. 

16. the Syrians that were beyond the river] i.e. the Syrians of 
"Mesopotamia"; cp. ver. 6, note. 2 Sam. x. 16 adds, and they came 
to Helam\ the position of Helam however is unknown, but it was 
probably not far from the Euphrates, 

Shophach] In 2 Sam. x. 16 called " Shobach." The whole allied 
army was united under one general. 

17. came upon them] Read came to Helam, with 2 Sam. x. 17. 
According to 2 Sam. x. the Syrian army assembled at Helam, and was 
there attacked by David. 

18. seven thousand men which fought in chariots] R.V. the men of 
seven thousand chariots. 2 Sam. x. 18, the men of seven hundred 

forty thousand footmen] 2 Sam. x. 18, forty thousand horsemen. 
Swarms of horsemen have usually formed the strength of armies 
raised on the eastern bank of the Euphrates; the statement of a Sam. 
may therefore be more accurate than that of i Chr. 

I02 I. CHRONICLES, XIX. XX. [vv. 19; 1,2. 

19 of the host. And when the servants of Hadarezer saw 
that they were put to the worse before Israel, they made 
peace with David, and became his servants : neither would 
the Syrians help the children of Ammon any more. 

20 And it came to pass, that after the year was expired, at 
the time that kings go out to battle^ Joab led forth the 
power of the army, and wasted the country of the children 
of Ammon, and came and besieged Rabbah. But David 
tarried at Jerusalem. And Joab smote Rabbah, and de- 
2 stroyed it. And David took the crown of their king from 
off his head, and found it to weigh a talent of gold, and 
there were precious stones in it ; and it was set upon David's 

19. the serz'ants] i.e. his vassals and tributaries; in 2 Sam. "all the 
kings that were servants to Hadarezer." We are not told what course 
Hadarezer himself took ; possibly, being deserted by his allies, he ceased 
from hostilities without making any treaty with David. 

Ch. XX. 1 — 3 ( = 2 Sam. xi. i, xii. 26 — 31). The Subjugation 

OF Ammon. 

The account of the siege of Rabbah is given more shortly in Chron. 
than in 2 Sam. From the latter we learn that the Ark was in the 
besiegers' camp (xi. 11), that the city was defended with spirit (xi. 17), 
and finally taken piecemeal (xii. 26 — 29). 

1. after the year was expiredl R.V. at the time of the return of 
the year, i.e. in the spring, 2 Sam. xi. i; i Kin. xx. 22. 

the power of the ai'my\ The Heb. phrase is quite general in meaning: 
the host of ivar, the military forces. 

Rabbah'] the capital of the Ammonites; Jer. xlix. 2; Ezek. xxi. 20 
(25, Heb). Its site, now called ^Amtndu, is covered with important 
ruins of the Roman and Byzantine periods. The town lies in a fertile 
basin, its citadel on a hill on the north side. Bddeker, pp. 185 flf. 

David tarried at Jerusalem] In 2 Sam. these words introduce the 
story of David's adultery with Bath-sheba, which is omitted from Chron. 

Joab smote Rabbah] In 2 Sam. xii. 27 Joab reports to David the 
capture of the city of waters (i.e. the lower city), and invites him to 
come and complete the conquest (presumably by capturing the citadel) 
in person. Probably the citadel was dependent for water on the river 
which P.ows through the town. 

2. of their king] So A.V. (rightly). R.V. mg. of Malcam (cp. 
Zeph. i. 5), i.e. Milcom, the national god of the Ammonites (i Kin. 
xi. 5). LXX. has a double translation of the one Heb. word ; 
Molchol {Molcho77i) their king. The name of the god, whether the 
right form be Molech (i Kin. xi. 7) or Milcom or Malcam, means 
either "king" or, less probably, "counsellor." In the former case his 
image would in all probability wear a crown. 

it was set upon David's head] A symbolic action implying that 

vv. 3—5.] I. CHRONICLES, XX. 103 

head : and he brought also exceeding much spoil out of 
the city. And he brought out the people that zvere in it, 3 
and cut them with saws, and with harrows of iron, and with 
axes. Even so dealt David with all the cities of the chil- 
dren of Ammon. And David and all the people returned 
to Jerusalem. 

And it came to pass after this, that there arose war at 4 
Gezer with the Philistines ; at which time Sibbechai the 
Hushathite slew Sippai, that was of the children of the 
giant : and they were subdued. And there was war again 5 
with the Philistines ; and Elhanan the son of Jair slew 

David completely annexed the Ammonite territory; other conquered 
nations retained a partial independence on condition of the payment 
of tribute. 

he brought also exceeding much spoil out of the city\ R.V. lie 
brought forth the spoil of the city, exceeding much. A kind of 
triumphal procession of captives and spoil such as an Assyrian relief 
in the British Museum represents as passing before Sennacherib at the 
capture of Lachish. 

3. and cut them with saws'X Read (cp. 2 Sam. xii. 31, R.V. mg.) 
and put them with saws, i.e. put them to work with saws, etc. Cp. 
2 Chr. ii. 17, 18; Josh. ix. 21 — 23. The implements mentioned here 
and in the parallel passage of 2 Sam. suggest task-work, not massacre. 
The Ammonites were reduced to bondage like that of Israel in Egypt, 
The exceptionally harsh treatment of the Ammonites was doubtless 
due to the exceptional insults which David's ambassadors had re- 
ceived from them. A very different spirit towards Ammon is shewn 
in Deut. ii. 19. 

4—8 ( = 2 Sam. xxi. i8 — 22). Philistine champions slain. 

This section is the last in which the Chronicler notices David's wars. 
It is taken from 2 Sam. xxi., where, however, it is preceded by an 
account (vv. 15 — 17) of David's narrow escape in an encounter with a 

Between the two sections of this chapter the Chronicler omits the 
account of the rebellions of Absalom and of Sheba, and the story of the 
Gibeonite vengeance on the house of Saul (2 Sam. xiii. i — xxi. 14). 

4. at Gezer] See vi. 67, note. In 2 Sam. v. 25 it is said that 
David smote the Philistines "from Geba until thou come to Gezer." 
In 2 Sam. at Gob, but no place called Gob is known. 

Sippai] In 2 Sam. "Saph." 

giant] Heb. "Rapha"; the same Heb. word in the plu. "Rephaim" 
is translated "giants" in Deut. ii. 11, A.V. These Rephaim dwelt east 
of Jordan, but may have been akin to the Philistines. 

5. Elhanan... slew Lah7ni the brother of Goliath] In 2 Sam. xxi. 
19 Elhanan .. .the Beth-lehemite slew Goliath (R.V.). The difference 

I04 I. CHRONICLES, XX. XXI. [vv. 6— 8; i. 

Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite, whose spear staff 

6 7vas like a weaver's beam. And yet again there was war 
at Gath, where was a man of great stature, whose fingers 
and toes were four and twenty, six on each hand^ and six 

7 on each foot : and he also was the son of the giant. But 
when he defied Israel, Jonathan the son of Shimea David's 

8 brother slew him. These were born unto the giant in 
Gath ; and they fell by the hand of David, and by the 
hand of his servants. 

21 And Satan stood up against Israel, and provoked David 

between the two sentences in Heb. is very small, and the Chronicler, 
or any copyist, might feel that he was making a certain emendation in 
substituting the brother of Goliath for Goliath himself, who, according 
to I Sam. xvii., was slain by David before he became king. But it 
is not certain that there is a discrepancy between 2 Sam. xxi. and 
I Sam. xvii., for Goliath may be, not a personal name, but a descrip- 
tive title of some kind; e.g. "Goliath the Gittite" might mean "the 
Gittite champion." " Tartan," " Rabsaris" and " Rabshakeh" (2 Kin. 
xviii. 17) were once taken as proper names, but are now known to be 
descriptions of Assyrian officers. 
whose spear staff} R.V. the staff of whose spear. 

6. a man of great stature} In 2 Sana. xxi. 20 (Heb.) a man of con- 
tention, i.e. a challenger or champion. 

giant} See ver. 4, note. 

7. defied} R.V. marg., reproached. 
Shimea} See iii. 5, note. 

8. These were born utito the giant in Gath} Again "giant" is the 
Heb. " Rapha." The meaning is that these belonged to a branch of 
the Rephaim which was settled in Gath. 

Ch. xxi. 1—27 ( = 2 Sam. xxiv. 1—25). 

The Numbering and the Plague. 

The subject of the present section (David's numbering of the people 
and the plague which followed) is a difficult one, but a combination of 
the details of the narratives of Sam. and Chron. makes the main 
features clear, (i) Israel (and not David only) had sinned, for the 
Lord at the beginning was angry against Israel (2 Sam. xxiv. i). 
(2) The anger of the Lord, by withdrawing protection from Israel, 
gave an opportunity to Israel's enemy (^a/'a« = " adversary " ; see note 
below). (3) This enemy moved David to commit a sin, the conse- 
quences of which affected the whole people. Thus the punishment of 
sin came through the commission of fresh sin. David's sin consisted 
(i) in the pride and (possibly) in the designs of further conquest which 
prompted his act, (2) in trampling on the feelings of his people as 
expressed by Joab. Notice that the two numberings ordered by God 
Himself in the wilderness (Num. i. i — 46; iii. 39; xxvi. i — 65) 

vv. 2—5.] I. CHRONICLES, XXI. 105 

to number Israel. And David said to Joab and to the 2 
rulers of the people, Go, number Israel from Beer-sheba 
even to Dan; and bring the number of them to me, that 
I may know /"/. And Joab answered. The Lord make 3 
his people an hundred times so many moe as they be : but^ 
my lord the king, are they not all my lord's servants? 
why then doth my lord require this thing'} why will he be 
a cause of trespass to Israel? Nevertheless the king's 4 
word prevailed against Joab. Wherefore Joab departed, 
and went throughout all Israel, and came to Jerusalem. 
And Joab gave the sum of the number of the people unto s 

afforded no precedent except for a numbering by direct Divine com- 
mand. Moreover a census was regarded as a cause of the outbreak 
of plague, and it was prescribed that, when Moses took a census, every 
man numbered should pay half a shekel for the service of the tabernacle 
"as a ransom for his soul, that there be no plague among them." 
(Ex. XXX. 12). 

1. And Satan stood up against Israel\ In 2 Sam. "And again the 
anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel," a former occasion being 
at the time of the famine (2 Sam. xxi. i). By Satan ("adversary") is 
meant some hostile spiritual being, such as is mentioned in Job i. 6 fif.; 
Zech. iii. i ff., the very opposite in fact of a guardian angel such as the 
Michael of Dan. x. 13, 21 ; xii. i. 

and provoked^ R.V. and moved, as 2 Sam., the Heb. word being 
the same. 

to number] (cp. xxvii. 23, 24) should be like the stars, beyond 

2. to yoad] The object being to number "those who drew sword," 
the captain of the host was the most suitable person to entrust with the 

rulers] R.V. princes. 

from Beer-sheba even to Dan] From the extreme south even unto 
the extreme north of the land. 

Dan] The modern Tell-el-Kddi, about forty minutes distance from 
Banias (Paneas), north of Lake Huleh (Waters of Merom). Bddekery 
p. 264. 

that I may know it] Either with a view to imposing a tax or to 
undertaking some fresh great military expedition. 

3. moe] Cp. xiv. 3, note. 

are they not all my lord's servants?] Joab foresees some disaster 
to the people, and asks why David should destroy his own. 

^vhy will he be a cause of gnilt to Israel?] Cp. Lev. iv. 3, "if the 
anointed priest shall sin so as to bring guilt on the people" (R.V.). 

4. came to Jerusalem] In 2 Sam. xxiv. 4 — 8 the route is described 
and the time taken in the numbering is stated, nine months and 
twenty days. 

io6 I. CHRONICLES, XXI. [vv. 6—12. 

David. And all they of Israel were a thousand thousand 
and an hundred thousand men that drew sword : and Judah 
was four hundred threescore and ten thousand men that 

6 drew sword. But Levi and Benjamin counted he not 
among them : for the king's word was abominable to Joab. 

7 And God was displeased with this thing; therefore he 

8 smote Israel. And David said unto God, I have sinned 
greatly, because I have done this thing : but now, I beseech 
thee, do away the iniquity of thy servant ; for I have done 

9 very foolishly. And the Lord spake unto Gad, David's 

10 seer, saying. Go and tell David, saying, Thus saith the 
Lord, I offer thee three things : choose thee one of them, 

11 that I may do // unto thee. So Gad came to David, and 

12 said unto him. Thus saith the Lord, Choose thee either 
three years' famine ; or three months to be destroyed before 
thy foes, while that the sword of thine enemies overtaketh 
thee ; or else three days the sword of the Lord, even the 
pestilence, in the land, and the angel of the Lord de- 

5. they of Israel] Chron. gives Israel as 1,100,000 and Judah as 
470,000; 2 Sam. gives Israel as 800,000 and Judah as 500,000. 

t/iat dreiv szvord] All males over twenty years of age would be so 
described; cp. Num. i. 20. 

6. Levi\ In Num. i. 49 it is ordained that Levi is not to be num- 
bered among the children of Israel, i.e. treated as liable to military 
service. The Levites were, however, numbered separately; Num. iii. 
15, xxvi. 57. In 2 Sam. there is nothing to correspond with this verse. 

7. he smote Israel] with the plague. David's confession (ver. 8) was 
probably wrung from him by the appearance of the pestilence. 

8. do away the iniquity] Render perhaps, Remove the punishment ; 
cp. Gen. iv. 13, R.V. with marg. 

9. And the lORD spake] The historian now retraces his steps to de- 
scribe the circumstances which heralded the approach of the plague. 

Gad] He is three times mentioned in Chron., each time as a "seer," 
viz. xxi. 9 ( = 2 Sam. xxiv. 11); xxix. 29; 2 Chr. xxix. 25. He was 
perhaps an older contemporary of Nathan, who bears the more modern 
title of "prophet" (cp. i Sam. ix. 9). 

10. / offer thee three things] The offer is a test of David's charac- 
ter, just as God's different offer in 2 Chr. i. 7 was a test of Solomon's. 

12. three years'' famine] 2 Sam., seven years of famine (LXX. how- 
ever three ^ as Chron.). 

three months to be destroyed] R.V. three months to be consumed 
(Heb. nispeh). Some scholars would correct the text of Chron. into 
agreement with 2 Sam. xxiv. 13, or wilt thou Jiee three months? 

the afigel of the Lord] Cp. 2 Kin. xix. 35 ; Acts xii. 23. 

vv. 13—16.] I. CHRONICLES, XXI. 107 

stroying throughout all the coasts of Israel. Now therefore 
advise thyself what word I shall bring again to him that 
sent me. And David said unto Gad, I am in a great 13 
strait : let me fall now into the hand of the Lord ; for 
very great are his mercies : but let me not fall into the 
hand of man. So the Lord sent pestilence upon Israel : 14 
and there fell of Israel seventy thousand men. 

And God sent an angel unto Jerusalem to destroy it : 15 
and as he was destroying, the Lord beheld, and he repented 
him of the evil, and said to the angel that destroyed, // is 
enough, stay now thine hand. And the angel of the Lord 
stood by the threshingfloor of Oman the Jebusite. And 16 
David liftj up his eyes, and saw the angel of the Lord ^^j 
stand between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn 
sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. Then 
David and the elders of Israel, who were clothed in sackcloth, 

throughout all the coasts] Render, in every border, i.e. through the 
whole extent. 

advise thyself] R.V. consider. 

13. into the hand of the Lord] David deprecates war, and prefers 
famine or pestilence. 

14. there fell of Israel] 2 Sam. adds, from Dan evejt to Beer-sheba, 
The pestilence was throughout the whole land. 

15. unto yerusalcfn] The plague arrived in Jerusalem after making 
ravages elsewhere. 

as he was destroying] R.V. as he was about to destroy, agreeing 
with 1 Sam., when the angel stretched forth his hand upon Jerusalem 
to destroy it. 

It is enough] The sudden cessation of this pestilence has numerous 
parallels in the history of epidemics. 

the threshingfloor of Oman] The Chronicler makes this threshing- 
floor the site of the Temple. The author of Sam. is silent on the point. 
Cp. vv. 25, 28, notes. 

Oman] This is the form of the name throughout this chapter, but in 
2 Sam. xxiv. the K'rl gives everywhere Araunah. The C'thib of Sana, 
however offers various forms, one of which (to be read Ornah, ver. 16) 
approximates to the form given in Chron. Variation in reproducing 
foreign names is common ; see note on xviii. 5 (Damascus), and on 
2 Chr. xxxvi. 6 (Ariuchadnezzar). 

16. lift up] The old form of the past changed in modern editions 
to lifted up; cp. Gen. xxii. 4, etc. 

saw the angel] The full description of the vision is peculiar to 
Chron.; cp. 2 Sam. xxiv. 17. 

and the elders of Israel, who were clothed in sackcloth] The words 
supplied in A.V. are unnecessary, and are omitted in R.V. The 

io8 1. CHRONICLES, XXI. [vv. 17—26. 

17 fell upon their faces. And David said unto God, Is it not 
I i/iat commanded the people to be numbered? even I 
// is that have sinned and done evil indeed ; but as for 
these sheep, what have they done? let thine hand, I pray 
thee, O Lord my God, be on me, and on my father's 
house ; but not on thy people, that they should be plagued. 

18 Then the angel of the Lord commanded Gad to say to 
David, that David should go up, and set up an altar unto 

19 the Lord in the threshingfloor of Oman the Jebusite. And 
David went up at the saying of Gad, which he spake in 

20 the name of the Lord. And Oman turned back, and saw 
the angel; and his four sons with him hid themselves. 

21 Now Oman was threshing wheat. And as David came to 
Oman, Oman looked and saw David, and went out of the 
threshingfloor, and bowed himself to David with his face 

22 to the ground. Then David said to Oman, Grant me the 
place of this threshingfloor, that I may build an altar therein 
unto the Lord : thou shalt grant it me for the full price : 

23 that the plague may be stayed from the people. And 
Oman said unto David, Take it to thee, and let my lord 
the king do that which is good in his eyes : lo, I give thee 
the oxen also for burnt offerings, and the threshing instru- 
ments for wood, and the wheat for the meat offering; I 

24 give // all. And king David said to Oman, Nay ; but I 
will verily buy it for the full price : for I will not take that 
which is thine for the Lord, nor off'er burnt offerings 

25 without cost. So David gave to Oman for the place six 

26 hundred shekels of gold by weight. And David built there 

wearing of sackcloth was doubtless accompanied with fasting; cp. 
Jon. iii. 5. 

17. let thine hand... be on me] Cp. Moses' intercession in Ex. xxxii. 
32 ; but Moses was innocent, David guilty. 

18. £-0 up, and set up] R.V. go up, and rear; cp. 2 Sam. xxiv. 18. 

21. was threshing wheat] By driving oxen over it; cp. ver. 23. 

22. the place of i\\\s threshingjloor] The expression implies perhaps 
that David bought more than the mere area of the threshingfloor. 

for the full price] Gen. xxiii. 9 (R.V.). 

23. the /neat offering] R.V. the meal oflFering'; cp. Lev. ii. i — 16. 
25. gave... for the place six hundred shekels of gold by weight] 

In 2 Sam. xxiv. 24, bought the threshingfloor and the oxen for money, 
evenflfty shekels (so to be rendered). 

A large discrepancy appears here between Chron. and 2 Sam. The 

vv. 27—30.] I. CHRONICLES, XXI. 109 

an altar unto the Lord, and offered burnt offerings, and 
peace offerings, and called upon the Lord ; and he an- 
swered him from heaven by fire upon the altar of burnt 
offering. And the Lord commanded the angel ; and he 27 
put up his sword again into the sheath thereof. 

At that time when David saw that the Lord had an- 28 
swered him in the threshiiigfloor of Oman the Jebusite, 
then he sacrificed there. For the tabernacle of the Lord, 29 
which Moses made in the wilderness, and the altar of the 
burnt offering, were at that season in the high place at 
Gibeon. But David could not go before it to inquire of 30 
God : for he was afraid because of the sword of the angel 

former seems to say that 600 shekels were paid for the threshingfloor 
alone, the latter that only 50 shekels were paid for the floor and oxen 
taken together. But the text of 2 Sam. is probably corrupt and should 
perhaps run, bought the threshingjloor for money ^ even six hundred 
shekels, and the oxen for f?ioney, even fifty shekels. The "threshing- 
floor" seems to have included the Temple Mount (xxii. i), and 
we may compare the 600 shekels paid for it with the 400 paid by 
Abraham for the cave and field of Machpelah (Gen. xxiii. 15 — 17). In 
describing the 600 shekels as shekels of gold the Chronicler perhaps 
goes beyond his authority, for the sum then becomes improbably 

26. peace offerings^ See xvi. i, note. At the end of the vers'e LXX. 
(cp. Pesh.) adds, and consutned the burnt offering. Cp. i Kin. xviii. 38. 
The fire is not mentioned in 2 Sam. 

Ch. XXI. 28— Ch. xxii. 1. The Selection of the Site 
OF THE Temple. 

28. At that time &'c.'\ The construction of this section must be 
carefully noted. Ch. xxi. 28 is a protasis to which ch. xxii. i is the 
apodosis, vv. 29, 30 of ch. xxi. being a parenthesis. The division of 
chapters here is unfortunate. 

At that time"] The phrase is taken up by "Then" of xxii. r. The 
Chronicler wishes us to note that David regarded the success of his 
intercession at the floor of Oman as an indication that this floor was 
God's approved site for the Temple. 

then he sacrificed there'\ Render, and [David had] sacrificed there, 
(the full stop is wrong, for the sense is continued in xxii. i). 

29. For'\ The beginning of a parenthesis. 

the tabernacle of the Lord] See the prefatory note to ch. xiii, ; also 
cp. xvi. I, 39, and 2 Chr. i. 3. 

30. he was afraid] Or, lie was terrified. The Heb. word is 


22 of the Lord. Then David said, This is the house of the 
Lord God, and this is the altar of the burnt offering for 

2 Israel. And David commanded to gather together the 
strangers that were in the land of Israel ; and he set masons 

3 to hew wrought stones to build the house of God. And 
David prepared iron in abundance for the nails for the 
doors of the gates, and for the joinings ; and brass in 

4 abundance without weight ; also cedar trees in abundance : 
for the Zidonians and they of Tyre brought much cedar 

5 wood to David. And David said, Solomon my son is young 
and tender, and the house that is to be builded for the 
Lord must be exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory 
throughout all countries ; I will therefore now make prepa- 
ration for it. So David prepared abundantly before his 

6 Then he called for Solomon his son, and charged him 

7 to build a house for the Lord God of Israel. And David 
said to Solomon, My son, as for me, it was in my mind 
to build a house unto the name of the Lord my God : 

Chapter XXII. 

1. Then\ The word refers back to xxi. 28, At that time. 

David said] The king acts in conformity with the law contained in 
Deut. xii. 5, 6. 

2 — 6. David's Preparations for Building the Temple. 

2. t/ie strangers] Cp. 2 Chr. ii. 17; viii. 7. ..9 (R.V.). Hewing of 
stone was regarded as task-work unfit for free men. 

wrought stones] All the stone used for the building of the Temple 
was previously cut to the right size; cp. i Kin. vi. 7. 

3. the joinings] R.V. the couplings. 

4. the Zidonians and they of Tyre] Cp. i Kin. v. i — 6 (15 — 20, 

5. exceeding magnificat] The Temple took seven years in building, 
and it was richly overlaid with gold, but its proportions were 
small, viz., about go ft. x 45 ft. x 30 ft. Some have regarded it as 
merely the king's private chapel, but its small proportions do not of 
themselves prove this view to be correct. In any case the "House" 
was not intended to contain the congregation ; the courts must be large 
to accommodate those who came up for the three great feasts, but the 
Temple itself need only be large enough to hold its furniture. 

6 — 16. David's Charge to Solomon. 

7. said to Solomon, My son] R.V. said to Solomon his son (so 
C'thib) ; A.V. follows the K'ri. 

unlo the name] Cp. Deut. xii. 5; 2 Sam. vii. 13. 

vv. 8— 15-] I. CHRONICLES, XXII. in 

but the word of the Lord came to me, saying, Thou hast 8 
shed blood abundantly, and hast made great wars : thou 
shalt not build a house unto my name, because thou hast 
shed much blood upon the earth in my sight. Behold, a g 
son s/ia// be born to thee, who shall be a man of rest ; and 
I will give him rest from all his enemies round about : for 
his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and 
quietness unto Israel in his days. He shall build a house lo 
for my name; and he shall be my son, and I will be his 
father ; and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over 
Israel for ever. Now, my son, the Lord be with thee ; and n 
prosper thou, and build the house of the Lord thy God, 
as he hath said of thee. Only the Lord give thee wisdom 12 
and understanding, and give thee charge concerning Israel, 
that thou mayest keep the law of the Lord thy God. Then 13 
shalt thou prosper, if thou takest heed to fulfil the statutes 
and judgments which the Lord charged Moses with con- 
cerning Israel : be strong, and of good courage ; dread not, 
nor be dismayed. Now behold, in my trouble I have 14 
prepared for the house of the Lord an hundred thousand 
talents of gold, and a thousand thousand talents of silver ; 
and of brass and iron without weight ; for it is in abundance : 
timber also and stone have I prepared ; and thou mayest 
add thereto. Moreover there are workmen with thee in 15 
abundance, hewers and workers of stone and timber, and 

8. Thou hast shed blood abtindantly] Cp. xxviii. 3 ; in i Kin. v. 3 
Solomon tells Hiram that David wished to build a temple, but was 
hindered from his design by war. 

9. I will give him rest^ Cp. i Kin. v. 4. The promise here made 
is of a period of peace sufificiently long for the work of Temple-building. 
Solomon's reign was not wholly peaceful; cp. i Kin. xi. 14, 23, 26. 

10. for ever] Cp. 2 Sam. vii. 13 — 16. 

12. "^wisdoni] R.V. discretion. 

13. be strong, and of good courage] Cp. Josh. i. 9. 

14. ill fiiy trouble] Render with R.V. marg. in my low estate. 
LXX. /card rT]v TTTioxeiau /jlov. 

an hundred thoicsand talents of gold^ and a thousand thousand talents 
of silver] This sum is incredil^ly large. In i Kin. x. 14 it is told in 
illustration of the wealth of Solomon — a wealthier king than David — 
that he received in one year 666 talents of gold, but even at this rate 
David would have amassed only 26,640 talents in forty years. The 
tradition from which the Chronicler drew expresses itself here in round 
and exaggerated numbers. 

112 I. CHRONICLES, XXII. XXIII. [vv. 16—19; 1,2. 

16 all manner of cunning men for every manner of work. Of 
the gold, the silver, and the brass, and the iron, there is no 
number. Arise therefore and be doing, and the Lord be 
with thee. 

17 David also commanded all the princes of Israel to help 

18 Solomon his son, sayings Is not the Lord your God with 
you ? and hath he not given you rest on every side ? for 
he hath given the inhabitants of the land into mine hand ; 
and the land is subdued before the Lord, and before his 

19 people. Now set your heart and your soul to seek the 
Lord your God ; arise therefore, and build ye the sanctuary 
of the Lord God, to bring the ark of the covenant of the 
Lord, and the holy vessels of God, into the house that 

23 is to be built to the name of the Lord. So when David 
was old and full of days, he made Solomon his son king 
over Israel. 
2 And he gathered together all the princes of Israel, with 

15. all manner of cunning men for every manner of work\ R, V. all 
men that are cunning in any manner of work. 

16. Arise therefore] R.V. omits therefore. 

17 — 19. David's Charge to the Princes. 

18. the inhabitatits of the land] Cp. xi. 4, the yebtisites, the in- 
habitants of the land. The remnant of the earUer inhabitants of Canaan 
is meant. 

19. and the holy vessels of God] Cp. i Kin. viii. 4. 

Ch. XXIII. 1. Solomon made King. 

The summaiy statement of the Chronicler ignores the struggle 
between the party of Solomon and the party of Adonijah for the throne. 
Cp. xxix. 22 — 24; I Kin. i. 5 — 53. 

2 — 23. Organisation of the Levites (first account). 

Two accounts are given of David's organisation of the Levites. 
According to the first the Levites were admitted to service at thirty 
years of age; ver. 3; cp. Num. iv. 3, 23, 30, where the period from 
thirty to fifty is fixed as the period for service. According to the 
second account (vv. 24, 27) the Levites were taken from twenty 
years old and upwards; this was apparently the later custom; cp. 
2 Chr. xxxi. 17 ; Ezra iii. 8. The discrepancy probably arises from an 
actual variation in practice. The original age of admission for Levites 
was probably thirty, but owing to the scarcity of their numbers it seems 
to have been necessary to reduce the limit of age to twenty. On 
the Levites see Ryle [Ezra and Nehemiah, p. liii. ff.). See also on 
ver. 27. 


vv. 3— lo.] I. CHRONICLES, XXIII. 113 

the priests and the Levites. Now the Levites were num- 
bered from the age of thirty years and upward : and their 
number by their polls, man by man, was thirty and eight 
thousand. Of which, twenty and four thousand were to 4 
set forward the work of the house of the Lord ; and six 
thousand were officers and judges : moreover four thousand s 
ivere porters; and four thousand praised the Lord with 
the instruments which I made, said David, to praise there- 
with. And David divided them into courses among the 6 
sons of Levi, namely, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. 

Of the Gershonites were, Laadan, and Shimei. The sons 7, 8 
of Laadan ; the chief was Jehiel, and Zetham, and Joel, 
three. The sons of Shimei ; Shelomith, and Haziel, and 9 
Haran, three. These were the chief of the fathers of 
Laadan. And the sons of Shimei zuere, Jahath, Zina, and lo 

3. by their polls] Lit. by their skulls. "Poll" is an almost 
obsolete word for "head," retained in the compound word, "poll-tax." 

thirty and eight thousand] A great increase since the time of Moses; 
the males from a month old and upwards are reckoned at 22,000 in 
Num. iii. 39 and at 23,000 in Num. xxvi. 62. 

4. ttventy and four thotisand] These were divided into courses 
(ver. 6), serving by turn, apparently twenty-four in number, consisting 
each of a thousand men. The priests also were divided into a corre- 
sponding number of courses (xxiv. 4, 18). 

to set fortvard the work] R.V. to oversee the work. This phrase 
assumes that the work itself was done by others, e.g. by Nethinim (see 
ix. 2, note). In ver. 24 (cp. ver. 28), however, the Levites are described 
as doing the work. 

officers and judges] Cp. 2 Chr. xix. 8, 11. In Deut. xvii. 9 (cp. ib. xvi. 
18) the harder causes are reserved for "the priests the Levites," ordinary 
causes being decided by judges who were not Levites. 

5. porters] R.V. doorkeepers. The courses and duties of these are 
given in xxvi. i — 19. 

four thousand praised the Lord] Cp. xxv. i — 31, from which it 
appears that there was also a picked choir consisting of 288 persons, 
divided into twenty-four courses, whose special duty was psalmody. 

the itistruments which I made] Cp. 2 Chr. xxix. 26. 

6. the sons of Levi] Cp. vi. i, 16. 

7. Laadan and Shimei] For "Laadan" (R.V. Ladau) here and in 
xxvi. 21 we have in vi. 17 and Ex. vi. 17 "Libni." 

9. The sons of Shimei] This Shimei in distinction from the Shimei 
of vv. 7, 10 was probably a descendant of Ladan or a client of his 

10. Zina] In ver. 1 1 Zizah ; the two words are readily confused in 
Hebrew writing. 


114 I. CHRONICLES, XXIII. [vv. ii— 21. 

Jeush, and Beriah. These four were the sons of Shimei. 

11 And Jahath was the chief, and Zizah the second : but 
Jeush and Beriah had not many sons ; therefore they were 
in one reckoning, according to their father's house. 

12 The sons of Kohath ; Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, 

13 four. The sons of Amram ; Aaron and Moses : and Aaron 
was separated, that he should sanctify the most holy things, 
he and his sons for ever, to burn incense before the Lord, 

14 to minister unto him, and to bless in his name for ever. Now 
concerning Moses the man of God, his sons were named 

15 of the tribe of Levi. The sons of Moses were^ Gershom, 

16 and Eliezer. Of the sons of Gershom, Shebuel was the 

17 chief. And the sons of Eliezer were, Rehabiah the chief. 
And Eliezer had none other sons ; but the sons of Rehabiah 

18 were very many. (9/" the sons of Izhar ; Shelomith the chief. 

19 Of the sons of Hebron ; Jeriah the first, Amariah the 

20 second, Jahaziel the third, and Jekameam the fourth. Of 
the sons of Uzziel ; Michah the first, and Jesiah the second. 

21 The sons of Merari; Mahli, and Mushi. The sons of 

11. they were in one reckoning, accorditig to their father's house] 
R.V. they became a fathers' house in one reckoning-. 

12. The sons of Kohath'] Cp. vi. 2, 18; Ex. vi. 18. 

13. separated] i.e. set apart, sometimes with the additional meaning 
of making a distinction between sacred and common. Cp. Rom. i. i, 
where St Paul describes himself as separated unto the gospel of God; 
Acts xiii. 2; Gal. i. 15. 

the most holy things] Such for instance as the altar of incense 
(Ex. XXX. I — 10), or again the shewbread (Lev. xxiv. 5 — 9). 
to bless] Cp. Num. vi, 23 — 27. 

14. Now concerning Moses] R.V. But as for Moses. 

of the tribe of Levi] R.V. among the tribe of Levi. The descendants 
of Moses as distinguished from those of Aaron had the standing, not of 
priests but of Levites. 

15. Gershom and Eliezer] Cp. Ex. xviii. 3, 4. 

16. Oi the so?ts] R.V. The sons. Cp. ii. 31, where the plural, The 
sons, is thrice followed by a single name only. 

Shebuel] In xxiv. 20 Shubael ; so LXX. here. 

17. Rehabiah] Cp. xxiv. 21. 

18. Shclo?nith] In xxiv. 22, Shelomoth. 

19. Of the sons of Heh'on] R.V. The sons of Hebron. Cp. xxiv. 23. 

20. Of the sons of Uzziel] R.V. The sons of Uzziel. Cp. xxiv. 24. 
Nine Kohathite families seem to be here reckoned. 

21. The sons of Merari'] Cp. xxiv. 26. 
The sons of Mahli] Cp. xxiv. 28, 29. 

vv. 22— 28.] I. CHRONICLES, XXIII. 115 

Mahli ; Eleazar, and Kish. And Eleazar died, and had 22 
no sons, but daughters : and their brethren the sons of 
Kish took them. The sons of Mushi; Mahli, and Eder, 23 
and Jeremoth, three. 

These we7'e the sons of Levi after the house of their 24 
fathers ; even the chief of the fathers, as they were counted 
by number of names by their polls, that did the work for 
the service of the house of the Lord, from the age of 
twenty years and upward. For David said, The Lord God 25 
of Israel hath given rest unto his people, that they may 
dwell in Jerusalem for ever : and also unto the Levites ; 26 
they shall no more carry the tabernacle, nor any vessels of 
it for the service thereof. For by the last words of David, 27 
the Levites were numbered from twenty years old and 
above : because their office was to wait on the sons of 28 
Aaron for the service of the house of the Lord, in the 
courts, and in the chambers, and in the purifying of all 
holy things^ and the work of the service of the house of 

22. their brethren] Their kinsmen. 
took them] R.V. took them to wife. 

23. The sons of Mushi] Cp. xxiv. 30. 

24 — 27. Organization of the Levites (second account). 

Cp. note at the beginning of the last paragraph. 

24. after the house of their fathers ; even the chief of the fathers^ as 
they were counted by number of names] R.V. after their fathers' houses, 
even the heads of the fathers' houses of those of them that were 
counted, in the number of names. 

25. that they may dwell] R.V. and he dwelleth. More literally, 
and he hath taken up his abode, LXX. koX KaTiUK-qvoiaev. 

26. unto the Levites ; they shall no more carry>] R.V. the Levites 
shall no more have need to carry. 

27. by the last words of David, the Levites were numbered, from 
twenty etc.] Render, in the Last Acts of David is contained the 
number of the sons of Levi from twenty years old and upward. 

28 — 32. Duties of the Levites. 

28. their office was to wait on] Literally, their station was at the 
hand of . For the phrase at the hand of cp. Ps. cxxiii. 2, as the eyes of 
servants look unto the hand of their master. 

the chambers] Cp. ix. 26, note. 


ii6 I. CHRONICLES, XXIII. XXIV. [vv.29— 32; i. 

29 God ; both for the shewbread, and for the fine flour for 
meat offering, and for the unleavened cakes, and for that 
which is baked in the pan, and for that which is fried, and 

30 for all manner of measure and size ; and to stand every 
morning to thank and praise the Lord, and Hkewise at 

51 even ; and to offer all burnt sacrifices unto the Lord in 
the sabbaths, in the new moons, and on the set feasts, by 
number, according to the order commanded unto them, 

32 continually before the Lord : and that they should keep 
the charge of the tabernacle of the congregation, and the 
charge of the * holy place, and the charge of the sons of 
Aaron their brethren, in the service of the house of the 
24 Now these are the divisions of the sons of Aaron. The 
sons of Aaron ; Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. 

29. for the shewbread^ i.e. for the preparation of the shewbread. 
7?ieat offering] R.V. meal offering. Cp. Lev. ii. i, 4, 5. 

and for the unleavened cakes, and for that which is baked in the />an] 
R.V. whetlier of unleavened wafers, or of that which is baked in the 

and for that which is fried] R.V. or of that which is soaked. Cp. 
Lev. vi. 21 [14, Heb.] [taken ; R.V. soaked). 

for all manner of measure atid size] i.e. for measuring the component 
parts of the meal-offering, etc. 

30. every tnorning...and likewise at even] Corresponding with the 
daily morning and evening sacrifice; cp. Ex. xxix. 38, 59. 

31. to offer] The Levites' duty was to give any help short of 
actually offering the victim on the altar and sprinkling the blood. See 
2 Chr. xxix. 21 — 27; XXX. 16, 17; xxxv. 10, 11. 

the set feasts] i.e. the three yearly feasts; Ex. xxiii. 14 — 17. 

by number, according to the order co7nmanded unto them] R.V. in 
number according to the ordinance concerning them. The words 
refer not to the Levites (A.V.), but to the sacrifices (R.V.). 

32. the tabernacle of the congregation] R.V. the tent of meeting. 

the charge of the holy place] The limits within which this charge was 
confined are given Num. iv. 15. Not all Levites, but only the sons of 
Kohath had this particular charge. 

the charge of the sons of Aaron] Cp. Num. xviii. 1 — 7. 

Ch. XXIV. 1 — 19. David's Organization of the Priests 


1. Now these are the divisions of the sons of Aaron] R.V. And the 
courses of the sons of Aaron were these. 
the sons of Aaron] So vi. 3 ; Ex. vi. 23. 

vv. 2— 6.] I. CHRONICLES, XXIV. 117 

But Nadab and Abihu died before their father, and had no 2 
children : therefore Eleazar and Ithamar executed the priest's 
office. And David distributed them, both Zadok of the sons 3 
of Eleazar, and Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar, according 
to their offices in their service. And there were mo^ chief 4 
men found of the sons of Eleazar than of the sons of 
Ithamar : and thus were they divided. Among the sons of 
Eleazar there were sixteen chief men of the house of their 
fathers, and eight among the sons of Ithamar according to 
the house of their fathers. Thus were they divided by lot, 5 
one sort with another ; for the governors of the sanctuary, 
and the governors of the house of God, were of the sons of 
Eleazar, and of the sons of Ithamar. And Shemaiah the 6 
son of Nethaneel the scribe, one of the Levites, wrote them 
before the king, and the princes, and Zadok the priest, 

2. Nadab and Abihu dt^d] By fire from heaven as a punishment 
for sacrilege; Lev. x. i, 2; Num. iii. 4. 

3. David distributed them ^ both Zadok... and Ahimelech'] R.V. David 
with Zadok. . .and Ahimelecli. . .divided them. 

Ahimelech of the softs of Ithama}-] The colleague of Zadok in the 
priesthood is variously named in different passages : — 

I Chr. xxiv. 3. Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar. 

I Chr. xxiv. 6. ,, the son of Abiathar. 

I Chr. xviii. 16. Ahimelech ,, ,, ,, 
Probably the same person is meant throughout, the confusion springing 
from a false reading in 2 Sam. viii. 17, Ahimelech the son of Abiathar 
for Abiathar the son of Ahi?nelech; see Kirkpatrick, in loco. 

according to their offices] R.V. according to their ordering, i.e. 
according to the arrangement which follows; cp. ver. 19. 

4. moe] Cp. xiv. 3, note. 

Among the sons of Eleazar there were sixteen chief men of the 
house of \}ci^\x fathers] R.V. of the sons of Eleazar there were sixteen, 
heads of fathers' houses. 

and eight a7?iong the sotis of Ithamar according to the house of their 
fathers] R.V. and of the sons of Ithamar, according to their fathers' 
houses, eight. 

5. one sort with another] i.e. sons of Eleazar with sons of Ithamar. 
the governors of the sanctuary, and governors of the house of God were 

of the sons, etc.] R.V. there were princes of the sanctuary, and princes 
of God, both of the sons etc. Tht pri?tces of the sanctuary (Is. xliii. 28) 
are probably the same as the princes of God and as the chiefs of the 
priests (2 Chr. xxxvi. 14). The Heb. expression in 2 Chr. xxxv. 8 is 
different {rulers of the house of God). 

6. the scribe, one of the Levites] Particularly described in order to 
distinguish him from the king's scribe (cp. 2 Chr. xxiv. 11). 

ii8 I. CHRONICLES, XXIV. [vv. 7— 17. 

and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, and before the chief of 
the fathers of the priests and Levites : one principal house- 
hold being taken for Eleazar, and one taken for Ithamar. 
7 Now the first lot came forth to Jehoiarib, the second to 
8, 9 Jedaiah, the third to Harim, the fourth to Seorim, the 

10 fifth to Malchijah, the sixth to Mijamin, the seventh to 

11 Hakkoz, the eighth to Abijah, the ninth to Jeshua, the 

12 tenth to Shecaniah, the eleventh to Eliashib, the twelfth 

13 to Jakim, the thirteenth to Huppah, the fourteenth to 

14 Jeshebeab, the fifteenth to Bilgah, the sixteenth to Immer, 
15, 16 the seventeenth to Hezir, the eighteenth to Aphses, the 

17 nineteenth to Pethahiah, the twentieth to Jehezekel, the 
one and twentieth to Jachin, the two and twentieth to 

one principal honsehold'\ R.V. one fathers' house. 

one taken] R.V. one taken (without italics) by an easy emendation of 
the Hebrew. The alternate drawing here described could have lasted 
only for the first sixteen lots ; in the last eight drawings the descendants 
of Eleazar must have drawn against each other only; cp. ver. 4. 

7. JehoiariUl Lists of the priestly families occur also Neh. x. 2 — 8; 
xii. I — 7, 12 — 21. Cp. Ryle (on Neh. xii. 1) for a discussion of the 
names. For Jehoiarib see ix. 10, note. 

8. Harim] So Neh. x. 5; xii. 15, but in Neh. xii. 3, "Rehum." 
The confusion of form is easy in Hebrew writing. 

9. Mijamin] So Neh. x. 7; xii. 5; but xii. 17, " Miniamin." 

10. Hakkoz\ Called "Koz" in Ezra ii. 61; Neh. ill. 4, 21 (R.V. 
*' Hakkoz" in all three places). 

Abijah] So Neh. x. 7; xii. 4, 17. Zacharias, the father of John the 
Baptist, was of the course of Abiah (R.V. Abijah) ; Luke i. 5. 

11. Jeshua] This is the Hebrew name expressed by Tt/o-ous 
in Greek, and by "Jesus" in English. The highpriest under whom 
the Temple was built bore this name according to Ezra iii. 2; 
V. 2. 

Shecaniah] So Neh. xii. 3; but ib. x. 4, xii. 14 "Shebaniah." The 
confusion of B and C is very easy in Hebrew. 

12. Eliashib] A priest of this name is mentioned Neh. xiii. 4 — 7. 
14. Bilgah] "Bilgah" (Neh. xii. 5) appears as a priest or priestly 

family in the time of the Return, and (under the form "Bilgai," Neh. 
X. 8) in the time of Nehemiah. 

Immer] Cp. ix. 12; Ezra ii. 37; Jer. xx. i. 

16. Aphses] R.V. Happizzez. 

16. Jehezekel] R.V. Jehezkel, which is the correct form of "Ezekiel" 
the name of the priest-prophet of the Captivity. It is possible that the 
prophet belonged to this twentieth course and that the name here given 
to it is derived from him. 

17. Jachin] Cp. ix. io( = Neh. xi. 10). 

vv. 18—27.] I. CHRONICLES, XXIV. 119 

Gamul, the three and twentieth to Delaiah, the four and 18 
twentieth to Maaziah. These were the orderings of them 19 
in their service to come into the house of the Lord, 
according to their manner, under Aaron their father, as 
the Lord God of Israel had commanded him. 

And the rest of the sons of Levi were these : Of the sons 20 
of Amram ; Shubael : of the sons of Shubael ; Jehdeiah. 
Concerning Rehabiah : of the sons of Rehabiah, the first 21 
was Isshiah. Of the Izharites ; Shelomoth : of the sons of 22 
Shelomoth ; Jahath. And the sons of Hebron ; Jeriah the 23 
first, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, Jekameam the 
fourth. Of the sons of Uzziel ; Michah : of the sons of 24 
Michah ; Shamir. The brother of Michah was Isshiah : of 25 
the sons of Isshiah ; Zechariah. The sons of Merari were 26 
MahH and Mushi : the sons of Jaaziah ; Beno. The sons 27 
of Merari by Jaaziah ; Beno, and Shoham, and Zaccur, and 

18. Maaziahl Neh. x. 8 (x. 9, Heb.). 

19. These were the order ings\ R. V. This was the ordering". 

their manner, under Aaron] R.V. the ordinance given unto them by 
the hand of Aaron. 
the Lord God of Israel] R.V. the LORD the God of Israel. 

20 — 31 (cp. xxiii. 13 — 23). Families of the Levites. 

These verses repeat the list of Levitic families given in xxiii. 6 — 23 
with the important omission of the whole of the Gershonites (xxiii. 6 — 11), 
but with some additions to the Kohathite and Merarite families. 

20. And the rest of the sons of Levi were these : (^ etc.] R.V. And of 
the rest of the sons of Levi: of etc. 

Amram] The four Kohathite families are now noticed in order, 
viz. Amram, Izhar (ver. 22), Hebron (ver. 23), Uzziel (ver. 24). 
Shubael] Called "Shebuel" in xxiii. 16; xxvi. 24. 

21. Concerning Rehabiah] R.V. Of Rehabiah. He (like Shubael) 
was descended from Moses ; xxiii. 15 — 17. 

22. Shelomoth] Called " Shelomith" in xxiii. 18. 

23. And the sons of Hebron] The text of this verse is mutilated, 
but it has been restored in A.V. (so also R.V.) from xxiii. 19. 

24. Michah] R.V. Micah (as xxiii. 20). 

25. Isshiah] This is the correct form; in xxiii. 20 (A.V.) "Jesiah" 
is wrong. 

26. The sons of Merari] In xxiii. 21 only two families of Merari are 
mentioned, viz., Mahli and Mushi. Here however a third family "the 
sons of Jaaziah" is mentioned. Probably the fuller text is right. 

Beno] Translate "his son"; the word describes Jaaziah as son of 
Merari; cp. ver. 27. 

27. by faaziah; Beno and Shoham] Translate (with a slight 

I20 I. CHRONICLES, XXIV. XXV. [vv.28— 31; 1,2. 

28, 29 Ibri. Of Mahli cmne Eleazar, who had no sons. Concerning 

30 Kish : the son of Kish was Jerahmeel. The sons also of 
Mushi; Mahli, and Eder, and Jerimoth. These were the 

31 sons of the Levites after the house of their fathers. These 
likewise cast lots over against their brethren the sons of 
Aaron in the presence of David the king, and Zadok, and 
Ahimelech, and the chief of the fathers of the priests and 
Levites, even the principal fathers over against their younger 

25 Moreover David and the captains of the host separated 
to the service of the sons of Asaph, and of Heman, and of 
Jeduthun, who should prophesy with harps, with psalteries, 
and with cymbals : and the number of the workmen accord- 
2 ing to their service was : of the sons of Asaph ; Zaccur, and 
Joseph, and Nethaniah, and Asarelah, the sons of Asaph 
under the hands of Asaph, which prophesied according to 

emendation of the Heb. text) : by Jaaziah Ms son : Shoham. Three 
families traced their descent from Merari through Jaaziah. 

28. Eleazar] Cp. xxiii. 22. 

29. Co7icernmg Kish] R.V. Of Kish. 

30. Jerimoth] Spelt "Jeremoth" in xxiii. 23. 

the house of their fathers] R.V, their fathers' houses. 

31. over against their brethren] R.V. even as their brethren. 

and Ahimelech] We expect and Abiathar; cp. ver. 3; xv. 11; 
xviii. 16; with the notes. 

the chief of the fathers] R.V. the heads of the fathers' houses. 

even the principal... brethren] R.V. the fathers' houses of the chief 
even as those of his younger brother. 

Ch. XXV. 1 — 7. The Families of the Singers. 

1. Moreover David] Render, And David. 
separated] Cp. xxiii. 13, note. 

to the service of the sons of Asaph] R.V. for the service certain of 
the sons of Asaph. 
psalteries] See xiii. 8, note. 
of the worktnen] R.V. of them that did the work. 

2. Asaph] See xv. 1 7, note. 

Asarelah] R.V. Asharelah; in ver. 14 "Jesharelah." 

under the hands] R.V. under the hand. 
^ prophesied] i.e. sang and praised in the manner of prophets; cp. ver. 3, 
^prophesied with a harp, to give thanks and to praise the Lord." 
There is no reference to prediction here. Cp. i Sam. x. 5. 

according to the order] R.V. after the order. All was done according 
to the order established by king David. 

vv. 3—7.] I. CHRONICLES, XXV. 121 

the order of the king. Of Jeduthun : the sons of Jeduthun ; 3 
Gedaliah, and Zeri, and Jeshaiah, Hashabiah, and Mattithiah, 
six, under the hands of their father Jeduthun, who prophesied 
with a harp, to give thanks and to praise the Lord. Of 4 
Heman : the sons of Heman ; Bukkiah, Mattaniah, Uzziel, 
Shebuel, and Jerimoth, Hananiah, Hanani, EHathah, Gid- 
dalti, and Romamti-ezer, Joshbekashah, Mallothi, Hothir, 
and Mahazioth : all these were the sons of Heman the king's 5 
seer in the words of God, to lift up the horn. And God 
gave to Heman fourteen sons and three daughters. All 6 
these were under the hands of their father for song i7i the 
house of the Lord, with cymbals, psalteries, and harps, for 
the service of the house of God, according to the king's 
order to Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman. So the number of 7 

3. yeduthwi] See xvi. 41, note. 
Zeri\ In ver. 11 "Izri." 

Jeshaiah^ After this LXX. B inserts the name "Shimei" (Seytteel), no 
doubt rightly for (i) six sons are reckoned in this verse, (2) the 
"Shimei" of ver. 17 is otherwise unmentioned in vv. 2 — 4, though his 
twenty-three companions are named. 

Jeduthun, %vho prophesied tvith a harp to give thanks and to praise"] 
R.V. Jeduthun with the harp, who prophesied in giving thanks and 

4. Hemati\ See xv. 17, note. 

Uzziel] In ver. 18 "Azarel." (R.V.) The variation between the two 
words when written with Hebrew consonants is small. Cp. note on 
2 Chr. xxvi. i ("Uzziah" and "Azariah"). 

Shebuel] In ver. 20 "Shubael." 

yerimoth] In ver. 22 "Jeremoth." 

Ha7taniah, Hajiani] Most Hebrew names are significant, and many 
can be used as mottoes. In this place the Chronicler (or the authority 
from whom he drew the list) has so arranged the names as to suggest a 
sentence (extending to the end of the verse) which runs somewhat as 
follows : — Have inercy upon ?ne, Lord, have mercy upon me; I have 
magnified and exalted [thy] help; I spake of it sitting in ajffliction ; 
grant us still [thy] visions. 

5. the king's seer] This title is given to Gad in xxi. 9, and to Asaph, 
Heman and Jeduthun, all three in 2 Chr. xxxv. 15 (LXX. not Heb.). 

171 the xvords of God] The exact meaning of this is uncertain ; it may 
either mean "in divine things" (i.e. arrangements for worship), or "by 
divine appointment" (cp. 2 Chr. xxix. 15 "by the words of the Lord"). 

to lift up the horn] i.e. to make loud blasts upon the horn. 

fourteen sons] Corresponding with the fourteen names given in 
ver. 4. 

6. according to... Hem an] R.V. Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman 
being under the order of the king. 

122 I. CHRONICLES, XXV. [vv. 8—21. 

them, with their brethren that were instructed in the songs 
of the Lord, eve?i all that were cunning, was two hundred 
fourscore and eight. 

8 And they cast lots, ward against ward, as well the small 

9 as the great, the teacher as the scholar. Now the first lot 
came forth for Asaph to Joseph ; the second to Gedaliah, 

who with his brethren and sons were twelve : the third to 

1 Zaccur, he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve : the 
fourth to Izri, he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve : 

2 the fifth to Nethaniah, he, his sons, and his brethren, were 

3 twelve : the sixth to Bukkiah, he, his sons, and his brethren, 

4 were twelve : the seventh to Jesharelah, he, his sons, and his 

5 brethren, ivere twelve : the eighth to Jeshaiah, he, his sons, 

6 and his brethren, were twelve : the ninth to Mattaniah, he, 

7 his sons, and his brethren, were twelve : the tenth to Shimei, 

8 he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve : the eleventh to 

9 Azareel, he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve : the 
twelfth to Hashabiah, he, his sons, and his brethren, were 

20 twelve : the thirteenth to Shubael, he, his sons, and his 

21 brethren, were twelve : the fourteenth to Mattithiah, he, his 

7. in the songs of the Lord] R.V. in singing unto the Lord. 
ainningl R.V. skilful; as xv. 22, where the same Heb. word is 


two hundred fourscore and eight] The number corresponds with the 
twenty-four courses of twelve members each about to be enumerated. 

8 — 31. The Allotment of the Courses. 

8. ward against ward] R.V. (guessing the sense rightly) for their 
charges (i.e. duties), all alike. The Hebrew text however is faulty. 

the teacher as the scholar] LXX. reXeicov kuI ixavOavbvrwv (i.e. the 
initiated and the learners). For "the teacher" we should perhaps 
render "the skilful" as in ver. 7, R.V. ; the Heb. word is the same. It 
is to be noted that we have here twenty-four courses of singers corre- 
sponding with the twenty-four courses of the priests. 

9. for Asaph] A comparison of vv. 9 — 31 with w. 2 — 4 shews that 
the first, third, fifth and seventh lots fell to Asaph, the second, fourth, 
eighth, tenth, twelfth and fourteenth to Jeduthun, and the rest (fourteen 
in number) to Heman. 

11. Izri] See note on Zeri, ver. 3. 
14. yesharelah] Cp. ver. 2. 

17. Shimei] Not mentioned in the present text of vv. 2 — 4; see 
note on feshaiah, ver. 3. 

18. Azarel] Called Uzziel, ver. 4. 
20. Shubael] Called Shebiiel, ver. 4. 

VV.22— 31 ; 1—5.] I. CHRONICLES, XXV. XXVI. 123 

sons, and his brethren, were twelve : the fifteenth to Jere- 22 
moth, he^ his sons, and his brethren, were twelve : the six- 23 
teenth to Hananiah, he^ his sons, and his brethren, were 
twelve : the seventeenth to Joshbekashah, he^ his sons, and 24 
his brethren, were twelve : the eighteenth to Hanani, he, his 25 
sons, and his brethren, were twelve : the nineteenth to 26 
Mallothi, //(?, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve : the 27 
twentieth to Eliathah, he, his sons, and his brethren, were 
twelve : the one and twentieth to Hothir, he, his sons, and 28 
his brethren, were twelve : the two and twentieth to Giddalti, 29 
he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve : the three and 30 
twentieth to Mahazioth, he, his sons, and his brethren, were 31 
twelve : the four and twentieth to Romamti-ezer, he, his 
sons, and his brethren, were twelve. 

Concerning the divisions of the porters : Of the Korhites 26 
was Meshelemiah the son of Kore, of the sons of Asaph. 
And the sons of Meshelemiah were, Zechariah the firstborn, 2 
Jediael the second, Zebadiah the third, Jathniel the fourth, 
Elam the fifth, Jehohanan the sixth, Elioenai the seventh. 3 
Moreover the sons of Obed-edom were, Shemaiah the first- ^ 
born, Jehozabad the second, Joah the third, and Sacar the 
fourth, and Nethaneel the fifth, Ammiel the sixth, Issachar 5 
the seventh, Peulthai the eighth : for God blessed him. 

22. yerejnolh] Called Jeriinoth^ ver. 4. 

Ch. XXVI. 1 — 12 (cp. ix. 17 — 27). The Courses of the 

1. Concertting the divisions of the portersi R.V. For the courses of 
the doorkeepers. 

Korhites'\ R.V. Korahites; ix. 19. 

Meshelemiah. ..Asaph"] For the names of the doorkeepers see notes 
on ix. 17, and for Asaph see note on ix. 19. 

2. And the sons of IMeshelefuiah were] R.V. And Meshelemiah had 

Zechariah] Cp. ix. i\. 

3. Elioenai] R.V. Eliehoenai. The form differs from that in iii. 23, 
but has the same meaning, viz., "Mine eyes are towards Jehovah." 

4. Moreover the sons of Obed-edom were] R.V. And Obed-edom had 
sons. For Obed-edom see xiii. 13, note. 

5. for God blessed him] "Him" refers to "Obed-edom" (ver. 4), 
who was blessed with eight sons. He himself acknowledged the 
blessing by naming the seventh son "Issachar" ("Reward"), and the 
eighth Feullethai (" Recompence"). 

124 I- CHRONICLES, XXVI. [vv. 6—16. 

6 Also unto Shemaiah his son were sons born, that ruled 
throughout the house of their father : for they were mighty 

7 men of valour. The sons of Shemaiah; Othni, and Rephael, 
and Obed, Elzabad, whose brethren were strong men, Elihu, 

8 and Semachiah. All these of the sons of Obed-edom : they 
and their sons and their brethren, able men for strength for 

9 the service, were threescore and two of Obed-edom. And 
Meshelemiah had sons and brethren, strong men, eighteen. 

10 Also Hosah, of the children of Merari, had sons ; Simri the 
chief, (for though he was not the firstborn, yet his father 

11 made him the chief;) Hilkiah the second, Tebaliah the 
third, Zechariah the fourth : all the sons and brethren of 

12 Hosah were thirteen. Among these were the divisions of 
the porters, eve7i among the chief men, havmg wards one 
against another, to minister in the house of the Lord. 

13 And they cast lots, as well the small as the great, accord- 

14 ing to the house of their fathers, for every gate. And the 
lot eastward fell to Shelemiah. Th&!\for Zechariah his son, 
a wise counseller, they cast lots ; and his lot came out 

15 northward. To Obed-edom southward ; and to his sons the 
t6 house of Asuppim, To Shuppim and Hosah the lot came 

6. throughout the house] R.V. over the house. 

7. whose brethren] The pronoun refers to Elzabad. 

strong men] R.V. valiant men (and so in ver. 9; cp. 2 Chr. xxvi. 17). 

8. for strength] R.V. in strength. 

9. Meshelemiah] Cp. vv. i — 3 to which ver. 9 is a supplement. 

10. Hosah] He is mentioned as a doorkeeper along with Obed- 
edom in xvi. 38. 

Simri] R.V. Shimri. 

12. Amo7ig these... another] R.V. Of these "were the courses of the 
doorkeepers, even of the chief men, having charges like as their 
brethren. In vv. 8, 9, 11 taken together ninety-three doorkeeperr are 
enumerated, who are presumably the heads of the four thousand 
mentioned in xxiii. 5. In ix. 22 again the total number (as it seems) of 
doorkeepers is given as two hundred and twelve. The discrepancy is 
probably due to the use of different documents belonging to different 
dates by the Chronicler. 

13—19 (cp. ix. 23 — 26). The Stations of the Doorkeepers. 

13. the house of their fathers] R.V. their fathers' houses. 

14. Shelemiah] i.e. Meshelemiah, vv. i, 2. 
wise counseller] R.V. discreet counsellor. 

15. the house of Asuppim] R.V. the storehouse. 

16. To Shtippim ajid Hosah] Read, To Hosah. The word "Shuppim" 

vv. 17—21.] 1. CHRONICLES, XXVI. 125 

forth westward, with the gate Shallecheth, by the causeway 
of the going up, ward against ward. Eastward were six 17 
Levites, northward four a day, southward four a day, and 
toward Asuppim two a7id two. At Parbar westward, four at 18 
the causeway, afid two at Parbar. These are the divisions 19 
of the porters among the sons of Kore, and among the sons 
of Merari. 

And of the Levites, Ahijah was over the treasures of the 2a 
house of God, and over the treasures of the dedicate* //^zVz^j'. 
As concernifig the sons of Laadan ; the sons of the Gershon- 21 
ite Laadan, chief fathers, even of Laadan the Gershonite, 

(LXX. B, eh devrepov) seems to be an accidental repetition (in a 
corrupt form) of "Asuppim" (ver. 15), and so should be omitted from 
the text. 

Hosah... going up\ R. V. Hosah westward, by the gate of Shallecheth 
(mg. "casting forth"), at the causeway that goeth up. There is no 
other mention in the Bible of a gate " Shallecheth," but it is perhaps to 
be identified with "the entering in of the house of the Lord. ..which was 
in the precincts" ("Parvarim" Heb.) mentioned 2 Kin. xxiii. 11; cp. 
note on ver. 18. "The causeway" led up to the Temple either from 
Ophel (on the S.) or from the Western City (across the Tyropneon 
Valley). Traces of two causeways have been discovered by excavation, 
viz., "Wilson's Arch" (Bddeker, p. 57) and "Robinson's Arch" [ib. p. 
59). The second of these arches probably marks the site of a causeway 
belonging to the period of the Kings. 

17. towai'd Asuppim'] R.V. for the storehouse. 

18. Parbar'] This word, apparently the same as pan>arim, 2 Kin. 
xxiii. II (R.V. "precincts"; cp. R.V. mg. here), seems to denote 
some building built on the Temple area on the west side. It may 
have been a colonnade. The word is Persian and means "lighted [by 
the sun]". 

19. These... Merari] R.V. These were the courses of the door- 
keepers ; of the sons of the Korahites, and of the sons of Merari. 

20 — 32. Various Offices. 

20. Andoi the Levites^ Ahijah was over] Read (with LXX. ; cp. R.V. 
marg. ), And the Levites their brethren were over. The confusion of 
readings is easy in Hebrew; cp. ii. 25 for a similar case. 

the treasures] R.V. the treasuries; so in vv. 22, 24, 26; and so in 
xxviii. II, 12 (A. v.). 

the dedicate things] Cp. vv. 26 — 28. 

21. As concerning... y^/;?>//] R.V. The sons of Ladan; the sons of 
the Gershonites belonging to Ladan, the heads of the fathers' houses 
belonging to Ladan the Gershonite; Jehieli. 

Laadan] R.V. Ladan; cp. xxiii. 7; called Libni in vi. 17 [2, Heb.]. 

126 I. CHRONICLES, XXVI. [vv. 22—30. 

22 ivere Jehieli. The sons of Jehieli ; Zetham, and Joel his 
brother, ivhich were over the treasures of the house of the 

23 Lord. Of the Amramites, «;z^the Izharites, the Hebronites, 

24 and the Uzzielites : and Shebuel the son of Gershom, the 

25 son of Moses, was ruler of the treasures. And his brethren 
by Eliezer; Rehabiah his son, and Jeshaiah his son, and 
Joram his son, and Zichri his son, and Shelomith his son. 

26 Which Shelomith and his brethren were over all the treasures 
of the dedicate things^ which David the king, and the chief 
fathers, the captains over thousands and hundreds, and the 

27 captains of the host, had dedicated. Out of the spoils won 
in battles did they dedicate to maintain the house of the 

28 Lord. And all that Samuel the seer, and Saul the son of 
Kish, and Abner the son of Ner, and Joab the son of 
Zeruiah, had dedicated ; and whosoever had dedicated any- 
thing^ it was under the hand of Shelomith, and of his 

29 brethren. Of the Izharites, Chenaniah, and his sons 
were for the outward business over Israel, for officers 

30 and judges. And of the Hebronites, Hashabiah and his 
brethren, men of valour, a thousand and seven hundred, 
were officers among them of Israel on this side Jordan 
westward in all the business of the Lord, and in the service 

Jehielt\ Called "Jehiel" in xxiii. 8. 

22. Ze(ha??i and ^oe/] These appear rather as brethren of Jehieli 
(Jehiel) in xxiii. 8; but since families, not individuals, are spoken of, 
the discrepancy is not important. 

23. i/ie Amramites etc.] Cp. xxiii. 12. 

24. Shebuet] Cp. xxiii. 16; called "Shubael" in xxiv. 20, 

25. And his brethren by Eliezer ; Rehabiah^ R.V. And Ms brethren; 
of Eliezer came Rehabiah. Cp. xxiii. 15 — 17, xxiv. 21. 

Sheloviith'] R.V. Shelomoth (so C'thib) ; A.V. follows K'ri ; cp. 
ver. 28 (R.V. mg.). 

26. David the king] Cp. xviii. 11. 

the chief fathers'] R.V. the heads of the fathers' houses. 

27. to maintain] R.V. to repair (the same Heb. word as in 3 Chr. 
xxiv. 5; xxix. 3). 

29. Izharites] Cp. xxiii. 12. 

the outivard business] This business as here defined "for officers and 
forjudges" (cp. 2 Chr. xix. 11) is perhaps different from that mentioned 
in Neh. xi. 16 ("the outward business of the house of the Lord"). 

30. the Hebronites] Cp. xxiii. 12. 

were officers among them of Israel] R.V. had the oversig^ht of Israel. 
Oft this side fordan westward] R.V. beyond Jordan westward; cp. 
Josh. xxii. 7, R.V. Western Palestine is meant. 

vv. 31,32; I— 3-] I. CHRONICLES, XXVI. XXVII. 127 

of the king. Among the Hebronites zvas Jerijah the chief, 31 
ei'en among the Hebronites, according to the generations of 
his fathers. In the fortieth year of the reign of David they 
were sought for, and there were found among them mighty 
men of valour at Jazer of Gilead. And his brethren, men of 32 
valour, were two thousand and seven hundred chief fathers, 
whom king David made rulers over the Reubenites, the 
Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, for every matter 
pertaining to God, and affairs of the king. 

Now the children of Israel after their number, to wit^ the 27 
chief fathers and captains of thousands and hundreds, and 
their officers that served the king in any matter of the 
courses, which came in and went out month by month 
throughout all the months of the year, of every course were 
twenty and four thousand. Over the first course for the 2 
first month was Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel : and in his 
course were twenty and four thousand. Of the children of 3 
Perez was the chief of all the captains of the host for the 

31. A?nong the Hebronites yN2J=>...fathers\ R.V. Of the Hebronites 
was Jerijah the chief, even of the Hebronites, according to their 
generations by fathers' houses. Jerijah is called Jeriah (Heb. 
Je7'ijahu) in xxiii. 19. 

in the fortieth year] Cp. xxiii. 27, By the last words (R.V. mg., In 
the last aets) of David the sons of Levi tvere numbered. 

at yazer\ Cp. vi. 81 (vi. ^d Heb.); Num. xxi. 32, R.V. The 
Eastern Hebronites were given office east of Jordan; cp. ver. 32. 

32. his brethren] i.e. the brethren of Jerijah. 
chief fathers] R.V. heads of fathers' houses. 

rulers] R.V. overseers; cp. ver. 30 (R.V. "had the oversight"). 
Manasseh] R.V. the Manassites. 
and affairs] R.V. and for the affairs. 

Ch. XXVH. 1 — 16. The Service of the Courses. 
These "courses" are not mentioned elsewhere in the O.T, ; but in 
I Kin. V. 14 (v. 28 Heb.), where however the Heb. word is different, 
courses of Israelites engaged on Solomon's building works are 

1. the chief fathers and captains] R.V. the heads of fathers' houses 
and the captains. 

came in and tvent out] Came on duty and went off duty; cp. 2 Chr. 
xxiii, 8. 

2. fashobeam] Cp. xi. ir, note. 

3. Of the children of Perez was the chief] R.V. He was Of the 
children of Perez, the chief. Perez is the Pharez (R.V. "Perez") of 
ii- 4. 5- 

128 I. CHRONICLES, XXVII. [vv. 4— 12. 

4 first month. And over the course of the second month 
was Dodai an Ahohite, and of his course was Mikloth also 
the ruler : in his course likewise were twenty and four thou- 

5 sand. The third captain of the host for the third month 
was Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, a chief priest : and in his 

6 course were twenty and four thousand. This is that 
Benaiah, ivho was mighty among the thirty, and above the 

7 thirty : and in his course was Ammizabad his son. The 
fourth captain for the fourth month was Asahel the brother 
of Joab, and Zebadiah his son after him : and in his course 

8 ivere twenty and four thousand. The fifth captain for the 
fifth month was Shamhuth the Izrahite : and in his course 

9 were twenty and four thousand. The sixth captain for the 
sixth month 7vas Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite : and in 

10 his course were twenty and four thousand. The seventh 
captain for the seventh month was Helez the Pelonite, of 
the children of Ephraim : and in his course were twenty and 

11 four thousand. The eighth captain for the eighth month 
was Sibbecai the Hushathite, of the Zarhites : and in his 

12 course ive7-e twenty and four thousand. The ninth captain 
for the ninth month ivas Abiezer, the Anetothite, of the 
Benjamites : and in his course were twenty and four thou- 

4. Dodai an Ahohite] Perhaps we should read (cp. xi. 12), "Eleazar 
the son of Dodo, the Ahohite." 

of his course was Mikloth also the ruler] The words are corrupt and 
are omitted in the LXX. Perhaps the original text said that Mikloth 
(a Benjamite, viii. 32) was deputy-ruler over this course. Cp. ver. 6. 

in his course likewise] R.V. and in his course. 

5. Benaiah] Cp. xi. 22 ff. 

Jehoiada, a chief priest] R.V. Jehoiada the priest, chief, {"chief" 
referring to Benaiah). 

6. mighty among the thirty and above the thirty] R.V. the mighty 
man of the thirty, and over the thirty. Cp. xi. 25. 

in his course] R.V. of his course (as in ver. 4). 

7. Asahel] Cp. xi. 26, note. 

8. Shamhuth the Izrahite] Perhaps to be identified with "Sham- 
moth the Harorite" of xi. 27; see note there. 

9. Ira] Cp. xi. 28. 

10. Helez the Pelonite] Cp. xi. 27, note. 

11. Sibbecai the Hushathite] Cp. xi. 29, notes. 

Zarhites] R.V. Zerahites (also ver. 13). Descendants of Zerah, son 
of Judah; ii. 4. 

12. Abiezer the kXL2XtioVcAX%] Cp. xi. 28. 

vv. 13— 2I.J I. CHRONICLES, XXVII. 129 

sand. The tenth captain for the tenth month was Maharai 13 
the Netophathite, of the Zarhites : and in his course were 
twenty and four thousand. The eleventh captain for the m 
eleventh month was Benaiah the Pirathonite, of the children 
of Ephraim : and in his course were twenty and four thou- 
sand. The twelfth captain for the twelfth month was 15 
Heldai the Netophathite, of Othniel : and in his course were 
twenty and four thousand. 

Furthermore over the tribes of Israel : the ruler of the 16 
Reubenites was Eliezer the son of Zichri: of the Simeonites, 
Shephatiah the son of Maachah : of the Levites, Hashabiah 17 
the son of Kemuel : of the Aaronites, Zadok : of Judah, 18 
Elihu, one of the brethren of David : of Issachar, Omri the 
son of Michael : of Zebulun, Ishmaiah the son of Obadiah : 19 
of Naphtali, Jerimoth the son of Azriel : of the children of 20 
Ephraim, Hoshea the son of Azaziah : of the half tribe 
of Manasseh, Joel the son of Pedaiah : of the half tribe 21 
of Manasseh in Gilead, Iddo the son of Zechariah : of 

13. Maha7'ai the A^etophatkite] Cp. xi. 30. 

14. Benaiah the Pirathonite'^ Cp. xi. 31. 

15. Heldai\ Called Heled in xi. 30. 

of Othniel'\ Cp. Judg. i. 13; iii. 9. Thus Heldai was not of pure 
Israelite descent, but belonged to the Kenizzites (Kenaz), a younger 
branch of the Calebites, who, it seems, were a tribe incorporated into 
Judah either shortly before or during the conquest of Canaan. See 
Hastings' Bible Diet. Art. Caleb. 

16 — 24. The Princes of the Tribes of Israel. 

Cp. Num. i. 2 — 15 where Moses is enjoined to have with him a 
representative of each tribe at the numbering of the people; cp. vv. 23, 
24 below. *In the present list the tribes of Gad and Asher are omitted, 
probably accidentally. 

17. Of the Levites] R. V. of Levi. 

Hashabiah] Perhaps the person mentioned in xxvi. 30. The name 
is common among Levites. 

of the Aaronites, Zadok] R.V. of Aaron, Zadok. Cp. xii. 27, 28, 
whence we may conclude that Zadok succeeded Jehoiada as ruler. 

18. Elihu] Perhaps the "Eliab" of i Sam. xvi. 6; cp. R.V. mg. 
21. Gilead] "Gilead" is strictly speaking the name of the district 

between the Jabbok and Moab, in which the tribes of Gad and Reuben 
dwelt. Here it is used less precisely to include Bashan, the district N.E. 
of Jordan in which the half tribe of Manasseh lived. 

Iddo] Spelt quite differently in Heb. from the name of the father of 
the prophet Zechariah (Zech. i. i). 


I30 I. CHRONICLES, XXVII. [vv. 22— 27. 

22 Benjamin, Jaasiel the son of Abner : of Dan, Azareel the 
son of Jeroham. These were the princes of the tribes of 

23 But David took not the number of them from twenty 
years old and under : because the Lord had said he would 

24 increase Israel like to the stars of the heavens. Joab the 
son of Zeruiah began to number, but he finished not, because 
there fell wrath for it against Israel ; neither was the number 
put in the account of the chronicles of king David. 

25 And over the king's treasures was Azmaveth the son of 
Adiel : and over the storehouses in the fields, in the cities, 
and in the villages, and in the castles, was Jehonathan the 

26 son of Uzziah : and over them that did the work of the field 

27 for tillage of the ground was Ezri the son of Chelub : and 
over the vineyards was Shimei the Ramathite : over the 
increase of the vineyards for the wine cellars was Zabdi the 

Abner] t Sam. xiv. 50, 51. 

23. ^ook not the nu?uber] (Cp. the note at the head of this para- 
graph). The Chronicler notices that David conformed to the regulation 
given in Num. i. 3, viz., that only those above tvi^enty years old, and not 
those below twenty, were to be numbered. 

24. he finished not] Cp. xxi. 6. 

because there fell wrath for it against Israel] R.V. and there came 
wrath for this upon Israel. 

in the account of] R.V. into the account in. A summary of the 
numbers of David's census is given in xxi. 5 and also (with divergences) 
in 2 Sam. xxiv. 9. The Chronicler probably means in the present 
passage that the details of the census were not entered in the official 

the chronicles] Lit. the acts of the days ; cp. Introduction, § i. 

26 — 31. Various Officers of the King. 

Twelve different officers are named here who acted as stewards of 
king David's property. 

25. treasures... storehouses] R.V. treasuries... treasuries (the same 
Heb. word is repeated). 

castles] Lit. towers \ cp. 1 Chr. xxvi. 10; xxvii. 4. 

Jehonathan] R.V. Jonathan. 

27. the Ramathite] The Avell-known Ramah was in Benjamin, but 
there was also a Ramah (or Ramoth) of the South (Josh. xix. 8; i Sam. 
xxx. 27) from which the epithet " Ramathite" might be derived. 

the Shiphmite] The adjective is probably derived from "Siphmoth" 
(i Sam. xxx. 28), the name of a place in the south of Judah. We 
should read either "Siphmite" here, or "Shiphmoth" in i Sam. 

vv. 28—34.] I. CHRONICLES, XXVII. 131 

Shiphmite : and over the olive trees and the sycomore trees 28 
that were in the low plains was Baal-hanan the Gederite : 
and over the cellars of oil was Joash : and over the herds 29 
that fed in Sharon was Shitrai the Sharonite : and over the 
herds that were in the valleys ivas Shaphat the son of Adlai : 
over the camels also was Obil the Ishmaelite : and over the 30 
asses was Jehdeiah the Meronothite : and over the flocks 31 
ivas Jaziz the Hagerite. All these were the rulers of the 
substance which was king David's. Also Jonathan David's 32 
uncle was a counseller, a wise man, and a scribe: and Jehiel 
the son of Hachmoni was with the king's sons : and Ahitho- 33 
phel was the king's counseller : and Hushai the Archite 
was the king's companion : and after Ahithophel was Jehoiada 34 

28. sycomo7-e\ The fig-mulberry, a tree having leaves like mulloerry- 
leaves, and bearing a fruit resembling figs. Cp. 2 Chr. i. 15; Amos 
vii. 14. 

in the low plains] R.V. in the lowland. Heb. Shephelah. See 
note on 2 Chr. i. 15 ("vale"). 

Gederite] i.e. inhabitant of "Geder" (Josh. xii. 13), perhaps another 
form of " Gederah " {ib. xv. 36). A place in the south of Judah is in- 
tended in any case. 

29. Sharojt] The great maritime plain bounded on the East by the 
"lowland" (Shephelah). "The valleys" would probably be the de- 
pressions among the hills of the Shephelah which open out into Sharon ; 
cp. Cant. ii. i. 

30. Obil] The name is a form of the Arabic word dbil, "one who 
feeds camels." 

the Meronothite] Meronoth was perhaps near Gibeon and Mizpah; 
cp. Neh. iii. 7. 

31. Hagerite] R.V. Hagrite; cp. v. 10. 

32 — 34 (cp. xviii. 15 — 17 = 2 Sam. viii. 16 — 18; cp. ib. xx. 23 — 26). 
David's Officers at Court. 

32. Jonathan David'' s jincle] Render (with R.V. mg.) Jonathan 
David's brother's son. This is most probably the "Jonathan son of 
Shimea David's brother" of xx. 7 ( = 2 Sam. xxi. 21). No uncle of 
David named Jonathan is known. 

a 7vise man] R.V. a man of understanding. 
ascribe] Not the chief scribe; cp. xviii. 16, note. 
7vith the king^s sons] As tutor ; cp. 2 Kin. x. 6. 

33. Ahithophel] See 2 Sam. xv. 31; xvi. 20 — xvii. 23. 
Hushai] See 2 Sam. xv, 32 — 37; xvi. 16 — 19; xvii. 5 — x6. 
Archite] The meaning of this word is unknown; it has no connexion 

with the "Arkite" of i. 15. 

king^s companion] R.V. king's friend; cp. 2 Sam. xvi. 16. Cp. 
Erman, Ancient Egypt, Eng. Tr. p. 72. "Special titles served to signify 


132 I. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. [vv. i, 2. 

the son of Benaiah, and Abiathar : and the general of the 
king's army was Joab. 
28 And David assembled all the princes of Israel, the princes 
©f the tribes, and the captains of the companies that minis- 
tered to the king by course, and the captains over the thou- 
sands, and captains over the hundreds, and the stewards 
over all the substance and possession of the king, and of his 
sons, with the officers, and with the mighty men, and with 
2 all the valiant men, unto Jerusalem. Then David the king 
stood up upon his feet, and said, Hear me, my brethren, 
and my people : As for me, 1 had in mine heart to build a 

the degree of rank the great men held with respect to the king [of 
Egypt]. In old times the most important were the friend and the well- 
beloved friend of the king." The Greek kings of Syria granted similar 
titles to their chief dependants; cp. i Mace. ii. 18 (R.V. with marg.). 

34. after Ahithophel'] Cp. ver. 7, note. 

Jehoiada the son of Benaiah^ Either we must read, "Benaiah the 
son of Jehoiada" (cp. xviii. 17), or we must assume that a person 
known only from this passage is meant. 

and Abiathar'] Probably such a phrase as "And Zadok and 
Abiathar were priests" (cp. 2 Sam. xx. 25) originally stood here. 

the general of the king's army] R.V. tlie captain of the king's host. 

Ch. XXVIII. 1—8 (cp. xxii. 17—19). David's charge to the 
chief >ien of israel concerning the building of the 

1. the princes of the tribes] Cp. xxvii. 16 — 22. 
the captains of the companies] See xxvii. i — 15. 
that ministered to] R.V. that served (as in xxvii. i). 

the stewards] R.V. the rulers (as xxvii. 31). The A.V. has trans- 
lated the same Hebrew word {sdrim) in this verse by three different 
English words, \\z., princes, captains, and stewards. See xxvii. 25 — 31. 

possession] R.V. possessions, mg. cattle. 

officers] R.V. mg. eumcchs ; the earlier authorities however for David's 
reign (in the books of Samuel) do not mention such officials ; and they 
were perhaps introduced into the Israelite court at a later time. Yet cp. 
I Sam. viii. 15. 

and with all the valiant men] R.V. even aU the mighty men of 

2. stood up upon his feet] Kings sometimes made orations sitting ; 
cp. Acts xii. 21. Here the king stands to mark the greatness of the 

77iy brethren] The king is the brother of his subjects ; Deut. xvii. 15, 
20; cp. Ps. xlv. 7. 

/ had m mine heart] See xvii. 1 ; 2 Sam. vii. 2. 

vv. 3—8.] I. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. 133 

house of rest for the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and 
for the footstool of our God, and had made ready for the 
building : but God said unto me, Thou shalt not build a 3 
house for my nam'e, because thou hast been a man of war, 
and hast shed blood. Howbeit the Lord God of Israel 4 
chose me before all the house of my father to be king over 
Israel for ever : for he hath chosen Judah to be the ruler ; 
and of the house of Judah, the house of my father; and 
among the sons of my father he liked me to make 7ne king 
over all Israel: and of all my sons, (for the Lord hath given 5 
me many sons,) he hath chosen Solomon my son to sit upon 
the throne of the kingdom of the Lord over Israel. And 6 
he said unto me, Solomon thy son, he shall build my house 
and my courts : for I have chosen him to be my son, and I 
will be his father. Moreover I will establish his kingdom 7 
for ever, if he be constant to do my commandments and my 
judgments, as at this day. Now therefore in the sight of all 8 
Israel the congregation of the Lord, and in the audience of 
our God, keep and seek for all the commandments of the 

a house of resf\ Cp. xvii. 5; 2 Sam. vii. 6. 

the footstool] Cp. Is. Ix. 13. 

and had made ready] R.V. and I had made ready. 

3. thou hast been a man of war] R.V. thou art a man of war. See 
note on xxii. 8. 

4. before all the hotise] R. V. out of all the house. See i Sam. xvi. 

king., for ever] i.e. the kingdom is to abide with David and his 

ruler] R.V. prince; Hebrew w^zo-zi/. Cp. v, 1 (A.V. "chief ruler," 
R.V. "prince"). 

he liked me] R.V. he took pleasure in me. 

6. many sons] Cp. iii. i — 9. 

he hath chosen Solotnon] The earlier histories [Samziel, Kings) do 
not say that God chose Solomon as David's successor; but compare 
2 Sam. xii. 24, 25; i Kin. i. 11 — 14. 

the throne of the kingdom of the Lord] Cp. xxix. 23, the throne of the 
Lord. The Chronicler speaks as one who regards the king as the 
deputy of the Lord. 

6. he shall build my house] Cp. xxii. 10. 

7. Moreover L will establish] R.V. And I will establish. Cp. 
xvii. II. 

if he be constant] Lit. if he be strong; cp. vv. 10, 20, be strong (same 
word in Heb.). Cp. i Kin. ix. 4, 5. 

8. and seek for] R.V. and seek out. The same Hebrew word 

134 I- CHRONICLES, XXVIII. [vv. 9— n- 

Lord your God : that ye may possess this good land, and 
leave it for an inheritance for your children after you for 

9 ever. And thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of 
thy father, and serve him with a perfect heart and with a 
willing mind : for the Lord searcheth all hearts, and under- 
standeth all the imaginations of the thoughts : if thou seek 
him, he will be found of thee ; but if thou forsake him, he 

10 will cast thee off for ever. Take heed now ; for the Lord 
hath chosen thee to build a house for the sanctuary : be 
strong, and do //. 

11 Then David gave to Solomon his son the pattern of the 
porch, and of the houses thereof, and of the treasuries there- 
of, and of the upper chambers thereof, and of the inner 

is used xiii. 3, we sought not unto it (i.e. the ark) in the days of Saul 

that ye may possess this good land^ possess = inherit. The Heb. 
word connotes three different ideas, which may all have been present to 
the mind of the speaker, viz. (i) continued holding of the land by 
passing it from father to son (cp. Ex. xx. 12), (2) completion of the work 
of conquest left unfinished by Joshua (cp. Gen. xxiv. 60), (3) enjoyment 
of the fruits of the land (cp. Ps. xxv. 13). 

9 — 21. David's Charge to Solomon. 

9. know thou the God of thy father"] For this use of know cp. 
Ex. V. 2 ; Is. i. 3; Jer. xxxi. 34. 

with a perfect heart] i.e. with a single, undivided hediXt. In 2 Chr. xv. 
17 the heart of king Asa is descril^ed 2^% perfect, because he took no part 
in the idolatrous practices which prevailed in his day. Faithfulness to 
Jehovah, not moral perfection, is implied in phrases of this kind. 

the Lord searcheth] Cp. Ezekiel's vision of the Lord's detection 
of secret idolatry (Ezek. viii.). 

10. hath chosen thee] See on ver. 5. 

11. the pattern] Cp. ver. 12; Ex. xxv. 9. The Temple like the 
tabernacle is to be constructed according to a pattern or model com- 
municated by inspiration. Cp. Ex. xxviii. 3; xxxi. 3. 

of the porch] R. V. of the porch of the temple. The triple-recurring 
thereof x^ioxs to the Temple. 

the porch^ Cp. 2 Chr. iii. 4; i Kin. vi. 3. 

the houses thereof] Cp. 2 Chr. xxxiv. 11. We should expect here a 
mention of the House itself. 

the treasuries] A different Hebrew word from that used in ver. 12. 
The inner treasuries mentioned here were for treasure ; the outer 
treasuries (ver. 12) were perhaps rather store-chambers. 

upper chambers] R.V. upper rooms. Cp. i Kin. vi. 6 (the Hebrew 
word however is different). 

vv. 12—16.] I. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. 135 

parlours thereof, and of the place of the mercy seat, and the 12 
pattern of all that he had by the spirit, of the courts of the 
house of the Lord, and of all the chambers round about, 
of the treasuries of the house of God, and of the treasuries 
of the dedicate things : also for the courses of the priests 13 
and the Levites, and for all the work of the service of the 
house of the Lord, and for all the vessels of service in the 
house of the Lord. He gave of gold by weight for things of 1^ 
gold, for all instruments of all manner of service ; silver also 
for all instruments of silver by weight, for all instruments 
of every kind of service: even the weight for the candlesticks 15 
of gold, and for their lamps of gold, by weight for every 
candlestick, and j^^ the lamps thereof: and for the candle- 
sticks of silver by weight, both for the candlestick, and also 
for the lamps thereof, according to the use of every candle- 
stick. And by weight he gave gold for the tables of shew- 16 

inner parlours'] R.V. inner chambers, probably inner recesses of the 
Temple itself. 

the place of the mercy seat\ The Holy of Holies. 

12. that he had by the spirit] i.e. that had come to him by revelation 
and rested with him waiting for realisation. R.V. marg. , that he had 
in his spirit, a less likely translation. 

of the courts] The last verse dealt with the Temple itself; this one 
with the courts and detached buildings. 

chambers] Cp. ix. 26, note. 

the treasuries] The same Hebrew word as in xxvi. 20 {treastires^ 
A. v.); Neh. xiii. 12, 15. See note on ver. 11. 

dedicate things] xxvi. 26 — 28; 2 Chr. xv. 18. 

13. also for the courses] Render, Also in regard to the courses. 
Vv. 13 — 18 hang closely together; cp. the punctuation of the R.V. ; 
and the summarizing phrase All this of ver. 19. 

of the priests and the Levites] Cp. xxiv. i — 31. 

14. He gave of gold by weight for things of gold] R.V. of gold by 
weight for the vessels of gold, omitting he gave, because the completion 
of the sense is reserved (as in ver. 13) until ver. 19. 

instruments] R.V. vessels, 
silver also] R. V. of silver. 

15. everi the weight for the candlesticks of gold, and for their lamps of 
gold] R.V. by weight also for the candlesticks of gold, and for the 
lamps thereof, of gold. 

of silver by weight, both for the candlestick, and also for the lamps 
thereof] R.V. of silver, silver by weight for every candlestick and 
for the lamps thereof. 

16. by zueight he g^vegold] R.V. the gold by weight. Cp. R.V. of 
ver. 14. 

136 1. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. [vv. 17—20. 

bread, for every table ; and likewise silver for the tables of 

17 silver : also pure gold for the fleshhooks, and the bowls, 
and the cups : and for the golden basons he gave gold by 
weight for every bason ; and likewise silver by weight for 

18 every bason of silver : and for the altar of incense refined 
gold by weight ; and gold for the pattern of the chariot of 
the cherubims, that spread out their wings, and covered the 

19 ark of the covenant of the Lord. All this, said David, the 
Lord made me understand in writing by his hand upon me, 

20 even all the works of this pattern. And David said to 
Solomon his son, Be strong and of good courage, and do it : 
fear not, nor be dismayed : for the Lord God, even my 
God, will be with thee ; he will not fail thee, nor forsake 
thee, until thou hast finished all the work for the service 

tables of shewbread"] Elsewhere only one table for the shewbread is 
mentioned; cp. 2 Chron. xxix. 18; Ex. xxxv, 13; xxxvii. 10; xl. 22. 

and likewise silver] R.V. and silver. The silver tables are not 
mentioned elsewhere ; probably they stood in some of the chambers 
(ver. 12) of the Temple courts for the use of the Levites in their 

17. also pure gold for the fleshhooks, and the bowls, and the clips'] 
R.V. and the fleshhooks, and the hasons, and the cups, of pure gold. 

fleshhooks] Ex. xxvii. 3; i Sam. ii. 13. 

bozvls] R.V. basons ; Hebrew 7nizrdq. These were used for dashing 
the blood of a victim against the altar. Cp. 2 Chr. xxix. 22. 

the cups] Probably the same as ihe. JlagoJis (R.V.) of Ex. xxv. 29 
which were used for pouring out the drink offering {to pour out withal, 

and for the golden basons he gave gold by weight for every bason] R.V. 
and for the golden bowls by weight for every bowl. Cp. R.V. of 
w. 14, 16. 

and likewise silver by weight for every bason of silver] R.V. and for 
the silver bowls by weight for every bowl. 

18. the altar of incense] 2 Chr. xxvi. 16; Ex. xxx. i — 10. 

the chariot of the cherubit7is] R.V. the chariot, even the cherubim. 
Cp. Ezek. i. 5 — 10, 15 — 17. 

19. All this, said David, the LORD made me understand in writing 
by his hand upon me, even all the zvorks of this pattern] The 
"writing" here mentioned probably means not a book, but a plan or 
series of patterns shewn to him in a vision. Cp. Ex. xxv. 9. 

20. Be stro)ig] God's help in the planning is a pledge of God's help 
in the accomplishment. Cp. ver. 10, xxii. 13. The work was great, 
and Solomon young; xxii. 5. 

until thou hast finished all the work...] R.V. until all the work... be 

vv.2i;i— 3.] I. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. XXIX. 137 

of the house of the Lord. And behold, the courses of the 21 
priests and the Levites, even they shall be with thee for all 
the service of the house of God : and there shall be with 
thee for all man?ier of workmanship every willing skilful 
man^ for any manjier of service : also the princes and all the 
people will be wholly at thy commandment. 

Furthermore David the king said unto all the congrega- 29 
tion, Solomon my son, whom alone God hath chosen, is yet 
young and tender, and the work is great : for the palace is 
not for man, but for the Lord God. Now I have prepared 2 
with all my might for the house of my God the gold for 
things to be made ^gold, and the silver for things of silver, 
and the brass for things of brass, the iron for things of iron, 
and wood for things of wood ; onyx stones, and stones to be 
set, glistering stones, and of divers colours, and all manner 
^precious stones, and marble stones in abundance. More- 3 
over, because I have set my affection to the house of my 

21. the courses of the priests and the Levites, even they shall be with 
thee] R.V. there are the courses of the priests and the Levites. 

for all manner oi zvorknianship every willing skilful man] R.V. in all 
manner of work every willing man that hath skill. 

also the princes'] R.V. also the captains. 

Ch. XXIX. 1 — 5. David's Challenge to Liberality. 

1. Furthermore David] R.V. And David. 

congregation] or, asse7nbly ; the Hebrew word is cognate to the verb 
translated assembled vn xxviii. i. 

who7n alojte God hath chosen] Cp. xxviii. 5. 

the palace] Hebrew, btrdh, a word applied to the Temple only here 
and ver. 19. In Neh. ii. 8 (cp. Ryle in loco) the building which after- 
wards became the Tower of Antonia (r/ Trape/x^o\7], the castle., Acts xxi. 
37; xxii. 24) which overlooked the Temple is called the castle (birah) 
which appertaitieth to the house. In Neh. i. i Shushan is described 
as a blrdh, probably as being a fortress as well as a royal city. 

The Temple is frequently called heykdl {palace, great house) in the 
Old Testament, but the most frequent appellation is simply bayith 

2. with all my might] Cp. xxii. 14, in my affliction (R.V.). 

the gold for things to be made of gold] R.V. the gold for the things 
Of gold. 

onyx] R.V. mg. beryl. Cp. Gen. ii. 12 (R.V. mg. beryl). 

glistering stones] R.V. stones for inlaid work (Hebrew, "stones of 
pilch'''). Cp. Is. liv. II, I will lay thy stones zvithfair colours (Hebrew, 
**with/z2r/i"). Glister is an old form oi glisten. 

3. Moreover] R.V. Moreover also. 

138 I. CHRONICLES, XXIX. [w. 4— 7- 

God, I have of mine own proper good, of gold and silver, 
which I have given to the house of my God, over and above 

4 all that I have prepared for the holy house, even three 
thousand talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and seven 
thousand talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the 

5 houses ivithal: the gold for things ^/gold, and the silver for 
things of silver, and for all manner of work to be made by the 
hands of artificers. And who then is willing to consecrate 
his service this day unto the Lord ? 

6 Then the chief of the fathers and princes of the tribes of 
Israel, and the captains of thousands and of hundreds, with 

7 the rulers over the king's work, offered willingly, and gave 
for the service of the house of God of gold five thousand 
talents and ten thousand drams, and of silver ten thousand 

I have of mine own proper good] R.V. Seeing that I have a treasure 
of mine own. 

which / have given"] R.V. I give it. The point of vv. 3—5 is missed 
in A.V. owing to the unfortunate translation of ver. 3. David announces 
that he will give from his private fortune (ver. 3) a heavy contribution 
(ver. 4), and challenges the chief men to follow his example (ver. 5). 

4. gold of Ophir] Solomon brought much gold from Ophir 
(2 Chr. viii. 18; ix. 10=1 Kin. ix. 28; x. 11), which is probably to be 
identified with some part of the south-east coast of Arabia. L-XX. gives 
Sov0et/3, i.e. perhaps India. For the amount see note on xxii. 14. 

to overlay] Cp. 1 Chr. iii. 4 — 8. 

the houses] i.e. the porch, the greater house, and the most holy house; 
2 Chr. iii. 4, 5, 8. 

5. the gold for things oi gold, and the silver for things oi silve?'] R.V. 
Of gold for the things of gold, and of silver for the things of silver. 

And who then is willitig to consecrate his service] R.V. Who then 
oflfereth willingly to consecrate himself. The phrase to consecrate 
himself (Hebrew, to fill his hand) means properly to make hi?nself 
a priest. The offering of gifts is regarded as a priestly act, in the 
performance of which the layman "makes himself a priest." Cp. 
2 Chr. xiii. 9, note. 

6 — 9. The Offerings of the Chiefs of Israel. 

6. the chief of the fathers] R.V. the princes of the fathers' houses. 
over the king''s work] See xxvii. 25 — 31. 

7. five thousand talents] i.e. of uncoined gold by weight. 

ten thousand drams] R.V. ten thousand darics. A daric was a 
Persian gold coin worth about 22 shillings. The translation of A.V. 
drams (i.e. drachmae) may however be right. The value of a gold 
drachma is about gs. ^d. The total sum given in this verse sounds 
impossibly large ; cp. xxii. 14, note. 

vv. 8— 15-] I. CHRONICLES, XXIX. 139 

talents, and of brass eighteen thousand talents, and one 
hundred thousand talents of iron. And they with whom 8 
precious stones were found gave the?7i to the treasure of the 
house of the Lord, by the hand of Jehiel the Gershonite. 
Then the people rejoiced, for that they offered willingly, 9 
because with perfect heart they offered willingly to the 
Lord : and David the king also rejoiced with great joy. 

Wherefore David blessed the Lord before all the congre- 10 
gation : and David said. Blessed be thou. Lord God of 
Israel our father, for ever and ever. Thine, O Lord, is the n 
greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, 
and the majesty : for all that is in the heaven and in the 
earth is thine ; thine is the kingdom, O Lord, and thou art 
exalted as head above all. Both riches and honour come of 12 
thee, and thou reignest over all; and in thine hand is power 
and might; and in thine hand // is to make great, and to 
give strength unto all. Now therefore, our God, we thank 13 
thee, and praise thy glorious name. But who a^ti I, and 14 
what is my people, that we should be able to offer so 
willingly after this sort? for all things come of thee, and of 
thine own have we given thee. For we are strangers before 15 
thee, and sojourners, as were all our fathers : our days on 

8. by the hand] R.V. under the hand. 

fehiel the Gershonite\ Cp. xxiii. 8; xxvi. 21, 22. 

9. with perfect heari\ i.e. with a single heart, ungrudgingly. Cp. 
xxviii. 9, note. 

10 — 19. The Blessing of David. 

11. thine is the kingdom, O LoRD, and thou art exalted as head above 
all] Render, Thine, is the kingdom, LORD, and thine it is to be 
exalted as head over all. 

12. thou reignest] R.V. thou rulest. 

14. be able] Lit. retain strength. David praises God for the great 
success of the efforts of so transitory a creature as man. 

of t hi fie own] Lit. out of thine hand. 

15. strangers before thee, and sojourners] David describes himself 
and his people not as strangers to God, but as strangers dwelling before 
God. In ancient states foreigners were sometimes allowed to reside in 
the capital under the immediate protection of the king or of the heads 
of the state; cp. i Sam. xxii. 3, 4; xxvii. 3; 2 Sam. xv. 19; cp. also 
the position of the aliens at Athens. David appeals to God on the 
ground that Israel is immediately under God's protection. Cp. Ps. 
xxxix. 12. 

I40 I. CHRONICLES, XXIX. [w. 16—22. 

16 the earth are as a shadow, and there is none abiding. O 
Lord our God, all this store that we have prepared to build 
thee a house for thine holy name cometh of thine hand, and 

17 is all thine own. I know also, my God, that thou triest the 
heart, and hast pleasure in uprightness. As for me, in the 
uprightness of mine heart I have willingly offered all these 
things : and now have I seen with joy thy people, which are 

18 present here, to offer willingly unto thee. O Lord God of 
Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel, our fathers, keep this for 
ever in the imagination of the thoughts of the heart of thy 

19 people, and prepare their heart unto thee : and give unto 
Solomon my son a perfect heart, to keep thy command- 
ments, thy testimonies, and thy statutes, and to do all these 
thirigs, and to build the palace, for the which I have made 

20 And David said to all the congregation. Now bless the 
Lord your God. And all the congregation blessed the 
Lord God of their fathers, and bowed down their heads, 

21 and worshipped the Lord, and the king. And they sacri- 
ficed sacrifices unto the Lord, and offered burnt offerings 
unto the Lord, on the morrow after that day, even a 
thousand bullocks, a thousand rams, ajid a thousand lambs, 
with their drink offerings, and sacrifices in abundance for all 

22 Israel : and did eat and drink before the Lord on that day 
with great gladness. And they made Solomon the son of 
David king the second time, and anointed him unto the 

Jtone abidmg] R.V. no abiding, i.e. no continuance. 

18. in the imagination^ Render, as the imagination. Ifnagination 
here means not the faculty, but the result of the exercise of the faculty, 
a mental image or ifnpression. 

prepare'] Better R.V. mg., establish. David prays that the people 
may continue in their present mind. 

19. a perfect hea7't'\ See xxviii. 9, note. 
the palace\ See ver. i, note. 

20-^22. The Great Rejoicing. 

20. worshipped'] i.e. prostrated themselves. 

21. And they saci'ificed] Cp. xvi. i — 3. 

22. the second time\ Cp. xxiii. i. The first time is described in 
I Kin. i. 39 (SoJomon hastily anohited in order to assert his claim to the 
throne against his brother Adonijah). 

vv. 23—29.] I. CHRONICLES, XXIX. 141 

Lord to be the chief governor, and Zadok to be priest. 
Then Solomon sat on the throne of the Lord as king 23 
instead of David his father, and prospered ; and all Israel 
obeyed him. And all the princes, and the mighty men^ and 24 
all the sons likewise of king David, submitted themselves 
unto Solomon the king. And the Lord magnified Solomon 25 
exceedingly in the sight of all Israel, and bestowed upon 
him such royal majesty as had not been on any king before 
him in Israel. 

Thus David the son of Jesse reigned over all Israel. And 26, 27 
the time that he reigned over Israel was forty years ; seven 
years reigned he in Hebron, and thirty and three years 
reigned he in Jerusalem. And he died in a good old age, 28 
full of days, riches, and honour : and Solomon his son 
reigned in his stead. Now the acts of David the king, first 29 

to be the chief governor'\ R.V. to be prince. Cp. v. 2, note. 

ZadoIi\ One of Solomon's earliest acts seems to have been to put an 
end to the double priesthood by deposing Abialhar; cp. i Kin. ii. 27, 
35. The Chronicler seems to have this in mind, but he avoids narrating 
anything so derogatory to the highpriesthood. 

23 — 25. The Beginning of Solomon's Reign. 

23. the throne of the Lord] See xxviii. 5, note. 

24. the i7iighty men] Cp. i Kin. i. 10, 38, from which it is cleai; 
that the faithfulness of Benaiah and the Cherethites and Pelethites was 
the main factor in the elevation of Solomon. 

all the sons] The Chronicler glances at the submission of Adonijah 
(i Kin. i. 53). 

25. such royal majesty as had not been on any king before htm tn 
Israel] The rather awkward Heb. phrase must be translated by rather 
awkward English ; render, Royal majesty whicli was not on any king 
more than on him in Israel; i.e. the majesty of Solomon was not 
exceeded by that of any other king of Israel. The Heb. word here 
translated before is sometimes used to express comparison without 
reference to time ; cp. Job xxxiv. 19, '*nor regardeth [he] the rich ?nore 
than the poor." According to A.V. the comparison is between Solomon 
on the one side, and his three predecessors only (David, Ish-bosheth, 
and Saul) on the other. 

26 — 30. A Summary of David's Reign. 

26. Thus David] R.V. Now David. 

27. forty years] Cp. 2 Sam. v. 4, 5; i Kin. ii. 11. 

142 I. CHRONICLES, XXIX. [v. 30. 

and last, behold, they are written in the book of Samuel the 
seer, and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the 
30 book of Gad the seer, with all his reign and his might, and 
the times that went over him, and over Israel, and over all 
the kingdoms of the countries. 

29. they are written\ See Introduction, § 5, The Sources. 

in the book'] R.V. in the history, lit. zvords. The Book of Chronicles 
itself is called in Hebrew, The %vords (or the acts) of the days. 

Samuel the seer] Cp. i Sam. ix. 9, 19. 

Nathan the prophet] See 1 Sam. vii. 2 (=] Chr. xvii. i); 2 Sam. xii. 
i; I Kin. i. 8 — 39. 

Gad the seer] See 2 Sam. xxiv. 11 ( = 1 Chr. xxi. 9) Gad the prophet ^ 
David'' s seer. 

In the Hebrew Samuel is roeh {seer), Nathan, nadz {prophet), and 
Gad hozeh (seer). 

30. the times] i.e. the changes, vicissitudes. Cp. xii. 32, note. 



AND Solomon the son of David was strengthened in his 1 
y~\_ kingdom, and the Lord his God was with him, and 
magnified him exceedingly. Then Solomon spake unto 2 
all Israel, to the captains of thousands and of hundreds, 
and to the judges, and to every governor in all Israel, the 
chief of the fathers. So Solomon, and all the congregation 3 
with him, went to the high place that was at Gibeon ; for 
there was the tabernacle of the congregation of God, which 
Moses the servant of the Lord had made in the wilderness. 
But the ark of God had David brought up from Kirjath- 4 

Ch. I. 1 — 6 (cp. I Kin, iii. 4). Solomon's great Sacrifice 

AT Gibeon. 

1. was strengthened^ or, strengthened himself, a favourite expression 
of the Chronicler; cp. xii. 13; xiii. 21 {waxed 77iighty); xvii. i; xxiii. i, 

2. every governor'] R.V. every prince. 

the chief of the fathers'] R.V. tlie heads of the fathers' houses. 

3. and all the congregation] The attendance of the chief representa- 
tives of the people at the great sacrifice with which Solomon seems to 
have inaugurated his reign is probable in itself, but it is passed over in 
the brief notice in i Kin. iii. 4. 

at Gibeon] Cp. i Chr. xvi. 39; xxi. 29; i Kin. iii. 4. It was a city 
of Benjamin. The Chronicler defends this instance of high -place 
worship by his explanation that the Tabernacle was on the high place. 

the tabernacle of the congregation] R.V. the tent of meeting (cp. R.V. 
Preface, p. vi.). So ver. 5. 

in the wilderness] See Ex. xxv. i ff., xxxv. 4 ff. 

4. Kiriath-jearim] Cp. i Chr. xiii. 5. 

144 II- CHRONICLES, I. [w. 5—11. 

jearim to the place which David had prepared for it : for 

5 he had pitched a tent for it at Jerusalem. Moreover the 
brasen altar, that Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, 
had made, he put before the tabernacle of the Lord : and 

6 Solomon and the congregation sought utito it. And Solo- 
mon went up thither to the brasen altar before the Lord, 
which was at the tabernacle of the congregation, and offered 
a thousand burnt offerings upon it. 

7 In that night did God appear unto Solomon, and said 

8 unto him. Ask what I shall give thee. And Solomon said 
unto God, Thou hast shewed great mercy unto David my 

9 father, and hast made me to reign in his stead. Now, 
O Lord God, let thy promise unto David my father be 
established : for thou hast made me king over a people 

10 like the dust of the earth in multitude. Give me now 
wisdom and knowledge, that I may go out and come in 
before this people : for who can judge this thy people, that 

11 is so great? And God said to Solomon, Because this was 
in thine heart, and thou hast not asked riches, wealth, or 

pitched a tent\ Cp. i Chr. xv. i. 

5. Bezalel] See Ex. xxxi. 2 ; xxxviii. r — 7. 

he put] R.V. was there. In the Hebrew the position of a point 
makes the difference between these two translations. 
sought unto it] See i Chr. xxviii. 8, note. 

6. went tip thither] R.V. mg., offered there. It is to be noted that the 
Chronicler does not ignore the exercise of priestly functions by Solomon, 
though such exercise must have seemed wrong in his eyes, but follows 
his authority (1 Kin. iii. 4) without adding any explanation. 

7 — 13 ( = 1 Kin. iii. 5 — 15). Solomon's Vision and Return 
TO Jerusalem. 

7. did God appear] In Kings, the LoRD appeared in a dream. 

8. mercy'] R.V. kindness (as i Kin. iii. 6). God shewed David not 
merely compassion, but also bounty. 

made me to reign] R.V. made me king. 

9. thy pi'07/iise] Cp. i Chr. xxii. 9 ff . Perhaps the particular refer- 
ence is to the first words of i Chr. xxii. 12, which may be translated as 
a promise, Surely the Lord will give thee wisdom and ttndcistanding. 

10. go out and come in] The phrase denotes the transaction of 
business of all kinds. 

judge] Although every village by its headmen dispensed its own 
justice to its inhabitants, yet enough cases too hard for local decision 
remained over to make the king's judicial functions of very gi-eat 
importance; cp. 2 Sam. xiv. 4 ft. ; xv. 2 — 4. 

vv. 12—16.] II. CHRONICLES, I. 145 

honour, nor the life of thine enemies, neither yet hast asked 
long life ; but hast asked wisdom and knowledge for thyself, 
that thou mayest judge my people, over whom I have made 
thee king : wisdom and knowledge is granted unto thee ; 12 
and I will give thee riches, and wealth, and honour, such 
as none of the kings have had that have been before thee, 
neither shall there any after thee have the like. 

Then Solomon came from his journey to the high place 13 
that was at Gibeon to Jerusalem, from before the tabernacle 
of the congregation, and reigned over Israel. And Solomon 14 
gathered chariots and horsemen : and he had a thousand 
and four hundred chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen, 
which he placed in the chariot cities, and with the king 
at Jerusalem. And the king made silver and gold at Jeru- 15 
salem as plenteous as stones, and cedar trees made he as 
the sycomore trees that are in the vale for abundance. 
And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen 16 

11. thine enemies'] R.V. them that hate thee. 

12. wisdom and knowledge is granted tinto thee] The incident 
illustrates the principle, To him that hath shall be given ; Solomon had 
wisdom enough to offer a wise prayer; increase of wisdom followed 
as the answer to the prayer. 

13. from his journey to the high place that was at Gibeon] This 
clause yields no sense in the Hebrew and is probably a misplaced gloss. 
Read simply, Then Solomon came to Jerusalem (cp. i Kin. iii. 15). 

14—17 ( = 1 Kin. X. 26 — 29). Solomon's Horses and Chariots. 

14. the chariot cities] The greater part of Palestine is unsuitable 
for the evolutions of chariots, but flat country is found along the coast 
of the Mediterranean, in the plain of Esdrelon, and east of Jordan, and 
in these three districts the chariot cities were probably situated. Cp. 
G. A. Smith, Hist. Geography, p. 667, Appendix V. 

15. at yerusalem as plenteous as stones] R.V. to be at Jerusalem as 
stones. In Kings this is asserted of silver only. Jerusalem is one of 
the stoniest places in the world. 

the sycomore trees] LXX. avKaijUvovs (but Luke xix. 4 avKOfiopea). 
See 1 Chr. xxvii. 28, note. 

vale] R.V. lowland, i.e. the stretch of low hills separating the 
maritime plain from the hill country of Judah. Cp. G. A. Smith, 
ffist. Geography, Chap. X., "The Shephelah." 

16. And Solo7uon had horses brought out of Egypt] R.V. And the 
horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt. Egypt is an 
agricultural not a pastoral c®untry; it lacks the broad plains suitable 
for the rearing of large numbers of horses. Egypt was therelore 
probably only the market ; the raising ground was elsewhere. 

CHRON. 10 

146 II. CHRONICLES, I. II. [vv. 17; 1,2. 

yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a 
17 price. And they fetcht up, and brought forth out of Egypt 
a chariot for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for 
an hundred and fifty : and so brought they out horses for 
all the kings of the Hittites, and for the kings of Syria, by 

2 their means. And Solomon determined to build a house 
for the name of the Lord, and a house for his kingdom. 

2 And Solomon told out threescore and ten thousand men 
to bear burdens, and fourscore thousand to hew in the 
mountain, and three thousand and six hundred to oversee 

and linen yarn: the king^s merchants received the linen yarn at a 
price'] R.V. the king's merchants received them in droves, each drove 
at a price. '* Linen yarn" is a mistranslation of a word which perhaps 
means "drove." The whole verse refers to traffic in horses. According 
to a third view the Heb. "mikve" means neither *'yarn" nor "drove," 
but conceals a proper name, known to us from Assyrian inscriptions, 
ICiiH or Kue ( = Cilicia). In this case the horses would be brought in 
the first place from eastern Asia Minor and Armenia, since Cilicia itself 
is not a horse-breeding country. We then translate. And the horses 
which Solomo7t had were brought out of Egypt and out of Cilicia ; the 
king^s merchants received them from Cilicia at a price. The further 
supposition that "Egypt" (Mizraim) is a mistake for "Musri" (a land 
supposed to lie N.E. of Cilicia) may be true but is difficult to prove. 

17. and so brought they out horses. ..(^j their means] i.e. by means of 
Solomon's merchants horses were exported for the kings of the Hittites 
and of Syria. 

Ch. IL Solomon's Preparations for Building the 

1, 2 ( = vv. 17, 18 [I. 18, II. I, Heb.] below; 1 Kin. v. 15). Bearers 

AND Hewers. 

1. determined] R.V. purposed, as in 1 Kin. v. 5. 

for the name] cp. i Chr. xxii. 7, 10, 19; xxviii. 3; xxix. 16. 
a house for his kingdom] See i Kin. vii. i — 8. 

2. told out] The 150,000 bearers and hewers mentioned here are 
said to have been aliens (ver. 17). This statement is confirmed by 
I Kin. v. 15 which distinguishes them from the levy of 30,000 hewers 
raised out of all Israel {ib. ver. 13). The 30,000 Israelites were subject 
to a corvee of one month in every three, the 150,000 aliens were 
apparently always at work. Cp. viii. 9, note. 

in the mountain] R.V. in the mountains. The Hebrew expression 
is indefijiite. 

3—10 [2 — 9, Heb.] ( = 1 Kin. v. 2—6). Solomon's Message 
TO Huram. 
This passage is much fuller in Chron. than in i Kings, which offers 

vv. 3— 8.] II. CHRONICLES, ll. 


And Solomon sent to Huram the king of Tyre, saying, 3 
As thou didst deal with David my father, and didst send ' 
him cedars to build him a house to dwell therein, even so 
deal with 7ne. Behold, I build a house to the name of the 4 
Lord my God, to dedicate it to him, and to burn before 
him sweet incense, and >/- the continual shewbread, and 
>r the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the sabbaths, 
and on the new moons, and on the solemn feasts of the 
Lord our God. This is an ordinance for ever to Israel. 
And the house which I build is great : for great is our God 5 
above all gods. But who is able to build him a house, 6 
seeing the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain 
him? who am I then, that I should build him a house, 
save only to burn sacrifice before him? Send me now 7 
therefore a man cunning to work in gold, and in silver, 
and in brass, and in iron, and in purple, and crimson' 
and blue, and that can skill to grave with the cunning men 
that are with me in Judah and in Jerusalem, whom David 
my father did provide. Send me also cedar trees, fir trees, 8 

no parallel to Solomon's language with regard to the Temple • vv 4—6 
Agam ver. 7 (the request for a "cunning man") has no nearer parallel 

I Kin's """" '^' "^°' ^^^' '° ^^^"^ ^^^""^ '^ ""^ ^^'^^^ P^^^^^e^ in 

3. Huram\ Another form of Hiram (i Kin. v. i fjc Heb 1^ 
which is a shortened form of Ahiram (Hebrew, Ah, -brother" and 
rdtn *'exated"). Yet another form is Hirom (i Kin. v. lo- see 
R.V. mg.). The Phoenician language is written with even fewer 
vowel signs than are found in ancient Hebrew; hence the uncertainty 
m the form of this name. ^ 

didst send him cedars'] See i Chr. xiv. 1 = 2 Sam. v. 11. 

4. the continual shewdread] See i Chr. ix. 32, notes; Lev. xxiv. 

5 9' 

on the solemn feasts] R.V. on the set feasts. Cp. i Chr. xxiii 21 
note. • > 

6. is able] ^ Lit. retaineth strength; i Chr. xxix. 14. Cp. vi. 2, 18 
to burn sacrifice] R.V. to bum incense. 

7. can skill to grave] Literally, knoweth hozv to grave 

to grave with the cunning men] R.V. to grave all manner of gravings 
to be witH the cunning men. To grave is "to carve." Co i Ktn 
VI. 29. ^' •'^"'« 

my father did provide] See i Chr. xxii. 15. 

8. fir trees] RN. mg., cypress trees (which however are not now 
indigenous on Lebanon). 


I4« II. CHRONICLES, II. [vv. 9—14. 

and algum trees, out of Lebanon: for I know that thy 
servants can skill to cut timber in Lebanon ; and behold, 

9 my servants shall be with thy servants, even to prepare me 
timber in abundance : for the house which I am about to 

10 build shall be wonderful great. And behold, I will give to 
thy servants, the hewers that cut timber, twenty thousand 
measures of beaten wheat, and twenty thousand measures 
of barley, and twenty thousand baths of wine, and twenty 
thousand baths of oil. 

11 Then Huram the king of Tyre answered in writing, which 
he sent to Solomon, Because the Lord hath loved his 

12 people, he hath made thee king over them. Huram said 
moreover, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, that made 
heaven and earth, who hath given to David the king a 
wise son, endued with prudence and understanding, that 
might build a house for the Lord, and a house for his 

n kingdom. And now I have sent a cunning man, endued 
14 with understanding, of Huram my father's, the son of a 

algum trees] called ahnug trees in i Kin. x. 11, 12 and there described 
as coming from Ophir. According to i Kin. v. 8 Solomon asked for 
cedar and "fir" only; so that the mention of algum trees here is 
probably incorrect. Algum is perhaps sandal wood. 

10. measures'] Hebrew, cors. A cor was the same as a homer 
= 393-9 litres. 

beateft wheat] i Kin. v. 11, zuheat for food. The text is doubtful, and 
the phrase beaten wheat occurs nowhere else and is uncertain in mean- 

of barley] The barley and wine are not mentioned in i Kin. v. 1 1 ; 
there wheat and oil only are mentioned. 

twenty thousand baths of oil] In i Kin. v. 11 (Heb.) twotty cors of 
pure oil. As ten baths went to a cor, the amount stated in Chron. is a 
hundred times as much as the amount given in i Kings (7878 litres). 

11—16 [10—15, Heb.] (=1 Kin. v. 7—9). HuRAM'S ANSWER 
TO Solomon. 

11. hath loved] R.V. loveth. Cp. ix. 8. 

12. prudence and understanding] R.V. discretion and understand- 
ing (as in I Chr. xxii. 12, R.V.). 

that might build] R.V. that should build. 

13. I have sent] According to i Kin. vii. 13 Solomon himself sent 
and fetched Hiram the artificer. 

of Huram my father's] Better as R.V. mg., even Huram my father. 
Huram the king calls Huram the artificer my father as a title of honour. 
Cp. iv. 16. 

vv. 15—18; I.] II. CHRONICLES, II. III. 149 

woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father was a man 
of Tyre, skilful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in 
iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in 
fine linen, and in crimson; also to grave any 7?ia?tner of 
graving, and to find out every device which shall be put 
to him, with thy cunning 7fien, and with the cunning men 
of my lord David thy father. Now therefore the wheat, 15 
and the barley, the oil, and the wine, which my lord hath 
spoken of, let him send unto his servants : and we will 
cut wood out of Lebanon, as much as thou shalt need : and 16 
we will bring it to thee in flotes by sea to Joppa ; and thou 
shalt carry it up to Jerusalem. 

And Solomon numbered all the strangers that were in 17 
the land of Israel, after the numbering wherezf/V/z David 
his father had numbered them ; and they were found an 
hundred and fifty thousand and three thousand and six 
hundred. And he set threescore and ten thousand of them 18 
to be bearers of burdens, and fourscore thousand to be hewers 
in the mountain, and three thousand and six hundred over- 
seers to set the people a work. Then Solomon began to 3 
build the house of the Lord at Jerusalem in mount Moriah, 
where the Lord appeared unto David his father, in the 
place that David had prepared in the threshingfloor of 

14. of Dait\ in i Kin. vii. 14, of Naphtali. The reading of Chron. 
may have arisen from Ex. xxxi. 6 (Oholiab one 01 the artificers of the 
tabernacle was of the tribe of Dan). 

to find out every device which shall he put to him, with thy cunning 
men] R.V. to devise any device : that there may be a place appointed 
unto him with thy cunning men. 

16. Joppd\ Hebrew, Japho, modern Jaffa {Vdfd). 

17, 18 [16, 17, Heb.] (cp. 2). Bearers and Hewers. 

17. David his father'\ See i Chr. xxii. 2. 

18. three thousand and six hiindred overseers'\ In i Kin. v. r6, three 
thousand and three hundred. Three in Hebrew (which may be repre- 
sented in English by the letters SLS) is easily corrupted into six ( = SS 
in English). Cp. also viii. 10 (= i Kin. ix. 23). 

a work'] i.e. on work, to work. 

Ch. III. 1, 2 (= I Kin. vi. i). The Temple Begun. 

1. in mount Moriah] Gen. xxii. 1. 

in the place that David had prepared] R.V. which he made ready in 
the place that David had appointed (following the Hebrew, whereas 
A.V. leaves the Hebrew and agrees with LXX.). 

I50 II. CHRONICLES, III. [vv. 2—6. 

2 Oman the Jebusite. And he began to build in the second 
day of the second month, in the fourth year of his reign. 

3 Now these are the things wherein Solomon was instructed 
for the building of the house of God. The length by cubits 
after the first measure was threescore cubits, and the breadth 

4 twenty cubits. And the porch that was in the front of 
the house, the length of it was according to the breadth of 
the house, twenty cubits, and the height 7vas an hundred 

5 and twenty : and he overlaid it within with pure gold. And 
the greater house he cieled with fir tree, which he overlaid 

6 with fine gold, and set thereon palm trees and chains. And 
he garnished the house with precious stones for beauty : 

Oman the febtisite] See i Chr. xxi. 1 5 fF. 

2. in the secotid day] The words are absent from i Kings and 
should probably be omitted here. The year according to i Kings was 
the four hundred and eightieth after the Exodus. 

3 {= I Kin. vi. 2). The Measurements of the Temple. 

3. these are the things wherein Solomon %vas instructed'\ R.V. tliese 
are the foundations wMcli Solomon laid. 

cubits after the first fneasure'\ There were apparently two cubits in 
use, the ordinary earlier cubit of about 17^ inches (Deut. iii. 11 "the 
cubit of a man") and another later cubit of about i\\ inches, longer 
than the first by a handbreadth (Ezek. xl. 5). 

4 (= I Kin. vi. 3). The Porch. 

4. And the porch that was in the front of the house] The Hebrew 
text is faulty, but the sense is probably correctly given in A.V. 

the length of it was according to the breadth of the hoicse, twenty 
cubits'] R.V. the length of it, according to the breadth of the house, 
•was twenty cubits. 

the height was an hundred and twenty'] So LXX. If the measure- 
ment is correctly given, this building was rather a tower than a porch. 
In I Kings nothing is said about height. 

5 — 7 (cp. I Kin. vi. 15, 21, 29, 30). The Temple. 

6. the greater house] It was forty cubits long (i Kin. vi. 17), 
whereas the shrine was twenty (i Kin. vi. 16, 20). 

he cieled] i.e. lined or boarded. The same Hebrew word is trans- 
lated overlaid in this same verse. 

set thereon] R.V. wrought thereon, perhaps in the form of reliefs. 

palm trees and chains] The "chains" perhaps connected one palm 
tree with another. In i Kin. vi. 29, "cherubim and palm trees and 
open flowers." 

6. prtxious stones] Not mentioned in the parallel account, but 
according to i Kin. v. 17 costly stones (the same expression in Hebrew) 

vv. 7— I2.J II. CHRONICLES, III. 151 

and the gold was gold of Parvaim. He overlaid also the 7 
house, the beams, the posts, and the walls thereof, and 
the doors thereof, with gold ; and graved cherubims on the 
walls. And he made the most holy house, the length 8 
whereof 7i'as according to the breadth of the house, twenty 
cubits, and the breadth thereof twenty cubits : and he over- 
laid it with fine gold, amowiting to six hundred talents. 
And the weight of the nails was fifty shekels of gold. And 9 
he overlaid the upper chambers with gold. 

And in the most holy house he made two cherubims of 10 
image work, and overlaid them with gold. And the wings n 
of the cherubims were twenty cubits long : one wing of the 
one cherub was five cubits, reaching to the wall of the 
house : and the other wing was likewise five cubits, reaching 
to the wing of the other cherub. And one wing of the 12 
other cherub ivas five cubits, reaching to the wall of the 

were used for the foundations of the house. Probably here also costly 
rather than precious stones are meant. 

Parvaim\ Apparently the name of a place, but nothing certain is 
known about it. 

7. the posts] R.V. the thresholds. 

cherubiffis] Under what form these mysterious beings were repre- 
sented in the Temple is not known. It has been said that the winged 
bull of the Assyrian sculptures was sometimes called kirubu in Assyrian. 
If this be tiue, then cherub is perhaps a word borrowed from the 
Assyrian, and the cherubs in the Temple may have had the form of 
winged bulls. But nothing is certainly known on this subject. 

The graving of the cherubim was not necessarily a breach of the 
Second Commandment, for they were not put up to " bow down to" or 
to "serve." 

8, 9. The Holy of Holies. 

8. the most holy house] Called the oracle in i Kin. vi. 16, 19 etc., 
Hebrew debtr, which means rather the hinder part. The Lord "dwells" 
in the inmost recess of ihe house. 

amounting to six hundred talents] This detail is not found elsewhere. 
But cp. I Chr. xxix. 4. 

10 — 13. The Cherubim. 

10. of image work] Both the meaning of the phrase and the reading 
are doubtful; LXX. ipyov iK ^v\wv ; i Kin. vi. 23, of olive wood {^.V .). 

and overlaid] R.V. and they overlaid ; but the singidar is probably 
right; LXX. kxP'^'^^'^^v '. i Kin. vi. 1'^^ and he overlaid. 

11. one iving] R.V. the wing. 

12. And one wing] R.V. And the wing. 

152 II. CHRONICLES, III. [vv. 13—15. 

house : and the other wing ivas five cubits also^ joining to 

13 the wing of the other cherub. The wings of these cherub- 
ims spread themselves forth twenty cubits : and they stood 
on their feet, and their faces were inward. 

14 And he made the vail of blue, and purple, and crimson, 

15 and fine linen, and wrought cherubims thereon. Also he 
made before the house two pillars of thirty and five cubits 

13. tzventy aibits] Extending across the width of the whole house. 

on their feet\ Not "couchant" nor "rampant" but standing as the 
winged bulls of Assyria stand. 

inward^ R.V. towards the house, as though to protect the Holiesl 
Place from violation from anyone advancing through the house. 

14 (cp. Ex. xxvi. 31, 32). The Vail. 

No vail for Solomon's Temple is mentioned in i Kings, but (i Kin. 
vi. 31, 32) doors of olive wood with cherubim carved upon them 
stood at the entrance of the Holy of Holies. The vail here described 
seems to have been borrowed by the Chronicler from the account of the 
tabernacle given in Exodus. 

15 — 17 (=1 Kin. vii. 15 — 22). The Pillars Jachin and Boaz. 

16. before the house two pillars^ Cp. i Kin. vii. 21, he set up the 
pillars at the porch of the temple, and Jer. lii. 17 (translate, the pillars... 
that belonged to the house). These pillars were immediately in front of 
the porch, but (it seems) detached from it. They were cast in brass 
(iv. II — 17), were hollow (Jer. lii. 21), and were crowned with 
"chapiters" (capitals) in shape like bowls (i Kin. vii. 41). The 
dimensions of the pillars (without the chapiters) are variously given 
thus : — 

1 Chr. iii. 15 (Heb.) length 35 cubits. 

(LXX.) height (Ci^os) „ „ 

Jer. lii. 21 (Heb.) „ 18 ,, 

(LXX.) „ (O^os) 35 „ 

I Kin. vii. 15 (Heb. and LXX.) „ 18 „ 

Jer. lii. 21 (Heb. and LXX.) circumference 12 j^** 
, \ Kin. vii. 15 (Heb.) „ „ '„ 

(LXX.) „ 14 J, 

The purpose for which the pillars were erected is not certainly 
known. The fact that names were given them (ver. 17) suggests that 
they were symbols, perhaps of the presence of Jehovah; cp. Is. xix. 19, 
where a pillar, fuaffebdh, is regarded (equally with an altar) as "a sign 
and witness unto the Lord." Such a pillar might sometimes be used 
as an altar; cp. i Chr. xi. 22 (note) and Gen. xxviii. 18; and the 
"bowls" of the chapiters of Solomon's two pillars may have been 
meant to contain something to be burnt in sacrifice. See Robertson 

vv.i6,i7;i,2.] II. CHRONICLES, III. IV. 153 

high, and the chapiter that was on the top of each of them 
was five cubits. And he made chains, as in the oracle, 16 
and put tJiem on the heads of the pillars ; and made an 
hundred pomegranates, and put them on the chains. And 17 
he reared up the pillars before the temple, one on the 
right hand, and the other on the left ; and called the name 
of that on the right hand Jachin, and the name of that on 
the left Boaz. 

Moreover he made an altar of brass, twenty cubits the 4 
length thereof, and twenty cubits the breadth thereof, and 
ten cubits the height thereof. 

Also he made a molten sea of ten cubits from brim 2 

Smith, Religion of the Semites, p. 191, note i, and Additional Note L, 
where there is an illustration of a coin shewing two detached pillars 
standing in front of the temple of Aphrodite at Paphos. The two 
pillars in the temple of Heracles at Tyre, of which Herodotus (ii. 44) 
speaks, were perhaps simply votive offerings. 

16. he made chains, as in the orade'X R.V. he made chains in the 
oracle. The words, i^i the oracle, though found in LXX., are prob- 
ably a gloss introduced from i Kin. vi. 21 {chains .. .before the oracle). 
The Chronicler is here speaking of the outside of the Temple, having 
already described the "oracle," i.e. the Holy of Holies, in vv. 8 — 14. 
The Heb. word debir y^2Js, translated "oracle" because it was supposed 
to be derived from a word meaning "to speak." It means, however, 
simply "the hindmost part" of the house (cf. iv. 20, v. 7, 9). 

17. he reared up] R.V. he set up (as in i Kin. vii. 21). 
yachin...Boaz\ R.V. mg. translates the two words; Jachin "he 

shall establish," Boaz perhaps "In it is strength." LXX. gives 
Karopdojais ("setting up") and 'lax'^^ ("strength"). The meaning of 
Boaz is quite uncertain. 

Ch. IV. 1. The Altar of Brass. 

1. twenty cubits] The measurements of the altar belonging to 
Solomon's Temple are not given in i Kings; but in Ex. xxxviii. i the 
altar made in the wilderness is described as measuring five cubits by 
five cubits, and in height three cubits. An altar three cubits high could 
perhaps be served from the ground, but one of ten cubits would require 
steps, which are forbidden in Ex. xx. 26. In Ezek. xliii. 17, however, 
it is assumed that the altar must have steps and a position is assigned 
them on the East, so that the priest ascending them faces the direction 
ot the Holy of Holies which was on the West. 

2 — 5 (=1 Kin. vii. 23 — 26). The Molten Sea. 

2. he made a 7nolten sea] Render, he made the sea of molten 
metal. The "sea" or great laver was a well-known feature in temples, 
being a symbol of the purity needful for those who come into the divine 

154 11. CHRONICLES, IV. [vv. 3—6. 

to brim, round in compass, and five cubits the height 
thereof; and a line of thirty cubitF did compass it round 
5 about. And under it was the similitude of oxen, which did 
compass it round about : ten in a cubit, compassing the 
sea round about. Two rows of oxen were cast, when it 

4 was cast. It stood upon twelve oxen, three looking to- 
ward the north, and three looking toward the west, and 
three looking toward the south, and three looking toward 
the east : and the sea was set above upon them, and all 

5 their hinder parts zvere inward. And the thickness of it 
was a handbreadth, and the brim of it like the work of 
the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies ; and it received 
and held three thousand baths. 

6 He made also ten lavers, and put five on the right hand, 
and five on the left, to wash in them : such things as they 

presence. So in the heavenly temple before the throne there is a 
"sea" of glass (Rev. iv, 6). 

five cubits the height thereof^^ R.V. the height thereof was five 

a line of thirty cubits did compass it"] i.e. it was thirty cubits in circum- 

3. t(nder it was the similitude of oxeii\ This reading has the support 
of the LXX., but can hardly be correct. Read (cp, i Kin. vii. 24), 
under it there were knops, "knops" being embossed ornaments of 
some kind. 

ten in a cubiti R.V. for ten cuhits. According to the A.V. there 
would be ten "knops" in every eighteen inches of the circumference, 
but the Hebrew is more correctly represented by the R.V. Probably 
there is some corruption of the text here (and in 1 Kin. vii. 24). 

Two rows of oxen were cast^ when it was cast'\ Correct the reading as 
before and render, The knops were in two rows, cast when it was cast. 
It is mentioned as a triumph of the founder's art that the laver was cast 
complete, with its ornaments from the first. 

4. three... and three. ..and three.. .attd three'l Thus the base stood 
** foursquare," satisfying the Hebrew idea of completeness ; cp. Rev. xxi. 
12 — 16. 

5. the brim of it like the work of the brim of a ctip, with fiowers of 
lilies^ R.V. the brim thereof was wrought like the brim of a cup, like 
the flower of a lily. 

three thousand baths'] In i Kin. vii. 26, two thousand baths. Whether 
the textual corruption is to be attributed to i Kin. or to Chron. cannot 
be determined. The bath was a measure for liquids equal to about 8^ 

6 (cp. ver. 14 and i Kin. vii. 38, 39). The Lavers. 

6. such things as they offered for the burnt offering] R.V. such things 

vv. 7— lo.] II. CHRONICLES, IV. 155 

offered for the burnt offering they washed in them ; but 
the sea was for the priests to wash in. And he made ten 7 
candlesticks of gold according to their form, and set them 
in the temple, five on the right hand, and five on the left. 
He made also ten tables, and placed them in the temple, 8 
five on the right side, and five on the left. And he made 
an hundred basons of gold. Furthermore he made the 9 
court of the priests, and the great court, and doors for the 
court, and overlaid the doors of them with brass. And he 10 
set the sea on the right side of the eajt end, over against 
the south. 

as belonged to the burnt oflFering. The lavers were mounted on bases ; 
cp. ver. 14. 
for the priests'] Cp. Ex. xxx. 18 — 21; xxxviii. 8; xl. 30 — 32. 

7 (=1 Kin. vii. 49). The Golden Candlesticks. 

ten candlesticks'] Rather, the ten lamp-stands ; cp. Ex. xl. 4. 

according to their form] R.V. according to the ordinance concerning 
them; cp. Ex. xxv. 31 — 37; xl. 4. 

in the te?nple] In i Kin. vii. 49 more precisely, before the oracle^ i.e. 
before the Holy of Holies. 

8. The Tables and Basons. 

8. ten tables] In ver. 19 "the tables [phcral) whereon the shewbread 
was set" are mentioned (cp. i Chr. xxviii. 16), but the parallel place 
(i Kin. vii. 48) has "the table" {sing.), and elsewhere both in Chronicles 
and in the rest of the O.T. one table only is assigned to the shewbread 
(2 Chron. xiii. 11; xxix. 18). Probably therefore the ten tables here 
mentioned were not for the shewbread. 

basons] These were used for dashing the blood of the sacrifices 
agaidist the altar. 

9, 10. The Two Courts. 

9. the court of the priests, and the great court] There is a difficulty in 
this mention of two Temple courts by the Chronicler, for it may be 
doubted whether Solomon's Temple, strictly speaking, had more than 
one court, for in "the other court" stood Solomon's house (i Kin. 
vii, 8). This "other court" seems to be called the "middle court" 
(2 Kin. XX. 4), and the "higher court" (Jer. xxxvi. 10). The "great 
court" (i Kin. vii. 12) was perhaps a third court containing not only 
the king's house, but all the royal buildings as well. The Heb. word 
for "court" in all the above passages is hdger, but here the "court 
{hdfir) of the priests" is distinguished from a court called the "great 
court" (Heb. "great Azdrah ). Perhaps the Chronicler wishes to 
make the same distinction when he says that Solomon's great prayer 
was offered (vi. 13) in "the court" (Heb. Azdrah). 

10. the sea] See vv. 2 — 5. 

156 II. CHRONICLES, IV. [vv. ii— 17. 

11 And Huram made the pots, and the shovels, and the 
basons. And Huram finished the work that he was to make 

12 for king Solomon for the house of God ; to 7vit^ the two 
pillars, and the pommels, and the chapiters which were on 
the top of the two pillars, and the two wreaths to cover 
the two pommels of the chapiters which were on the top 

13 of the pillars ; and four hundred pomegranates on the two 
wreaths ; two rows of pomegranates on each wreath, to 
cover the two pommels of the chapiters which were upon 

14 the pillars. He made also bases and lavers made he upon 

16 the bases ; one sea, and twelve oxen under it. The pots also, 
and the shovels, and the fleshhooks, and all their instru- 
ments, did Huram his father make to king Solomon for the 

17 house of the Lord of bright brass. In the plain of Jordan 
did the king cast them, in the clay ground between Succoth 

on the right side of the east end, over against the south'] R.V. on the 
right side of the house eastward, toward the south ; cp. i Kin. vii. 39. 

11 — 18 (=1 Kin. vii. 40 — 47). The Works of Huram. 

This section is taken from the parallel passage of i Kings. The 
variations are few. 

11. Huram] For the form of the name see note on ii. 3. 

And Huram fitiished the work that he was to 7)iake for king Solomon 
for the house of God] R.V. So Huram made an end of doing the work 
that he wrought for king Solomon in the house of God. 

12. tzvo pillars] See iii. 15 — 17. 

the pommels] R.V. the howls, as in i Kin. vii. 41 for the same Hebrew 
word, i.e. the bowl-shaped part of the capital of a pillar. "Pommel " = 

the chapiters] In modern English, "capitals." 

two wreaths] R.V. two networks, as in i Kin. vii. 41 for the same 
Hebrew word. 

13. wreaths... pommels] R.V. networks... bowls. See notes on 
ver. 12. 

14. He made also bases, and lavers made he upon the bases] A 
simple correction of the Hebrew text gives, And the ten bases and the 
ten lavers on the bases, as in i Kin, vii. 43. 

16. the fleshhooks] Heb. mizlagoth. In ver. ir and i Kin. vii. 
45 (the parallel passages) the basons (Heb. jnizrakoth). 

Huram his father] See note on ii. 13. 

17. in the clay grotmd] G. A. Smith {Historical Geography, p. 488) 
speaks of traces of old brick-fields found by Sir C. Warren in the Jordan 
valley. Succoth is perhaps Tell Deir ^Alla, east of Jordan, north of the 

vv. 18—22; I.] II. CHRONICLES, IV. V. 157 

and Zeredathah. Thus Solomon made all these vessels in 18 
great abundance : for the weight of the brass could not be 
found out. And Solomon made all the vessels that iv ere for 19 
the house of God, the golden altar also, and the tables 
whereon the shewbread was set ; moreover the candlesticks 20 
with their lamps, that they should burn after the manner 
before the oracle, of pure gold ; and the flowers, and the 21 
lamps, and the tongs, made he of gold, and that perfect 
gold ; and the snuffers, and the basons, and the spoons, 22 
and the censers, of pure gold : and the entry of the house, 
the inner doors thereof for the most holy place^ and the 
doors of the house of the temple, were of gold. Thus all 5 
the work that Solomon made for the house of the Lord 
was finished : and Solomon brought in all the things that 
David his father had dedicated; and the silver, and the 

Zeredathah]^ R.V. Zeredah (i Kin. xi. 26); but in i Kin. vii. 46 
(R.V. ) Zarethan (cp. Josh. iii. 16, R.V.). It was not far from 
Scythopolis (Bethshan), but its exact position is unknown. 

18. Thus Solomon made all these vessels in great abundance^ In 
I Kin. vii. 47, And Solomon left all the vessels unweighed, because they 
were exceeding many. 

19 — ^V. 1 ( = 1 Kin. vii. 48 — 51). The Vessels of Gold. 
The Completion of the Work. 

19. that were for the house'] R.V. that were in the house. 

the tables whereon the shewbread was set] R.V. the tables whereon 
was the shewbread. In i Kin. vii. 48 (parallel passage), the table 
(sing.) ; a reading probably to be accepted here also; cp. note on ver. 8. 

20. moreover the candlesticks^ R.V. and the candlesticks. See 
ver. 7, note. 

after the manner] R.V. according to the ordinance. 
the oracle] See note on iii. 16. 

21. the flowers] These were ornaments on the golden candlesticks; 
cp. Ex. xxxvii. 19. 

22. the censers] R.V. the firepans, in which fire was carried to and 
from the altar. 

and the entry] R.V. and as for the entry. 

the doors of the house of the temple] R.V. the doors of the house, to 
wit, of the temple. The "[greater] house" or "temple" is here 
distinguished from the "most holy place" or "shrine." Cp. iii. 5, 8. 

were of gold] According to i Kin. vii. 50 the hinges were of gold ; 
the doors themselves were of olive wood overlaid with gold ( r Kin. vi. 

3i» 32)- 

Ch. V. 1. David his J at Iier had dedicated] Cp. i Chr. xviii. 11. 
all the instruments] R.V. all the vessels. 

158 II. CHRONICLES, V. [vv. 2—8. 

gold, and all the instruments, put he among the treasures 
of the house of God. 

2 Then Solomon assembled the elders of Israel, and all 
the heads of the tribes, the chief of the fathers of the 
children of Israel, unto Jerusalem, to bring up the ark of 
the covenant of the Lord out of the city of David, which 

3 is Zion. Wherefore all the men of Israel assembled them- 
selves unto the king in the feast which was m the seventh 

4 month. And all the elders of Israel came ; and the Levites 

5 took up the ark. And they brought up the ark, and the 
tabernacle of the congregation, and all the holy vessels that 
were in the tabernacle, these did the priests and the Levites 

6 bring up. Also king Solomon, and all the congregation of 
Israel that were assembled unto him before the ark, sacri- 
ficed sheep and oxen, which could not be told nor num- 

7 bered for multitude. And the priests brought in the ark 
of the covenant of the Lord unto his place, to the oracle 
of the house, into the most holy place, even under the 

8 wings of the cherubims : for the cherubims spread forth 

2—10 (=1 Kin. viii. i — 9). The Ark brought into the 

This section is taken almost verbatim from i Kings. 

2. Then Solomon assembled'^ The same verb in the Hebrew as in 
I Chr. XV. 3 (see note there) and in i Chr. xxviii. i. 

the chief of the fathers'] R.V. the princes of the fathers' houses. 
the city of David] See i Chr. xi. 5, note on the castle of Zion. 

3. the feast] i.e. the Feast of Tabernacles. 

in the seventh month] In i Kings the name of the month is given as 
Ethanim, but this word was perhaps obsolete when the Chronicler 
wrote; at any rate we know that in post-biblical times the seventh 
month was called Tisri. 

4. the Levites took up the ark] According to i Kings the priests 
performed this duty. Cp. i Chr. xv. 2, 12, 13. It is clear from these 
passages that the Chronicler believed that in the days of David and 
Solomon, as in his own, the Levites were regarded as a class subordinate 
to the priests, having special duties distinct from those of the true 
"priests." It is however more probable that in these early days all 
Levites were possible priests, Levi being the name of the priestly clan, 
and not of a lower order of priests. 

. 5. the tabernacle of the congregation] R.V. the tent of meeting. 

the priests and the Levites] R.V. the priests the Levites. The A.V. 
emends the text from i Kin. viii. 4, but R.V. gives the correct transla- 
tion of the text of Chronicles. 

7. to the oracle] See iii. 16, note. 

vv. 9— 12.] II. CHRONICLES, V. 159 

their wings over the place of the ark, and the cherubims 
covered the ark and the staves thereof above. And they 9 
drew out the staves of the ark, that the ends of the staves 
were seen from the ark before the oracle ; but they were 
not seen without. And there it is unto this day. There 10 
was nothing in the ark save the two tables which Moses 
put therein at Horeb, when the Lord made a covenant with 
the children of Israel, when they came out of Egypt. And n 
it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the 
holy place : (for all the priests that were present were sancti- 
fied, and did not then wait by course : also the Levites 12 
which were the singers, all of them of Asaph, of Heman, 
of Jeduthun, with their sons and their brethren, being 
arrayed in white linen, having cymbals and psalteries and 
harps, stood at the east end of the altar, and with them 

9. And they drew out the staves of the ark] R.V. And the staves 
were so long. 

froi7i the ark'] Read (with LXX. and i Kin. viii. 8) from the holy 
place. One standing in the holy place and looking towards the Holy 
of Holies could see the heads of the staves. 

And there it is unto this day] These words are taken over with 
the loss of one letter (which here makes the difference between singular 
and plural) from i Kin. viii, 8, but they are out of place in Chron. , for 
when the Chronicler wrote the ark had long ago disappeared. The 
vessels which were brought back from the Babylonian captivity are 
specified in Ezra i. 9, 10, but the ark of the covenant is not reckoned 
among them. 

10. which Moses put therein] Ex. xl. 20. 
at Horeb] Deut. v. 2. 

11 — 14 (=1 Kin. viii. 10, 11). The Descent of the 
Glory of the Lord. 

11. out of the holy place] The priests could remain neither in the 
Holy of Holies where they had deposited the ark, nor even in the 
holy place, but were driven altogether out of the Temple building into 
the Temple court (cp. ver. 14). 

and did not then wait by course] R.V. and did not keep their 
courses. Cp. i Chr. xxiv. i — 19. 

12. of Asaph, of Heman, of feduthun, with their sons] R.V. even 
Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, and their sons. Cp. r Chr. xxv. i — 7. 

being arrayed in white lijien] R.V. arrayed in fine linen. 

psalteries... harps] See i Chr. xiii. 8, notes. 

at the east end of the altar] Looking westward, facing the Holy of 
Holies. To face the East was to turn the back upon the sanctuary; 
Ezek. viii. 16. 

i6o II. CHRONICLES, V. VI. [vv. 13, 14; 1—5. 

an hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets :) 

13 it came even to pass, as the trumpeters and singers were 
as one, to make one sound to be heard in praising and 
thanking the Lord ; and when they lift up their voice with 
the trumpets and cymbals and instruments of musick, and 
praised the Lord, sayings For he is good ; for his mercy 
endureth for ever : that then the house was filled with a 

14 cloud, even the house of the Lord ; so that the priests could 
not stand to minister by reason of the cloud : for the glory 
of the Lord had filled the house of God. 

6 Then said Solomon, The Lord hath said that he would 

2 dwell in the thick darkness. But I have built a house of 
habitation for thee, and a place for thy dwelling for ever. 

3 And the king turned his face, and blessed the whole con- 
gregation of Israel : and all the congregation of Israel stood. 

4 And he said. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who hath 
with his hands fulfilled that which he spake with his mouth 

5 to my father David, saying, Since the day that I brought forth 
my people out of the land of Egypt I chose no city among all 
the tribes of Israel to build a house in, that my name might 

trumpets] See i Chr. xv. 24, note. 

13. insirmnetits of musick] Rather as R.V. mg. instruments for 

for his mercy endureth yi>r ever] i Chr. xvi. 41. 
was filled with a cloud] Ex. xl. 34, 35. 

14. had filled] R.V. fiUed. 

Ch. VI. 1 — 11 ( = 1 Kin. viii. ir— 21). Solomon's Blessing. 

1, 2. These verses come from i Kings, the only important varia- 
tion being, But I have built (Chron.), for / have surely built (i Kin.). 
They seem to have been originally taken from some song. 

1. Then said] R.V. Then spake (as i Kin.). Then refers to the 
moment vv^hen Solomon perceived that the cloud had filled the House. 

that he zvould dwell in the thick darkness] No Divine declaration 
corresponding verbally with this occurs in the O.T., but cp. Ex. xx. 21, 
Moses drew iiear to the thick darkness where God was, and ib. xix. 9, the 
Lord said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud. Solomon 
accepts the coming of the thick darkness as a sign of God's entrance 
into the Temple. 

4. who hath with his hands fulfilled that which he spake with his 
mouth to 7ny father David] R.V. which spake with his mouth unto 
David my father, and hath with his hands fulfilled it. The A.V. has 
needlessly changed the order of the Hebrew. 

vv. 6— 13.] II. CHRONICLES, VI. i6i 

be there ; neither chose I any man to be a ruler over my 
people Israel : but I have chosen Jerusalem, that my name 6 
might be there; and have chosen David to be over my 
people Israel. Now it was in the heart of David my father 7 
to build a house for the name of the Lord God of Israel. 
But the Lord said to David my father, Forasmuch as it 8 
was in thine heart to build a house for my name, thou didst 
well in that it was in thine heart : notwithstanding thou 9 
shalt not build the house; but thy son which shall come 
forth out of thy loins, he shall build the house for my name. 
The Lord therefore hath performed his word that he hath 10 
spoken : for I am risen up in the room of David my father, 
and am set on the throne of Israel, as the Lord promised, 
and have built the house for the name of the Lord God 
of Israel. And in it have I put the ark, wherein is the n 
covenant of the Lord, that he made with the children of 

And he stood before the altar of the Lord in the presence 1 2 
of all the congregation of Israel, and spread forth his hands : 
for Solomon had made a brasen scaffold, of five cubits 13 

5. neither chose I any man to be a rider over my people Israel'\ The 
Chronicler regards Saul as rejected rather than chosen ; 1 Chr. x. 13, 14. 

7. in the heart of David^ Cp. i Chr. xvii. i, 2; xxii. 7. 

9. thou shalt not build\ Cp. i Chr. xxii. 8, note. 

11. with the children of Israel^ In i Kin. viii. 21, with our fathers, 
when he brought them out of the land of Egypt. 

12 — 39 (=1 Kin. viii. 22—50). Solomon's Prayer. 

The prayer is reproduced from i Kings with a few verbal changes 
and vi^ith the omission of vv. 50^ — 53. It is chiefly to the effect that 
future prayers made "in" or " towards this house" may be heard. The 
subjects of the different parts of the prayer are as follows : — 
vv. 14 — 17. The promise made to David. 
18 — 21. Prayer made towards this place. 
22, 23. The oath of ordeal taken in this place, 
24, 25. Prayer under defeat. 
26, 27. Prayer for rain. 
28 — 31. Prayer under diverse afflictions. 
32, 33. The stranger's prayer. 
34» 35* The prayer of the army at war abroad. 
36—39. The prayer of Israel in- captivity. 
13. Solomon had made a brasen scaffold^ This "scaffold" is not 
mentioned in i Kings. The word used {Jziyyor) properly means a 
*'laver" (so iv. 6). 


i62 II. CHRONICLES, VI. [vv. 14—20. 

long, and five cubits broad, and three cubits high, and had 
set it in the midst of the court : and upon it he stood, and 
kneeled dowti upon his knees before all the congregation 

14 of Israel, and spread forth his hands towards heaven, and 
said, O Lord God of Israel, there is no God like thee 
in the heaven, nor in the earth; which keepest covenant, 
and shewest mercy unto thy servants, that walk before thee 

15 with all their hearts : thou which hast kept with thy servant 
David my father that which thou hast promised him; and 
spakest with thy mouth, and hast fulfilled // with thine 

16 hand, as // is this day. Now therefore, O Lord God of 
Israel, keep with thy servant David my father that which 
thou hast promised him, saying. There shall not fail thee 
a man in my sight to sit .upon the throne of Israel; yet 
so that thy children take heed to their way to walk in my 

17 law, as thou hast walked before me. Now then, O Lord 
God of Israel, let thy word be verified, which thou hast 
spoken unto thy servant David. 

18 But will God in very deed dwell with men on the earth ? 
behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain 

19 thee ; how much less this house which I have built ? Have 
respect therefore to the prayer of thy servant, and to his 
supplication, O Lord my God, to hearken unto the cry and 

20 the prayer which thy servant prayeth before thee: that thine 
eyes may be open upon this house day and night, upon the 
place whereof thou hast said that thou wouldest put thy 
name there ; to hearken unto the prayer which thy servant 

14. which keepest covenant and shewest mercy\ R.V. who keepest 
covenant and mercy (so i Kings). 

16. yet so that'X R.V. if only. 

walk in my taw] In i Kin. viii. 25, wa/k before 7ne. The Chronicler 
characteristically introduces a reference to the Law of the Lord 
• (the torah). In Samuel and Kings neither David nor Solomon ever 
mentions this. 

18. dwell with men] The Peshitta (a Jewish work) limits the 
sense and translates, cause his Shekinah to dzvell with (al. rest upon) 
his people Israel. The words, with men, are absent from the Heb. text 
of I Kings, but appears in LXX. (A and B). 

19. prayer... and... supplication] "Supplication" as distinguished 
from "prayer" \% prayer for favour. 

20. which thy servant prayeth] R.V. -whicli thy servant shall 
pray. Solomon refers in this ver. to future prayers, not (as in ver. 19) 
to the prayer he is now praying. 

vv. 21—27.] n. CHRONICLES, VI. 163 

prayeth towards this place. Hearken therefore unto the 21 
supplications of thy servant, and of thy people Israel, which 
they shall make towards this place : hear thou from thy 
dwelling place, even from heaven ; and when thou hearest, 

If a man sin against his neighbour, and an oath be laid 22 
upon him to make him swear, and the oath come before 
thine altar in this house ; then hear thou from heaven, and 23 
do, and judge thy servants, by requiting the wicked, by 
recompensing his way upon his own head ; and by justifying 
the righteous, by giving him according to his righteousness. 

And if thy people Israel be put to the worse before the 24 
enemy, because they have sinned against thee; and shall 
return and confess thy name, and pray and make suppli- 
cation before thee in this house \ then hear thou from the 25 
heavens, and forgive the sin of thy people Israel, and bring 
them again unto the land which thou gavest to them and 
to their fathers. 

When the heaven is shut up, and there is no rain, because 26 
they have sinned against thee ; yet if they pray towards this 
place, and confess thy name, and turn from their sin, when 
thou dost afflict them ; then hear thou from heaven, and 27 
forgive the sin of thy servants, and of thy people Israel, 
when thou hast taught them the good way, wherein they 

21. from thy dwelling place, QWQw/rom heaven] Here, as in ver. 18, 
Solomon refuses to regard the Temple as Jehovah's "dwelling place." 
Cp. ii. 6. 

22. and an oaih be laid upon hiin] Cp. Ex. xxii. 11. The oath 
means a curse which a man imprecates upon himself under certain 

and the oath come] R.V. and he come and swear. 

23. by requiting the wicked, by recompensing his way upon his own 
head; and by justifying the righteous, by giving him according to his 
righteousness] R.V. requiting the wicked, to bring his way upon his 
own head; and justifying the righteous, to give him according to 
his righteousness. 

24. be put io the worse] R.V. be smitten down (as in i Kings). 
and shall return] R.V. and shall turn again (as in i Kings) i.e. 


25. from the heavens] R.V. from heaven (as in ver. 23). 

26. when thou dost afflict them] Render (with R.V. mg. and 
Peshitta), because thou answerest them. Israel "confesses God's 
name " because God answers the prayer of penitence. 

II 2 

i64 II. CHRONICLES, VI. [vv. 28—33. 

should walk ; and send rain upon thy land, which thou hast 
given unto thy people for an inheritance. 

28 If there be dearth in the land, if there be pestilence, if 
there be blasting, or mildew, locusts, or caterpillars ; if their 
enemies besiege them in the cities of their land; whatsoever 

29 sore or whatsoever sickness there be: then what prayer or 
what supplication soever shall be made of any man, or of all 
thy people Israel, when every one shall know his own sore 
and his own grief, and shall spread forth his hands in this 

30 house : then hear thou from heaven thy dwelling place, and 
forgive, and render unto every man according unto all his 
ways, whose heart thou knowest; (for thou only knowest 

31 the hearts of the children of men :) that they may fear thee, 
to walk in thy ways, so long as they live in the land which 
thou gavest unto our fathers. 

32 Moreover concerning the stranger, which is not of thy 
people Israel, but is come from a far country for thy great 
name's sake, and thy mighty hand, and thy stretched out 

33 arm ; if they come and pray in this house ; then hear thou 
from the heavens, even from thy dwelling place, and do 
according to all that the stranger calleth to thee for; that 
all people of the earth may know thy name, and fear thee, 
as doth thy people Israel, and may know that this house 
which I have built is called by thy name. 

28. dearth'] R.V. famine (as in i Kings). 

caterpillars'] Rather some kind of locust; see Driver on Joel i. 4. 

in the cities of their land] R.V. in the land of their cities (Heb. 
gates). The text is probably corrupt: read either, in any one of their 
cities (cp. LXX.), or, by making a breach in his gates (Heb. bipherof 
for Feref). 

whatsoever sore] R.V. whatsoever plague. "Plague" is used here 
in the general sense of calamity, as in the phrase, The Ten Plagues of 

29. his own sore and his own grief] R.V. his own plague and his 
own sorrow. Cp. last note. 

in this house] R.V. toward this house. 

30. thou only] R.V. thou, even thou only. 

32. but is come] R.V. when he shall come. 
if they come] R.V. when they shall come. 

in this house] R.V. toward this house; cp. ver. 29. 

33. all people] R.V. all the peoples. For this change see R.V. 
Preface, p. vi. 

vv. 34—41.] II. CHRONICLES, VI. 165 

If thy people go out to war against their enemies by the 34 
way that thou shalt send them, and they pray unto thee 
toward this city which thou hast chosen, and the house 
which I have built for thy name ; then hear thou from the 35 
heavens their prayer and their supplication, and maintain 
their cause. If they sin against thee, (for there is no man 36 
which sinneth not,) and thou be angry with them, and 
deliver them over before their enemies, and they carry them 
away captives unto a land far off or near ; yet if they bethink 37 
themselves in the land whither they are carried captive, and 
turn and pray unto thee in the land of their captivity, saying. 
We have sinned, we have done amiss, and have dealt 
wickedly ; if they return to thee with all their heart and with 35 
all their soul in the land of their captivity, whither they have 
carried them captives, and pray toward their land, which 
thou gavest unto their fathers, and toward the city which 
thou hast chosen, and toward the house which I have built 
for thy name : then hear thou from the heavens, evefi from 39 
thy dwelling place, their prayer and their supplications, and 
maintain their cause, and forgive thy people which have 
sinned against thee. 

Now, my God, let, I beseech thee, thine eyes be open, 40 
and let thine ears be attent unto the prayer that is made in 
this place. Now therefore arise, O Lord God, into thy ^^ 

35. maintain their cause] Render with R.V. mg., maintain their 

36. there is no man which sinneih not\ Cp. Eccl. vii. 20. 

deliver them over before their enemies] R.V. deliver them to the 
enemy (as i Kings). 

37. turn and pray] R.V. turn again, and make supplication (cp. 
I Kings). 

done amiss] R.V. done perversely (as i Kings). The stronger 
word represents the Heb. word the better. 

38. If they return] Cp. Lev. xxvi. 39—41; Deut. xxx. i, i 
(passages anticipating captivity and also repentance in captivity). 

39. their cause] Render with R.V. mg. their right (as in ver. 35). 

40—42. (No parallel in i Kings). The Invocation. 

The end of the prayer in i Kin. viii. 51 — 53 is quite different. 

40. attent] i.e. attentive. Cp. vii. 15 (same English word for 
same Heb. word). 

41. Now therefore arise] This whole ver. corresponds (with some 
variation of reading) with vv. 8, 9 of Psalm cxxxii. 

i66 II. CHRONICLES, VI. VII. [vv. 42; 1—3. 

resting place, thou, and the ark of thy strength : let thy 
priests, O Lord God, be clothed with salvation, and let thy 

42 saints rejoice in goodness. O Lord God, turn not away 
the face of thine anointed : remember the mercies of David 
thy servant. 

7 Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the 
fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt 
offering and the sacrifices ; and the glory of the Lord filled 

2 the house. And the priests could not enter into the house 
of the Lord, because the glory of the Lord had filled the 

3 Lord's house. And when all the children of Israel saw 
how the fire came down, and the glory of the Lord upon 
the house, they bowed themselves with thei?- faces to the 
ground upon the pavement, and worshipped, and praised 
the Lord, saying^ For he is good ; for his mercy enduretJi 
for ever. 

the ark of thy strength"] This appellation of the ark perhaps refers 
to its use in war; cp. r Sam. iv. 3, 6, 7. 

with salvation] i.e. with victory. In Ps. cxxxii. 9, with righteous- 
ness. The thought in Chron. and in Ps, cxxxii. is the same, for through 
victory the human victor receives salvation (i.e. deliverance from the 
enemy), and the Divine Giver of victory asserts His righteousness (i.e. by 
giving victory to the right). 

thy saints] i.e. thy people Israel; cp. Ps. Ixxix. 2; cxlix. 5. So in 
the N.T. the Christians as a body are spoken of as "saints" and 

rejoice in goodness] Render (with R.V. mg.) rejoice in good, i.e. in 
prosperity. In Ps. cxxxii. shout for joy. 

42. turn not away] Cp. Ps. cxxxii. 10. 

remember the mercies of David] i.e. either shew David's son the 
mercies thou didst shew to David himself (Is. Iv. 3), or (better), 
remember the good deeds ("mercies"; cp. xxxii. 32) which David did, 
and reward his son. 

Ch. VII. 1—3 (not in i Kings). The Sacrifices consumed 
BY Fire from Heaven. 

1. the fire came down from heaven] Cp. i Chr. xxi. 26, note. 
consujned the burnt offering] Cp. Lev. ix. 24; i Kin. xviii. 38. 

2. the priests could 7iot entej'] Cp. v. 14. 

3. And when all the children of Israel saw how the fire came down] 
R.V. And all the children of Israel looked on, when the fire came 

praised the Lord] R.V. gave thanks unto the LORD ; cp. v. 13. 

vv. 4— lo.] II. CHRONICLES, VII. 167 

Then the king and all the people offered sacrifices before 4 
the Lord. And king Solomon offered a sacrifice of twenty 5 
and two thousand oxen, and an hundred and twenty thou- 
sand sheep : so the king and all the people dedicated the 
house of God. And the priests waited on their offices : the 6 
Levites also with instruments of musick of the Lord, which 
David the king had made to praise the Lord, because his 
mercy endureth for ever, when David praised by their 
ministry; and the priests sounded trumpets before them, 
and all Israel stood. Moreover Solomon hallowed the 7 
middle of the court that was before the house of the Lord : 
for there he offered burnt offerings, and the fat of the peace 
offerings, because the brasen altar which Solomon had made 
was not able to receive the burnt offerings, and the meat 
offerings, and the fat. Also at the same time Solomon kept 8 
the feast seven days, and all Israel with him, a very great 
congregation, from the entering in of Hamath unto the 
river of Egypt. And in the eighth day they made a solemn 9 
assembly : for they kept the dedication of the altar seven 
days, and the feast seven days. And on the three and 10 
twentieth day of the seventh month he sent the people away 

4—10 (=1 Kin. viii. ^^—(i(i). The Great Feast of 

5. twenty and two thousand oxen, and an hundred aiid twenty thousand 
sheep] These high numbers appear also in i Kings. 

6. the priests waited on their offices] R.V. the priests stood, 
according to their offices. This ver. does not appear in i Kings. 

ifistrtwients of musick of the Lord] R.V. mg., instruments for the 
song of the LORD. Cp. i Chr. xxiii. 5 ; Amos vi. 5. 
the priests sounded trumpets] Cp. v. 12. 

7. the fat] Specially mentioned as the choice part of the sacrificial 
victim, a part never to be eaten but always to be burnt. Lev. iii. 16, 17. 

peace offerings] See note on 1 Chr. xvi. [. 

the brasen altar which Solomon had made] Cp. iv. i ; i Kin. ix. 25. 

the meat offerings] R.V. the meal offering. Cp. Lev. ii. 1—7. 

8. Also at the same time Solomon kept the feast] R.V. So Solomon 
held the feast at that time. 

fro7n the entering in of Hamath] See note on 1 Chr. xiii. 5. 
the river of Egypt] R.V. the brook of Egypt, i.e. not the Nile, but 
the stream called\S'/^?7wr of Egypt in i Chr. xiii. 5 (see note). 

9. a solemn assembly] R.V. mg., a closing festival. Cp. Num. 
xxix. 35; Deut. xvi. 8. 

seven days, and... seven days] Cp. i Kin. viii. 65. 

i68 II. CHRONICLES, VII. [vv. ii— 18. 

into their tents, glad and merry in heart for the goodness 
that the Lord had shewed unto David, and to Solomon, 
and to Israel his people. 

11 Thus Solomon finished the house of the Lord, and the 
king's house : and all that came into Solomon's heart to 
make in the house of the Lord, and in his own house, he 

12 prosperously effected. And the Lord appeared to Solomon 
by night, and said unto him, I have heard thy prayer, and 

13 have chosen this place to myself for a house of sacrifice. If 
I shut up heaven that there be no rain, or if I command 
the locusts to devour the land, or if I send pestilence among 

14 my people ; if my people, which are called by my name, 
shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and 
turn from their wicked ways ; then will I hear from heaven, 

15 and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land. Now 
mine eyes shall be open, and mine ears attent unto the 

16 prayer that is made in this place. For now have I chosen 
and sanctified this house, that my name may be there for 
ever : and mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpe- 

17 tually. And as for thee, if thou wilt walk before me, as 
David thy father walked, and do according to all that I 
have commanded thee, and shalt observe my statutes and 

18 my judgments ; then will I stablish the throne of thy 
kingdom, according as I have covenanted with David 

10. into their tents] R.V. unto their tents (as i Kin. viii. 66). 
The Hebrew word (ohel) here approaches in meaning the corresponding 
Arabic word [ahl), which denotes household or one's own people, e.g. in 
the phrase ahlu Uinjil, "the household of the Gospel," i.e. "the 
Christians" a phrase found in the Koran. Cp. x. 16; xxv. 22. 

glad and merry in heart] R.V. joyful and glad of heart (as in 
I Kin. viii. 66). 

11 — 22 (=1 Kin. ix. i — 9). The Night Vision in answer to 
Solomon's Prayer. 

12. appeared... by night] Cp. i. 7. 
a house of sacrifice] Cp. ii. 6. 

13 — 15. These vv. have no parallel in i Kings. 

13. to devour the land] LXX. to devour the trees ; cp. Ex. x. 15; 
Joel i. 6, 7. 

15. Now .. .in this place] Cp. vi. 40. 

16. sanctified] R.V. hallowed (as i Kin. ix. 3). 
for ever] Cp. xxx. 8. 

17. shalt observe] R.V. wilt keep (as i Kin. ix. 4). 

VV.I9— 22; 1—3.] II. CHRONICLES, VII. VIII. 169 

thy father, saying, There shall not fail thee a man io be 
ruler in Israel. But if ye turn away, and forsake my 19 
statutes and my commandments, which I have set before 
you, and shall go and serve other gods, and worship 
them ; then will I pluck them up by the roots out of my 20 
land which I have given them ; and this house, which I 
have sanctified for my name, will I cast out of my sight, 
and will make it to be a proverb and a byword among all 
nations. And this house, which is high, shall be an astonish- 21 
ment to every one that passeth by it ; so that he shall say, 
Why hath the Lord done thus unto this land, and unto 
this house ? And it shall be answered, Because they for- 22 
sook the Lord God of their fathers, which brought them 
forth out of the land of Egypt, and laid hold on other gods, 
and worshipped them, and served them : therefore hath he 
brought all this evil upon them. 

And it came to pass at the end of twenty years, wherein 8 
Solomon had built the house of the Lord, and his own 
house, that the cities which Huram had restored to Solomon, 2 
Solomon built them, and caused the children of Israel to 
dwell there. And Solomon went to Hamath-zobah, and 3 

20. sanciified'\ R.V. hallowed (cf. ver. 16). 

21. tuhich is high'] Render, ■wMch was high. The past tense is 
used by a kind of anticipation, as though the Speaker spoke from a 
later standpoint than the age of Solomon. 

22. it shall be answered] Render, men shall say. 

Ch. VIII. 1—6 (cp. I Kin, ix. 10, ir, 17 — 19). Solomon's Cities. 

1. twenty years'] Cp. i Kin. vi. 38, vii. i. 

2. the cities which Huram had restored to Solomon,] R.V. the 
cities which Huram had given to Solomon. According to i Kin. ix. 
12, 13 it was Solomon who gave Huram cities. Huram however 
not pleased with them [ibid.), and from this fact the English trans- 
lators of 161 1 concluded that Huram rejected them and "restored" 
them. Probably however Kin. and Chron. follow different traditions 
with regard to these border cities, and no reconciliation is possible. 

built them] i.e. fortified them. 

3. Hamath-zobah] The two kingdoms of Hamath and Zobah are 
distinguished from one another (i Chr. xviii. 3, 9 = 2 Sam. viii. 3, 9), 
Hamath apparently being north of Zobah. It is probable however that 
Hamath as the name of a city belonged to more than one place, and 
Hamath-Zobah may be a southern namesake of the well-known Hamath 
the great (Amos vi. 2). 

Though Solomon was a "man of rest" (i Chr. xxii. 9) his reign was 
not wholly free from war (cp. i Kin. xi. 14, 23). 

I70 II. CHRONICLES, VIII. [vv. 4— 9. 

4 prevailed against it. And he built Tadmor in the wilderness, 

s and all the store cities, which he built in Hamath. Also he 

built Beth-horon the upper, and Beth-horon the nether, 

6 fenced cities, with walls, gates, and bars ; and Baalath, and 
all the store cities that Solomon had, and all the chariot 
cities, and the cities of the horsemen, and all that Solomon 
desired to build in Jerusalem, and in Lebanon, and through- 

7 out all the land of his dominion. As for all the people 
that were left of the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the 
Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which were 

8 not of Israel, but of their children, who were left after them 
in the land, whom the children of Israel consumed not, 

9 them did Solomon make to pay tribute until this day. But 
of the children of Israel did Solomon make no servants for 
his work ; but they were men of war, and chief of his captains, 

4. Tadmor in the ivilderness] Palmyra {Bddeker, p. 364) is meant, 
a city on an oasis N.E. of Damascus half way between Damascus and 
the Euphrates. Apart from this passage of Chron. it first appears in 
history in B.C. 34, when it was threatened with attack by Mark Antony. 
This silence of history for a thousand years casts a doubt on the belief 
that Tadmor (Palmyra) is as old as the time of Solomon, and the doubt 
is strengthened by a reference to the parallel passage (i Kin. ix. 18), for 
there (i) the text (C'thib) has "Tamar," with "Tadmor" as marginal 
reading (K'ri), and (2) Tamar (Tadmor) is associated with Gezer, Beth- 
horon, and Baalath, cities either in Judah or on its borders. Probably 
therefore the marginal reading Tadmor in i Kin, is due to the influence 
of 1 Chr., and the text of i Kin. ("Tamar") is correct. The city built 
by Solomon was probably a Tamar in the south of Judah. 

5. Beth-horon the tippej-] Not mentioned in the parallel passage 
(i Kin. ix. 17). 

6. Baalath'] A city in the tribe of Dan not far from Gezer and 
Beth-horon (i Kin. ix. 18). 

chariot cities] See note on i. 14. 

7 — 10 ( = 1 Kin. ix. 20 — 23). Solomon's Task-workers. 

7. Hittites... yebusites] See notes on i Chr. i. 13 — 15. 

8. but of their children] R.V. of their children. 

the7n did Solomon make to pay tribute] R.V. of them did Solomon 
raise a levy of bondservants. The word "tribute" (A.V.) suggests 
payment in money, but, as may be seen from ii. 17, 18, the subject 
peoples acknowledged their subjection otherwise, viz., by submitting to 
do task-work for Solomon. 

9. and chief of his captains] Read (with i Kin. ix. 22) and his 
princes and his captains. The statements of this verse must be read 
in connexion with i Kin. v. i3ff. ; xii. 4 fif., whence it appears that 

vv. 10—14.] n. CHRONICLES, Vlll. 171 

and captains of his chariots and horsemen. And these were »o 
the chief of king Solomon's officers, eve7i two hundred and 
fifty, that bare rule over the people. And Solomon brought " 
up the daughter of Pharaoh out of the city of David unto 
the house that he had built for her : for he said. My wife 
shall not dwell in the house of David king of Israel, because 
the places are holy, whereunto the ark of the Lord hath 

Then Solomon offered burnt offerings unto the Lord 12 
on the altar of the Lord, which he had built before the 
porch, even after a certain rate every day, offering according 13 
to the commandment of Moses, on the sabbaths, and on 
the new moons, and on the solemn feasts, three times in the 
year, even in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast 
of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles. And he appointed, ' \ 

though Solomon did not actually reduce any Israelite to permanent 
slavery, yet he imposed upon his own people a corvee which was felt to 
be very burdensome. 

10. And these were the chief '\ After this preface (cp. 1 Kin. ix. 23) 
we expect both here and in i Kin. a list of these persons ; cp. i Chr. 
xi. 10 ff. , xii. I fif. Possibly the text of i Kin. suffered at an early date, 
and the list was missing when the Chronicler wrote. 

t%vo hundred and fif ty\ According to i Kin. ix. ^■^.five hundred and 
fifty. On the other hand the nnder-overseers are reckoned at three 
thousand six hundred in 2 Chr. ii. 18 as against three thousand three 
hundred in i Kin. v. 16. The total number therefore of overseers of 
all kinds is given both in i Kin. and 2 Chr. as 3850. 

11 (=1 Kin. ix. 24). The House of Pharaoh's Daughter. 

11. for he said. My zvife, etc.] These words are an addition of the 
Chronicler. In i Kin. iii. i it is said simply that Solomon brought 
Pharaoh's daughter into the city of David until his own house was 

My wife shall not dwell] Render, No wife of mine shall dwell. 

12 — 16 (cp. I Kin. ix. 25). Solomon's arrangements for the 
Temple Worship. 

This paragraph is in the main an expansion of i Kin. ix. 25. 

12. on the altar of the LoRD, which he had built before the porch] 
This refers to the great brasen altar of burnt- offering (iv. 1). In i Kin. 
the statement is that Solomon burnt incense up07i the altar that was 
before the Lord (referring to the altar of incense; cp. Ex. xxx. i — 10). 
Such an act, according to the Chronicler, was of the nature of trespass, 
being punished in the case of Uzziah with leprosy (xxvi. 16), and was 
therefore not to be attributed to such a king as Solomon. 

172 II. CHRONICLES,*VIII. [vv. 15— 18. 

according to the order of David his father, the courses of 
the priests to their service, and the Levites to their charges, 
to praise and minister before the priests, as the duty of 
every day required : the porters also by their courses at 
every gate : for so had David the man of God commanded. 

15 And they departed not from the commandment of the king 
unto the priests and Levites concerning any matter, or 

16 concerning the treasures. Now all the work of Solomon 
was prepared unto the day of the foundation of the house 
of the Lord, and until it was finished. So the house of the 
Lord was perfected. 

17 Then went Solomon to Ezion-geber, and to Eloth, at the 

18 sea side in the land of Edom. And Huram sent him by 
the hands of his servants ships, and servants that had 
knowledge of the sea ; and they went with the servants of 

14. according to the order] R.V. according to the ordinance. 

of David] Cp. 1 Chr. xxiv.' — xxvi. 

to praise and minister before the priests] R.V. to praise, and to 
minister before the priests; cp. i Chr. xxiii. 28. 

the porters] R.V. the door-keepers, 

David the man of God] Targ. David the prophet of the Lord (a 
correct paraphrase). Cp. Neh. xii. 36. 

16. Now all the work of Solomon was prepared] Render, So all the 
work of Solomon was established. 

u7ito the day... was perfected] LXX offers a much shorter and 
smoother text, from the day on zvhich it was funded until Solomon 
perfected the house of the Lord. This reading is probably right. 

17, 18 ( = 1 Kin. ix. 26 — 28). Solomon's Fleet. 

17. to Ezion-geber, and to Eloth] In i Kin. Ezion-geber which is 
beside Eloth oft the shore of the Red Sea. vStrictly speaking it was at the 
head of the Gulf of Akaba, the eastern arm of the Red Sea. Cp. xx. 36 
(R.V.) and Deut. ii. 8. 

18. sent him by the hand of his servants ships] The natural inter- 
pretation of these words is that Huram had ships transported overland 
from the Phoenician coast to the Gulf of Akaba, a difficult but not 
impossible task. In i Kin. however it is merely said that Solomon 
built ships in Ezion-geber — probably with the help of Huram — and that 
Huram helped to man them. Probably the text of Chron. should be 
corrected here from the text of Kings. 

18. Ophir] The situation of this oft-mentioned place is not known. 
It has been identified with some part of the coast [a) of India, {b) of 
Africa, {c) of Arabia. The last identification is most probable ; Ophir 
appears as the name of an Arabian tribe (Gen. x. 29). The name is 
variously written in the LXX. but usually with an initial ^^S," Sophir{a). 
This form may one day help to identify the place. 

vv. 1—7.] II. CHRONICLES, IX. 173 

Solomon to Ophir, and took thence four hundred and fifty 
talents of gold, and brought them to king Solomon. 

And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of 9 
Solomon, she came to prove Solomon with hard questions 
at Jerusalem, with a very great company, and camels that 
bare spices, and gold in abundance, and precious stones : 
and when she was come to Solomon, she communed with 
him of all that was in her heart. And Solomon told her all 2 
her questions : and there was nothing hid from Solomon 
which he told her not. And when the queen of Sheba had 3 
seen the wisdom of Solomon, and the house that he had 
built, and the meat of his table, and the sitting of his 4 
servants, and the attendance of his ministers, and their 
apparel ; his cupbearers also, and their apparel ; and his 
ascent by which he went up into the house of the Lord ; 
there was no more spirit in her. And she said to the king, 5 
// was a true report which I heard in mine own land of 
thine acts, and of thy wisdom : howbeit I believed not their 6 
words, until I came, and mine eyes had seen //.• and behold, 
the one half of the greatness of thy wisdom was not told me : 
for thou exceedest the fame that I heard. Happy are thy 7 
men, and happy are these thy servants, which stand con- 

four hundred and fifty talents] So LXX., but in i Kin. "four 
hundred and twenty" (so Heb., in LXX. B "a hundred and twenty"). 

Ch. IX. 1—12 (=1 Kin. X. I — 13). The Visit of the 
Queen of Sheba. 

1. Sheba] An impoi-tant district in Arabia FeHx, the seat of a 
kingdom. Ps. Ixxii. 10. 

hard questions] Heb. hidoth, "dark sayings" (Prov. i. 6); the sing, 
is translated "riddle" (Judg. xiv. 12 — 18). 

a very great company] R.V. a very great train (as i Kin.). 

2. nothing] R.V. not any thing (as i Kin.)- 

4. and their apparel] The phrase is repeated probably through an 
error of transcription; it occurs once only in the parallel place in i Kin. 

his ascent by which he went up] Render (if the text be sound), his 
manner of going up, i.e. the pomp with which he went up (so Targ.) ; 
but LXX. and Pesh. give, the burnt-offerings which he used to offer, a 
rendering which is right in r Kin. x. 5 (cp. R.V. mg.). The difference 
of reading between Chron. and i Kin. in the Heb. is slight. 

5. of thine acts] \Jv^. of thy matters', the reference is quite general. 

6. the greatness of thy wisdojn] Cp. i Kin. x. 7, "thy wisdom and 

174 11. CHRONICLES, IX. [vv. 8—13. 

8 tinually before thee, and hear thy wisdom. Blessed be the 
Lord thy God, which delighted in thee to set thee on his 
throne, to be king for the Lord thy God : because thy God 
loved Israel, to establish them for ever, therefore made he 

9 thee king over them, to do judgment and justice. And she 
gave the king an hundred and twenty talents of gold, and 
of spices great abundance, and precious stones : neither was 
there any such spice as the queen of Sheba gave king 

10 Solomon. And the servants also of Huram, and the 
servants of Solomon, which brought gold from Ophir, 

11 brought algum trees and precious stones. And the king 
made of the algum trees terraces to the house of the Lord, 
and to the king's palace, and harps and psalteries for singers : 
and there were none such seen before in the land of Judah. 

12 And king Solomon gave to the queen of Sheba all her desire, 
whsitsoever she asked, besides //la^ which she had brought 
unto the king. So she turned, and went away to her own 
land, she and her servants. 

13 Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one 
year was six hundred and threescore and six talents of gold ; 

8. on his throne] The Israelite throne is God^s ; the visible king 
occupies it only as a deputy. Cp. i Chr. xxviii. 5 (" the throne of 
the kingdom of the LORD "); ibid. xxix. 23 ("Solomon sat on the throne 
of the Lord"). 

9. an hundt-ed and twenty talents of gold] A sum so large must be 
regarded rather as tribute than as a complimentary gift. 

any such spice] i.e. as in i Kin. " such abundance of spices." 

10. 11. These vv. interrupt the connexion. Ver. 12 concludes the 
account of the visit of the Queen of Sheba. 

10. algum trees] In i Kin. '' almttg trees." Cp. ii. 8 (note). 

11. terraces] Perhaps "raised paths." In i Kin. x. 12 a different 
Heb. word is used, vi^hich means probably "railings" ("pillars," 

psalteries] Cp. i Chr. xiii. 8 (note). 

in the land of Jtcdah] Here the Chronicler speaks as a man of his 
own age. We should expect, land of Israel. 

12. besides that zvhich she had brought tinto the king] This means 
that the king beside returning the queen the value of her presents to 
him, also gave her additional gifts ; cp. i Kin. x. 13. 

13—28 ( = 1 Kin. x. 14 — 28). Solomon's Greatness. 

13. six himdred and threescore a7id six] This may be called a 
" round " number, for a system of counting based on the number six 
was known in ancient times, e.g. among the Assyrians. 

vv. 14—21.] II. CHRONICLES, IX. 175 

besides that which chapmen and merchants brought. And 14 
all the kings of Arabia and governors of the country brought 
gold and silver to Solomon. And king Solomon made two 15 
hundred targets of beaten gold : six hundred shekels of beaten 
gold went to one target. And three hundred shields made ifi 
he of beaten gold : three hundred shekels of gold went to 
one shield. And the king put them in the house of the 
forest of Lebanon. Moreover the king made a great throne 17 
of ivory, and overlaid it with pure gold. And there were 18 
six steps to the throne, v/ith a footstool of gold, ivhich were 
fastened to the throne, and stays on each side of the sitting 
place, and two lions standing by the stays : and twelve lions 19 
stood there on the one side and on the other upon the 
six steps. There was not the like made in any kingdom.. 
And all the drinking vessels of king Solomon ivere of gold, 20 
and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon 
were <?/'pure gold : none were ^silver; it was not any thing 
accounted of in the days of Solomon. For the king's ships 21 

14. chap??iefi\ R.V. the chapmen. The English word means "mer- 
chant"; cp. the verb, "to chaffer" and the German "Kaufmann." 
The Heb. word means "those who go about" as merchants. 

goveniors] Heb. Pahoth, a word applied specially to governors of 
provinces of the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian empires. Probably 
here governors outside the land of Israel are meant. 

15. targets^ Heb. finndh, a word meaning a large shield ; cp. 
I Sam. xvii. 7. On the other hand in ver. 16 (Heb. maghi) small 
shields are meant. The English renderings should be transposed so as 
to be "shields" in ver. 15 and " targets" in ver. 16. 

went to one targef] Render (also in ver. j 6) "Were spread upon one 

16. shields] See note on ver. 15. 

the house of the forest of Lebanon] So called probably because it was 
built of cedar of Lebanon (r Kin. vii. 2). It was in Jerusalem and 
seems to have existed as late as the time of Isaiah (Is. xxii. 8) as an 

18. with a footstool of gold, which were fastened to the throne] 
A quite different detail takes the place of this in i Kin. x. 19, and the 
top of the throne was round behind. Perhaps both details were found in 
the original text of Kings. 

and stays on each side of the sitting place] R.V. and stays (mg. 
" arms") on either side by the place of the seat. 

20. none were of silver ; it was not any thing accounted of] R.V. 
silver was nothing accounted of. 

21. For the king's ships went to Tarshish] R.V. For the king had 
ships that went to Tarshish. Here the Chronicler misunderstands the 

176 II. CHRONICLES, IX. [vv. 22—27. 

went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram : every three 
years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and 

22 silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks. And king Solomon 
passed all the kings of the earth in riches and wisdom. 

23 And all the kings of the earth sought the presence of 
Solomon, to hear his wisdom, that God had put in his heart. 

24 And they brought every man his present, vessels of silver, 
and vessels of gold, and raiment, harness, and spices, horses, 

25 and mules, a rate year by year. And Solomon had four 
thousand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand 
horsemen; whom he bestowed in the chariot cities, and 

26 with the king at Jerusalem. And he reigned over all the 
kings from the river even unto the land of the Philistines, 

27 and to the border of Egypt. And the king made silver in 
Jerusalem as stones, and cedar trees made he as the syco- 

parallel passage (i Kin. x. 22, "For the king had at sea a navy of 
Tarshish''^). "Navy (or 'ships') of Tarshish" is a phrase meaning 
large ships fit for long voyages; cp. Ps. xlviii. 7. The merchandise 
mentioned in this verse doubtless came from the East and not from 
Tarshisli (= Tartessus in Spain). 

every three years once] R.V. once every three years. 

aj>es] These animals were much sought after; they appear e.g. 
pictured in relief on the Black Obelisk (in the British Museum) among 
the tribute received by Shalmaneser II. of Assyria. 

22. And king Solomon passed] R.V. So king Solomon exceeded (so 
1 Kin. X. 23). 

23. all the kings of the earth] In i Kings, all the earth. 

24. his present] i.e. his tribute. 

harness] R.V. armour (so Pesh. of i Kin. and Targ. of 2 Chr. and 
I Kin.). A less probable rendering is ora/crTj ("oil of myrrh") LXX. 
(in both places), "myrrh," Pesh. of 2 Chr. 

25. four thousattd stalls for horses and chariots] In the parallel 
passage (1 Kin. iv. 26 = v. 6 Heb.), forty thousand stalls of horses for his 
chariots. The meaning of the word rendered "stalls" is quite uncer- 
tain. The rendering of the LXX. suggests "brood-mares" as the 

twelve thousand horsemen] So i Kin. iv. 26 (v. 6 Heb.); and 2 Chr. 
i. 14 ( = I Kin. X. 26). 

chariot cities] See note on i. 14. 

26. from the river] R.V. from the River, i.e. the Euphrates. 

even unto the land of the Philistines] The Philistines seem to have 
been able to keep their independence. 

27. cedar trees] Rather, cedar wood. 

sycomore] i.e. the fig-mulberry, not now a common tree in Palestine; 
cp. I Chr. xxvii. 28, note. 

VV.28— 3i; 1—3.] II. CHRONICLES, IX. X. 177 

. • 

more trees that are in the low plains in abundance. And 28 
they brought unto Solomon horses out of Egypt, and out of 
all lands. 

Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, first and last, are 29 
they not written in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in 
the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of 
Iddo the seer against Jeroboam the son of Nebat ? And 30 
Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel forty years. 
And Solomon slept with his fathers, and he was buried in l^ 
the city of David his father : and Rehoboam his son reigned 
in his stead. 

And Rehoboam went to Shechem : for to Shechem were 10 
all Israel come to make him king. And it came to pass, 2 
when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was in Egypt, whither 
he had fled from the presence of Solomon the king, heard 
//, that Jeroboam returned out of Egypt. And they sent 3 

the lozu plains] R.V. tlie lowland (Heb. "Shephelah"). See G. A. 
Smith, I:/isf. Geography, Chap. X. "The Shephelah." 

28. And they brought Q\.z.'\ Cp. i. 16, 17. 

23—31 (= I Kin. xi. 41 — 43). The Epilogue. 

An important section of i Kin. (xi. i — 40) giving an account of 
Solomon's patronage of idolatry and of the troubles of his reign is 
unnoticed by the Chronicler. 

29. the book of Nathan] Cp. i Chr. xxix. 29. 
Ahijah the Shilonite] 1 Kin. xi. 29 ; xiv. 2 ff. 

Iddo] Heb. Jedai or Jedo (probably a mis-spelling); cp. xii. 15; 
xiii. 22. 

30. forty years] The number is perhaps a round number ; cp. 
Judg. iii. 30; V. 31; viii. 28; xiii. i. 

31. slept with his fathers] This is not said of David (i Chr. xxix. 
28), perhaps because David's father was not a king. 

in the city of David] i Chr. xi. 7. 

Ch. X. 1—15 (=1 Kin. xii. 1 — 15). The Conference at 

1. Shechem] Chosen for its central position, for it is in the heart 
of Western Palestine. 

2. Jeroboam] For his antecedents (which are not given by the 
Chronicler) see 1 Kin. xi. 26 ff. 

that Jeroboam returned out of Egypt] So we should read also in 
I Kin. xii. 2 for "and Jeroboam dwelt in Egypt." The difference in 
Heb. between the two readings when written without the vowels is 
confined to one letter. 


178 II. CHRONICLES, X. [vv. 4—10. 


and called him. So Jeroboam and all Israel came and spake 

4 to Rehoboam, saying, Thy father made our yoke grievous : 
now therefore ease thou somewhat the grievous servitude 
of thy father, and his heavy yoke that he put upon us, and 

5 we will serve thee. And he said unto them, Come again 

6 unto me after three days. And the people departed. And 
king Rehoboam took counsel with the old men that had 
stood before Solomon his father while he yet lived, saying, 
What counsel give ye me to return answer to this people? 

7 And they spake unto him, saying, If thou be kind to this 
people, and please them, and speak good words to them, 

8 they will be thy servants for ever. But he forsook the 
counsel which the old men gave him, and took counsel 
with the young men that were brought up with him, that 

9 stood before him. And he said unto them, What advice 
give ye that we may return answer to this people, which 
have spoken to me, saying, Ease somewhat the yoke that 

10 thy father did put upon us ? And the young men that were 
brought up with him spake unto him, saying. Thus shalt 
thou answer the people that spake unto thee, saying. Thy 
father made our yoke heavy, but make thou it somewhat 
lighter for us; thus shalt thou say unto them, My little 

4. ease thou somewhat .. .ftit upon 7is'\ R.V. make thou the grievous 
service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put upon us, 
lighter (as in i Kin.). The "service" complained of is described (in 
part) in i Kin. v. 13, 14 (no parallel in Chion.). Cp. viii. 9 (=1 Kin. 
ix. 22), note. 

atid we will serve thee] The people claim their ancient right to a 
voice in the appointment of a king; cp. i Sam. xi. 14, 15 (Saul) and 
2 Sam. V. I — 3 (David). 

6. stood before] Cp. Deut. i. 38 ; i Kin. xvii. i. The phrase is 
used to express service, whether rendered to God or to man. 

7. if thou be kind to this people, and please them] The Chronicler 
has softened the forcible words of the parallel passage (i Kin. xii. 7), 
"If thou wilt be a servant unto this people this day, and wilt serve 
them." The words which were too blunt for Rehoboam were also too 
blunt for the Chronicler. 

8. were brought up with him] R.V. were grown up with him. 

9. IVhat advice] R.V. What counsel (as in ver. 6). 

Ease somewhat the yoke that thy father did put upon us] R.V. Make 
the yoke that thy father did put upon us lighter. 

10. wei-e brought up with him] R.V. were grown up with him (as 
in ver. 8). 

sotne^vhat lighter for. us] R.V. omits "somewhat". 

vv. II— 16.] II. CHRONICLES, X. 179 

finger shall be thicker than my father's loins. For whereas n 
my father put a heavy yoke upon you, I will put more to 
your yoke : my father chastised you with whips, but I will 
chastise you ysrith. scorpions. So Jeroboam and all the people 12 
came to Rehoboam on the third day, as the king bade, 
saying. Come again to me on the third day. And the king 13 
answered them roughly; and king Rehoboam forsook the 
counsel of the old men, and answered them after the advice 14 
of the young men, saying. My father made your yoke heavy, 
but I will add thereto : my father chastised you with whips, 
but I will chastise you with scorpions. So the king heark- 15 
ened not unto the people : for the cause was of God, that 
the Lord might perform his word, which he spake by the 
hand of Ahijah the Shilonite to Jeroboam the son of Nebat. 

And when all Israel saw that the king would not hearken 16 
unto them, the people answered the king, saying, 

What portion have we in David ? 

And we have none inheritance in the son of Jesse : 

shall be thicker] R.V. is thicker. 

11. For whereas.. Jo your yokc\ R.V. And now whereas my father 
did lade you with a heavy yoke, I will add to your yoke (as 
I Kin.). 

•with whips] A whip or flail was among the insignia of an Egyptian 
(and perhaps also of an Israelite) king. Cp. Erman, Ancient Egypt^ 
Eng. Tr. p. 60 (where an illustration is given) and p. 63. 

with scorpions] The expression is most probably proverbial and 
metaphorical, but some authorities (e.g. Pesh.) take "scorpion" to be 
the name of a particular kind of scourge, the lash of which was provided 
with thorns or hooks. 

13. answered them roughly] It was difficult for the son of so 
powerful a king as Solomon to realise that there was any necessity ior a 
soft answer. Solomon had put down Israelite discontent by driving 
Jeroboam into exile in Egypt, and David had put down somewhat 
easily the movement under Sheba son of Bichri (2 Sam. xx. i — it). 
Could the good fortune of the House of David fail at this third crisis? 

14. and answered them after the advice] R.V. and spake to them 
after the counsel (as i Kin.). 

15. the cause was of God] R. V. it was brought about of God. 
might perform] R.V. might establish. 

Ahijah] Cp. i Kin. xi. 29 — 39. The incident reierred to is not 
narrated in Chron., being assumed to be known. 

16 — 19 (= I Kin. xii. 16 — 19). The Revolt. 

16. And we have none inheritance] R.V. neither have we inherit- 

12 — 2 

i8o II. CHRONICLES, X. XL [vv. 17— 19; 1—4. 

Every man to your tents, O Israel : 
And now, David, see to thine own house. 

17 So all Israel went to their tents. But as for the children 
of Israel that dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned 

18 over them. Then king Rehoboam sent Hadoram that was 
over the tribute ; and the children of Israel stoned him with 
stones, that he died. But king Rehoboam made speed to 

19 get him up to Ms chariot, to flee to Jerusalem. And Israel 
rebelled against the house of David unto this day. 

11 And when Rehoboam was come to Jerusalem, he gathered 
of\h& house of Judah and Benjamin an hundred and four- 
score thousand chosen fnen^ which were warriors, to fight 
against Israel, that he might bring the kingdom again to 

2 Rehoboam. But the word of the Lord came to Shemaiah 

3 the man of God, saying, Speak unto Rehoboam the son of 
Solomon, king of Judah, and to all Israel in Judah and 

4 Benjamin, saying, Thus saith the Lord, Ye shall not go up, 
nor fight against your brethren : return every man to his 

ance. Contrast the language of the ten tribes after the collapse of 
Absalom's rebellion : We have ten parts in the king (2 Sam. xix. 43). 

to your tents\ See note on vii. 10. 

And now, David, see to thine own house\ R.V. now see to thine 
own house, David. 

wenf] R.V. departed. 

18. Hadorani] Called "Adoram" in the parallel passage (1 Kin. 
xii. 18) and "Adoniram" (i Kin. iv. 6; v. 14; [28 Heb.]). 

over the tribute] R.V. over the levy. 

Ch. XL 1 — 4 ( = 1 Kin. xii. 21 — 24). Shemaiah forbids 
Civil War. 

The Chronicler here omits the elevation of Jeroboam to be king over 
Israel (i Kin. xii. 20). 

1. he gathered or\ R.V. he assembled. 

2. Shemaiah] See xii. 5, 15. 

3. to all Israel in yudah and Benjaf?iin'\ The Chronicler does not 
hesitate to use the term "Israel" in speaking of Judah. Thus the 
princes of the Southern Kingdom are called "the princes of Israel" 
(xii. 6; xxi. 4), the populace as a v^^hole is called "Israel" (xii. i; 
XV. 17), Jehoshaphat and Ahaz are each called "king of Israel " (xxi. 2 ; 
xxviii. 19), and the sepulchres of the kings at Jerusalem are called the 
"sepulchres of the kings of Israel" (xxviii. 27). (Cp. Driver, yoel, 
p. 9 note, for a similar use of the word.) Israel in Chron. then=:the 
covenant-people. In Kings on the contrary Israel generally means the 
Northern Kingdom. 

vv. 5— lo.] II. CHRONICLES, XI. i8i 

house, for this thing is done of me. And they obeyed the 
words of the Lord, and returned from going against Jero- 

And Rehoboam dwelt in Jerusalem, and built cities for 5 
defence in Judah. He built even Beth-lehem, and Etam, 6 
and Tekoa, and Beth-zur, and Shoco, and Adullam, and 7,! 
Gath, and Mareshah, and Ziph, and Adoraim, and Lachish, 9 
and Azekah, and Zorah, and Aijalon, and Hebron, which 10 

4. is done of me. And they obeyed^ R.V. is of me. So tliey 
hearkened unto. 

5 — 23. The Prosperity of Rehoboam. 

This section has no corresponding section in i Kin. On the other 
hand the Chronicler omits three important sections of i Kin, viz. xii. 
25 — 33 (the setting up of the golden calves), xiii. i — 32 (the episode of 
the prophet vi'ho cried against the altar in Beth-el) and xiv. i — 18 (the 
death of the son of Jeroboam). 

5. built cities for defence'] This dees not mean that all these cities 
were then built for' the first time; certainly Beth-lehem, Tekoa, and 
Hebron were ancient places. Rebuilding, strengthening, and fortifying 
are included in the meaning of the Hebrew verb bdndh = build. The 
cities mentioned were situated some in the Hill Country of Judah, some 
in the Shephelah. 

6. Etam] Probably represented by some ruins a little to the S.W. 
of Beth-lehem, by which is a spring called Ain *Atdn. Cp. i Chr. iv. 3 
Bddeker, p. 132. 

7. Beth-ztir\ Represented by the ruin Burj Silr to the north 
of Hebron. Cp. Josh. xv. 58. Bddeker, p. 136. 

Shoc6\ R.V. Soco. The cities hitherto mentioned were situated in the 
Hill Country, but the position of the Soco here mentioned and Adullam 
is uncertain. Two places bore the name Soco or Socoh, one situated 
in the Shephelah (Josh. xv. 35; i Sam. xvii. i, R.V.), and one in the 
Hill Country ("the mountains," Josh. xv. 48). For Adullam cp. 
Josh. XV. 35; I Chr. xi. 15 (note on the cave of Adullam). 

8. Gath'] Cp. I Chr. xviii. i. 

Mareshah'] In the Shephelah south of the modern Beit Jibrin. Cp. 
xiv. 9; XX. 37. 

Ziph] Probably 7>//-Zz/" south of Hebron. 

9. Adoraim] The modern Dora west of Hebron. Bddeker, p. 152. 
Azekah] In the Shephelah, mentioned along with Socoh in Josh. 

XV. 35. 

10. Zorah] Josh. xv. 33 (R.V.). It was situated in the Shephelah. 
Aijalon] The modern Yalo, about midway between Ramleh and 

Jerusalem. Bddeker, pp. 15, 18. It is an ancient place mentioned in 
the Tell-el-Amarna letters and in Josh. x. 12, R.V. ("Valley of 
Aijalon," i.e. the modern Merj ibn 0?ner). Cp. xxviii. 18, R.V. 

i82 II. CHRONICLES, XL [vv. ii— 17. 

11 are in Judah and in Benjamin, fenced cities. And he forti- 
fied the strong holds, and put captains in them, and store 

12 of victual, and of oil and wine. And in every several city 
he put shields and spears, and made them exceeding strong, 

13 having Judah and Benjamin on his side. And the priests 
and the Levites that were in all Israel resorted to him out 

14 of all their coasts. For the Levites left their suburbs and 
their possession, and came to Judah and Jerusalem : for 
Jeroboam and his sons had cast them off from executing 

15 the priest's office unto the Lord : and he ordained him 
priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the 

16 calves which he had made. And after them out of all the 
tribes of Israel such as set their hearts to seek the Lord 
God of Israel came to Jerusalem, to sacrifice unto the Lord 

17 God of their fathers. So they strengthened the kingdom of 
Judah, and made Rehoboam the son of Solomon strong, 
three years : for three years they walked in the way of David 
and Solomon. 

and in Benjamiii\ None of the fifteen cities seems to have been in 
Benjamin. Zorah and Aijalon were in Dan (Josh. xix. 41, 42, R.V.), 
while the remaining thirteen were in Judah. Cp. ver. 5. 

12. having Jiidah and Benjamin on his side] Render, And so 
Judah and Benjamin became his. Rehoboam's fortresses (which were 
scattered all over the country and were not placed on the borders only) 
were intended to keep Judah in subjection. His appointment of 
military governors (ver. 1 1 ) and his dispersion of his sons among the 
fortresses (ver. 23) were also parts of the same policy of preparedness 
to put down revolt. 

13. resorted to him] Lit. took their stand by him. 
all their coasts] R.V. all their border. 

14. suburbs] See note on i Chr. v. 16. 

had cast them off from executing] R.V. cast them oflF, that they 
should not execute. In i Kin. (xii. 31, xiii. 33) it is not said that 
Jeroboam rejected the tribe of Levi, but only that he allowed men of 
any tribe to become priests; "he... made priests from among all the 
people" (R.V.). 

15. the devils] R.V. the he-goats (Lev. xvii. 7 R.V.). The heathen 
Arabs believed in the existence of demons (called //;/«) having various 
animal forms and inhabiting deserted places, and this belief was 
probably shared by the Hebrews. In this verse and in Lev. xvii. 7, 
the writers seem to identify the gods worshipped by the heathen with 
these jinn. (Cp. W. R. Smith, Religion of the Semites, pp. 120 ff.) 

the calves] Not previously mentioned in Chron. ; i Kin. xii. 28. 
17. three years] There were three years of prosperity, in the fourth 

vv. 18—23.] n. CHRONICLES, XI. 183 

And Rehoboam took him Mahalath the daughter of 18 
Jerimoth the son of David to wife, and Abihail the daughter 
of Eliab the son of Jesse ; which bare him children ; Jeush, 19 
and Shamariah, and Zaham. And after her he took Maachah 20 
the daughter of Absalom ; which bare him Abijah, and Attai, 
and Ziza, and Shelomith. And Rehoboam loved Maachah 21 
the daughter of Absalom above all his wives and his concu- 
bines : (for he took eighteen wives, and threescore concu- 
bines ; and begat twenty and eight sons, and threescore 
daughters.) And Rehoboam made Abijah the son of 22 
Maachah the chief, to be ruler among his brethren : for he 
thought to make him king. And he dealt wisely, and dis- 23 
persed of all his children throughout all the countries 
of Judah and Benjamin, unto every fenced city: and he 
gave them victual in abundance. And he desired many 

year Judah fell away into idolatry, and in the fifth year chastisement 
overtook them by the hand of Shishak (xii. i — 3). 

of David and Solomon] The Chronicler here as elsewhere ignores 
the fall of Solomon. In i Kin. xi. 4 — 6 an express distinction is made 
between the way of David and the way of Solomon. 

18. JerimotJi] Nothing is known regarding a son of David of this 
name. He may have been the son of a concubine (i Chr. iii. 9). 

and Abihail] R.V. and of AtoihaU. The verse accordingly speaks of 
one wife only, Mahalath, whose parents were Jerimoth and Abihail. 
The verb in ver. 19 is in the singular; cp. ver. 10 {after her). 

Eliab] David's eldest brother; i Sam, xvi. 6; xvii. 13. 

20. Maacah] Perhaps the grand-daughter of Absalom, since she 
is called the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah in xiii. 1 (where "Maacah" 
should be read with the LXX. for "Michaiah"). Absalom had no son 
{2 Sam. xviii. 18), but he may have had a daughter who married 
Uriel and became the mother of this Maacah. 

Abijah] Called "Abijam" i Kin. xv. i. 

22. the chief to be rider] R.V. to be cMef, even the prince. 
"Ruler," Heb. ndgtd is translated "chief ruler" ("prince" R.V.) in 
I Chr. V. 2. 

for he thought] R.V. for he was minded. 

23. his children throughout all the countries] R.V. his sons through- 
out all the lands, i.e. the territory of Judah; cp. i Chr. xiii. 2 (R.V. 

And he desired i?iany wives] Render (with R.V. mg.). And he 
sought a multitude of wives. It is difficult to say whether or no the 
Chronicler has Deut. xvii. 17 in his mind and is implicitly blaming 
the king. In any case he goes on in the next verse to say that Reho- 
boam forsook the law of the Lord. It is however probable that a word 

i84 11. CHRONICLES, XII. [vv. 1—5. 

12 And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had established 
the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook 

2 the law of the Lord, and all Israel with him. And it came 
to pass, that in the fifth year of king Rehoboam Shishak 
king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, because they had 

3 transgressed against the Lord, with twelve hundred chariots, 
and threescore thousand horsemen : and the people wej-e 
without number that came with him out of Egypt; the 

4 Lubims, the Sukkiims, and the Ethiopians. And he took 
the fenced cities which pertained to Judah, and came to 

5 Jerusalem. Then came Shemaiah the prophet to Reho- 
boam, and to the princes of Judah, that were gathered 
together to Jerusalem because of Shishak, and said unto 
them, Thus saith the Lord, Ye have forsaken me, and 
therefo7'e have I also left you in the hand of Shishak. 

has fallen out of the Hebrew text and that the text ran originally thus, 
And he sought for them (i.e. for his sons) a multitude of wives. Reho- 
boam 's own conjugal matters have been already described in ver. i\. 

Ch. XII. 1 — 12 (cp. I Kin. xiv. 22, '25— 28). The Invasion 
OF Shishak. 

1. all Israel'\ i.e. all the Southern Kingdom; cp. note on xi. 3. 
The details of Judah's apostasy are given, i Kin. xiv. 22 — 24. 

2. S/nshak\ The Egyptian king has commemorated this expedition 
in a pictorial inscription on the wall of the temple of Karnak. It 
appears that the Northern kingdom suffered as well as the Southern, 
but no permanent conquest of Canaan was attempted. (Maspero, 
Histoire Ancienne, ed. v. pp. 360, i.) 

because they had trespassed] A touch characteristic of the Chronicler ; 
cp. xiii. 18; xxi. 10; xxiv. 24; xxv. 20; xxvii. 6; xxviii. 19; and i Chr. 
x. 13, 14. The Chronicler sees the working of temporal rewards and of 
temporal punishments everywhere. 

3. with tzvelve hundred chariots] The details given in this verse 
are absent from i Kin. 

Lubims] R.V. Lubim (cp. xvi. 8). The "s" is not needed, "im" 
being a mark of the Heb. plural as in "Cherubim" and "Seraphim." 
The Lubim are no doubt the Libyans. 

Sukkiims] R.V. Sukkiim. LXX. T/)W7Xo5i;rai, i.e. the cave dwellers 
of the mountains which fringe the west coast of the Red Sea. But 
whether these are really meant here is doubtful. 

4. the fenced cities] Cp. xi. 5. 

5. Then came Shejnaiah] This intervention of Shemaiah is not 
mentioned in i Kin. For an earlier appearance of the prophet see 
xi. 2 ff. = I Kin. xii. 22 ff. 

have I also left you in the hand] Rather, I also have forsaken you 
and delivered you into the hand. 

vv. 6— II.] II. CHRONICLES, XII. 185 

Whereupon the princes of Israel and the king humbled 6 
themselves ; and they said, The Lord is righteous. And 7 
when the Lord saw that they humbled themselves, the 
word of the Lord came to Shemaiah, saying. They have 
humbled themselves ; therefore I will not destroy them, but 
I will grant them some deliverance ; and my wrath shall not 
be poured out upon Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak. 
Nevertheless they shall be his servants ; that they may know s 
my service, and the service of the ^ kingdoms of the coun- 
tries. So Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, 9 
and took away the treasures of the house of the Lord, 
and the treasures of the king's house ; he took all : he 
carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had 
made. Instead of which king Rehoboam made shields of 10 
brass, and committed them to the hands of the chief of the 
guard, that kept the entrance of the king's house. And n 
when the king entered into the house of the Lord, the 
guard came and fet them, and brought them again into the 

6. Wheretipon\ R.V. Tlien. 

princes of Israel^ Called "princes of Judah" in ver. 5; cp. note on 
xi. 3. 

humbled theviselves\ i.e. they fasted and put on sackcloth ; cp. i Kin. 
xxi. 27, 29. 

The Lord is righteoics] Cp. Pharaoh's confession (Ex. ix. 27), and 
the Psalmist's address to God, "That thou inayest be justified (lit. 
"mayest be righteous") when thou speakest, and be clear when thou 
judgest" (Ps. li. 4). The "righteousness" of God is made known to 
man in His judgment whether the judgment be of condemnation (as 
here) or of acquittal (as i Joh. i. 9, R.V.). 

7. some deliverance'] Rather (as R.V. mg.), deliverance within a 
Uttle while. 

8. that they may know my service, etc.] That they may learn the 
difference between my service and other service. 

9. he took all: he carried away also] R.V. he took all away: he 
took away also. Shishak was bought off with a heavy present from 
attacking Jerusalem; cp. the case of Sennacherib (2 Kin. xviii. 13 — 16). 

shields] Rather, targets, i.e. small shields; cp. note on ix. 15. 

10. the chief] R.V. the captains. 

the guard] R.V. mg. (more literally) the runners. These derived 
their name from the duty of running before the king's chariot to clear 
the way for him; cp. 2 Sam. xv. i ; i Kin. i. 5. 

11. And when the king entered] R.V. And it was so, that as oft as 
the king entered. 

fet them] R.V. hare them. Fet (obsolete) = "fetched." 

i86 II. CHRONICLES, XII. [w. 12—16. 

12 guard chamber. And when he humbled himself, the wrath 
of the Lord turned from him, that he would not destroy 
him altogether : and also in Judah things went well. 

T3 So king Rehoboam strengthened himself in Jerusalem, 
and reigned : for Rehoboam was one and forty years old 
when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in 
Jerusalem, the city which the Lord had chosen out of all 
the tribes of Israel, to put his name there. And his mother's 

.4 name was Naamah an Ammonitess. And he did evil, 

15 because he prepared not his heart to seek the Lord. Now 
the acts of Rehoboam, first and last, are they not written in 
the book of Shemaiah the prophet, and of Iddo the seer 
concerning genealogies? And there were wars between 

16 Rehoboam and Jeroboam continually. And Rehoboam 
slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David : 
and Abijah his son reigned in his stead. 

12. and also in yudah things went ztie/l] R.V. and moreover in 
Judah -were good things found; cp. xix. 3. This is said as giving an 
additional reason for the mercy which God had shewed (ver. 7). 

13 — 16 (cp. 1 Kin. xiv. 21, 29 — 31). SUMMARY OF Rehoboam's 


13. strengt/tened Aimse/f] See note on i. i. The immediate refer- 
ence is to a recovery of strength after the departure of Shishak, the 
further reference is to xi. 5. 

one and forty years old. ..and he reigned seventeen years'] So read both 
Heb. and LXX. here and in i Kin. xiv. 21, but in the additional 
passage which follows i Kin. xii. 24 in LXX. (B, not A) is read, sixteen 
years old... and twelve years he reigned. No importance however can be 
attached to this variation, for the passage which contains it is plainly 
Midrashic in character. 

the city which the LoRD had chosen] Though the Ten Tribes were 
lost to the house of David, the Lord kept his oath to David by securing 
to his seed the possession of the one holy city of Israel. 

Naamah an Ammonitess] R.V. Naamah the Ammonitess. 

14. he prepared not his heart] R.V. he set not his heart. The 
phrase implies steady purpose. 

15. in the book] R.V. in the histories (mg. "words"). Probably 
one book is meant, begun by Shemaiah and continued by Iddo. 

Iddo] See note on ix. 29. 

concerning genealogies] Lit., ''to enrol themselves'" (the title of the 
book). Sometimes a book was named from the first striking word 
occurring in it; e.g. the Hebrew name oi Ntonbers is B'midhar ("in 
the wilderness of"). Iddo had written another book called, The 
Visions of Iddo (ix. 29). 

vv. 1—4.] II. CHRONICLES, XIII. 187 

Now in the eighteenth year of king Jeroboam began Abijah 13 
to reign over Judah. He reigned three years in Jerusalem. 2 
His mother's name also was Michaiah the daughter of 
Uriel of Gibeah. And there was war between Abijah and 
Jeroboam. And Abijah set the battle in array with an 3 
army of valiant men of war, even four hundred thousand 
chosen men : Jeroboam also set the battle in array against 
him with eight hundred thousand chosen men, being mighty 
men of valour. 

And Abijah stood up upon mount Zemaraim, which is in 4 
mount Ephraim, and said, Hear me, thou Jeroboam, and 

Ch. XIII. 1, 2 (=1 Kin. XV. I, 2). Abijah succeeds. 

1. AbijaJil Called Abijam in the Ileb. of i Kin. (LXX. 'A/3toi;, 
i.e. Abijahu). 

2. Michaiah^ Read with LXX., Maacah; cp. note on xi. 20. 

3 — 20 (no parallel in i Kin.). The Battle of Zemaraim. 

The historical probabilities of this account are discussed in the 
Introduction, § 8. 

3. Abijah set the battle in array"] R.V. Abijah joined battle. 
four hundred thousand... eight hundred thousaitd} It is to be noted 

that the Chronicler does not expressly say that these two huge araiies 
met on one field of battle. In 2 Sam. xxiv. 9 (David's numbering) the 
fighting men of Israel are given at 800,000 and the fighting men of 
Judah at 500,000. Similarly the Chronicler may mean to state here 
the whole armed strength of Israel and Judah without committing 
himself to the number of those who actually took the field. The 
language is not precise, for the Chronicler is little interested in mili- 
tary details. It should be noted, moreover, that the numbers precede 
the mention of the battlefield, and therefore are not necessarily to be 
included in the account of the fight. 

Similarly it is to be noted that the Chronicler does not say in ver. 17 
that 500,000 of Israel fell m one day (contrast xxviii. 6). Rather, he 
implies that the war continued for some time (ver. ig). 

4. Abijah stood u/] It was natural that Abijah should attempt a 
conference before beginning civil war, both because his was the weaker 
side numerically and because he had a telling appeal to make to the 
revolted tribes (verses 8, 12). It was equally natural that Jeroboam 
should break off the conference after using it to cover his stratagem 
(ver. 13). 

Zemaraini] A Zemaraim is mentioned in Josh, xviii. 22 as one of 
the cities of Benjamin, whereas here Mount Zemaraim is assigned to 
Ephraim. The natural inference is that the battle took place on the 
border of the two kin":doms. 

i88 II. CHRONICLES, XIII. [vv. 5—9. 

5 all Israel ; ought you not to know that the Lord God of 
Israel gave the kingdom over Israel to David for ever, even 

6 to him and to his sons by a covenant of salt ? Yet Jero- 
boam the son of Nebat, the servant of Solomon the son of 

7 David, is risen up, and hath rebelled against his lord. And 
there are gathered unto him vain men, the children of 
Belial, and have strengthened themselves against Rehoboam 
the son of Solomon, when Rehoboam was young and tender 

8 hearted, and could not withstand them. And now ye think 
to withstand the kingdom of the Lord in the hand of the 
sons of David ; and ye be a great multitude, and there are 
with you golden calves, which Jeroboam made you for gods. 

9 Have ye not cast out the priests of the Lord, the sons of 
Aaron, and the Levites, and have made you priests after the 
manner of the nations of other lands? so that whosoever 
cometh to consecrate himself with a young bullock and seven 

5. a covenant of salt\ Salt was necessary for the efficacy of a sacri- 
fice (Lev. ii. 13), so that Covenant of salt became a phrase for a sure 
covenant (Num. xviii. 19). The sacredness of the bond which is ac- 
knowledged among the Arabs between two persons who have "eaten 
salt" together as host and guest is common knowledge. It is not 
however necessary that salt should be taken ; any food, e.g. milk, will 
serve (W. R. Smith, Religio7i of the Semites, p. 270). 

6. is risen up, and hath rebelled'\ R.V. rose up, and rebelled. 

7. are gathered'^ R.V. were gathered. 

children of Belial] R.V. sons of Belial (mg. sons of worthlessness). 
The general sense "worthless persons" is clear, but the precise meaning 
of Belial, and whether the word be a proper name or a common noun, 
cannot be decided at present. 

young] Lit, a child. If this word is to be literally understood, the 
statement made is erroneous, for Rehoboam was forty-one years old 
when he began to reign (xii. 13). It is probable, however, that the 
word is used metaphorically to describe one who was young (as indeed 
his conduct shewed) in experience of government; so Solomon (i Kin. 
iii. 7) calls himself a little child, by which he simply meant to express 
his consciousness of the smallness of his own ability when compared 
with the greatness of the task which lay before him. Cp. i Chr. xxix. i. 

tender hearted] i.e., according to Heb. phraseology, weak in under- 
standijig, the heart being considered to be the seat of the mind. Or 
we may translate the Heb. phrase as in Deut. xx. 8, faijithearted. 

9. cast out] R.V. driven out; cp. note on xi. 14. 

to consecrate himself] Lit. to fill his hand. Moses is directed (Ex. 
xxix. iff.) to ordain Aaron and his sons priests by three ceremonies: 
(i) by anointing them, (2) by filling their hands, i.e. by presenting 

vv. 10—14.] n. CHRONICLES, XIII. 189 

rams, the same may be a priest of ihem that are no gods. But 10 
as fo7' us, the Lord is our God, and we have not forsaken 
him; and the priests, which minister unto the Lord, are 
the sons of Aaron, and the Levites wait upon their business : 
and they burn unto the Lord every morning and every n 
evening burnt sacrifices and sweet incense : the j/z^z£/bread 
also set they in order upon the pure table ; and the candle- 
stick of gold with the lamps thereof, to burn every evening : 
for we keep the charge of the Lord our God ; but ye have 
forsaken him. And behold, God himself is with us for our 12 
captain, and his priests with sounding trumpets to cry alarm 
against you. O children of Israel, fight ye not against the 
Lord God of your fathers ; for you shall not prosper. 

But Jeroboam caused an ambushment to come about 13 
behind them : so they were before Judah, and the ambush- 
ment was behind them. And when Judah looked back, 14 
behold, the battle was before and behind : and they cried 

them with victims upon which they laid their hands, (3) by hallowing 
them, i.e. by sprinkling some of the blood of the victim upon them. 

a young bullock and seven rams] Aaronic priests were consecrated 
with a young bullock and ttvo rams (Ex. xxix. i). 

10. and the priests, which minister unto the Lord, are the sons of 
Aaron] R.V. and we have priests ministering unto the LORD, the 
sons of Aaron. 

wait tipon their business] R.V. in their work (sc. ??iinistering to the 
Lord, as above). Part of the ideal of the Priestly Code was that the 
Levites should be restricted to the duty of helping the priests, and 
should be prevented from executing priestly functions themselves. 
With this ideal the Chronicler plainly sympathised, but it could not 
always be realised. 

11. every morning and every evening] Ex. xxix. 38 — 42. 
sweet incense] Ex. xxx. 7. 

the shewbread also set they in order] Lit. and an ordering of bread 
[they set in order]. The Heb. phrase used here for "shewbread" 
signifies bread arranged as for an offering. Another term is " bread 
of the presence," i.e. bread set forth continually before the Lord 
(Ex. xxv. 30). 

the candlestick] Ex. xxv. 31 ff.; xl. 24, 25. 

12. God himself is with us for our captain] R.V. God is with us 
at our head. 

with soundi7ig trumpets] R.V. with the trumpets of alarm (Num. 
X. 9). Abijah here threatens his opponents with a jihdd or holy war. 

13. Jeroboayn caused an ambushment] While Abijah was endea- 
vouring to shake the fidelity of the Northern army, the Northern leader 
was not idle. 

I90 II. CHRONICLES, XIII. [vv. 15—20. 

unto the Lord, and the priests sounded with the trumpets. 

15 Then the men of Judah gave a shout : and as the men of 
Judah shouted, it came to pass, that God smote Jeroboam 

16 and all Israel before Abijah and Judah. And the children 
of Israel fled before Judah : and God delivered them into 

17 their hand. And Abijah and his people slew them with 
a great slaughter : so there fell down slain of Israel five 

18 hundred thousand chosen men. Thus the children of 
Israel were brought under at that time, and the children of 
Judah prevailed, because they relied upon the Lord God 

19 of their fathers. And Abijah pursued after Jeroboam, and 
took cities from him, Beth-el with the towns thereof, and 
Jeshanah with the towns thereof, and Ephrain with the 

z-^ towns thereof. Neither did Jeroboam recover strength 
again in the days of Abijah : and the Lord struck him, and 

15. gave a shout] This shout had the character of a religious func- 
tion; cp. Josh. vi. 10, 16, where the same Heb. word is used. 
God smote yeroboani] Cp. xiv. 12. 

17. Jive hundred thousand] Contrast this statement with xxviii. 6, 
a hundred and twenty thousatid in one day. The absence of the phrase 
in one day from the present passage is significant. It seems probable, 
when we consider the small interest taken by the Chronicler in military 
matters as such and the consequent looseness of his language regarding 
them, that he may intend 500,000 to represent the losses, not of a single 
battle, but of the whole campaign. That some further fighting took 
place is suggested by ver. 19. Even so the losses are doubtless 

18. because they relied] Cp. note on xii. 2. 

19. Beth-el] Beth-el was apparently subsequently recovered by the 
Northern Kingdom; cp. 2 Kin. x. 29. Nothing is said, be it noted, 
of the capture of the golden calf. It may have been removed for safety 
before the city was taken. 

yeshanah] Nothing is certainly known of this place, which is men- 
tioned here only. It has been identified with Ain Stnia, a little to the 
north of Beth-el. 

Ephrain] R.V. Ephron (following the C'thib, whereas A.V. agrees 
with the K'rl). Ephrain is a later form of the name Ephron, as 
Sharnrain (Ezra iv. 10, 17) is of Shomron (Samaria). The place has 
been identified with et-Taiyebeh, a place S.E. of Ain Sinia and N. E. 
of Beitin (Beth-el). It was probably the city called Ephr aim, to which 
our Lord retired after the raising of Lazarus (Joh. xi. 54). 

20. the Lord struck him, and he died] The same phrase is used of 
the death of Nabal (i Sam. xxv. 38) ; it implies suddenness or some other 
unusual circumstance (cp. Acts xii. 23, the death of Herod Agrippa). 
In I Kin. xiv. 20 it is simply yeroboam .. .slept with his fathers. 

vv.2i,22; I— 4-] II. CHRONICLES, XIII. XIV. 191 

he died. But Abijah waxed mighty, and married fourteen 21 
wives, and begat twenty and two sons, and sixteen daughters. 
And the rest of the acts of Abijah, and his ways, and his 22 
sayings, are written in the story of the prophet Iddo. So 14 
Abijah slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the 
city of David : and Asa his son reigned in his stead. In 
his days the land was quiet ten years. 

And Asa did that which was good and right in the eyes 2 
of the Lord his God : for he took away the altars of the 3 
strange gods^ and the high places, and brake down the 
images, and cut down the groves : and commanded Judah 4 
to seek the Lord God of their fathers, and to do the law 

21, 22. The Epilogue of Abijah's Reign. 

21. married'\ R.V. took unto himself. The many wives (fourteen) 
are mentioned here as a symbol of the wealth and state of Abijah. 

22. in the story\ R.V. in the commentary, Heb. Midrash. See 
Introduction, § 5. 

Idd6\ See note on ix. 29. 

Ch. XIV. 1 — 5 (cp. I Kin. xv. 8 — 12). The Religious Policy 

OF Asa. 

1. ten years\ These ten years of rest are naturally to be assigned 
to the beginning of Asa's reign; later on there was a rest of twenty 
years (cp. xv. 10 with xv. 19). The number ten here makes a dis- 
crepancy with I Kin., for Baasha became king of Israel in the third 
year of Asa (i Kin. xv. 28, 33), and '* there was war between Asa and 
Baasha all their days" [ib. ver. 32). If, howevei:, we allow some 
latitude to the language both of i Kin. and of Chron., the discrepancy 
becomes unimportant. 

3. the altars of the strange gods] R.V. the strange altars. 

the images'] R.V. the pillars, LXX. ras arriXas. The "pillar" or 
"obelisk," Heb. A/affeddh, was a monolith standing by an altar 
as a symbol of the god worshipped at the altar. In later days an 
image took the place of the pillar, i.e. the mere symbol was suc- 
ceeded by the likeness of the god. (W. R. Smith, Religion of the 
Seviites, p. 203 ff.) 

and cut down the groves'] R.V. and hewed down the Asherim. An 
Asherah (pi. Asherim and Asheroth) was probably a wooden pole 
which was planted beside an altar as the symbol of a deity. It ap- 
pears to have been a survival of tree-worship, as the Maf^ebdh 
was a survival of stone-worship. The asherah of itself did not 
represent any particular deity, but it could be carved to bear the 
symbol of any special god or goddess, e.g. of Astarte. (W. R. Smith, 
Religion of the Sef?iites, p. i86ff.) 

4. to seek the Lord] Cp. xv. 12, 13. 

192 II. CHRONICLES, XIV. [vv. 5—8. 

s and the commandment. Also he took away out of all the 
cities of Judah the high places and the images : and the 

6 kingdom was quiet before him. And he built fenced cities 
in Judah : for the land had rest, and he had no war in 

7 those years ; because the Lord had given him rest. There- 
fore he said unto Judah, Let us build these cities, and make 
about them walls, and towers, gates, and bars, while the 
land is yet before us ; because we have sought the Lord 
our God, we have sought him^ and he hath given us rest on 

8 every side. So they built and prospered. And Asa had an 
army of men that bare targets and spears, out of Judah three 
hundred thousand ; and out of Benjamin, that bare shields 

5. the images\ R.V. the sun-images. Cp. xxxiv. 4; Is. xvii. 8; 
xxvii. 9, The Heb. word ("hamman") is of uncertain meaning, and 
it is possible that no kind of image is meant, but rather the hearth on 
which the sacred fire was kept. The Heb. root means "to be hot." 
(W. R. Smith, Religion of the Semites, p. 489.) 

6 — 8 (cp. I Kin. xv. 17 — 22). The Defensive Measures of Asa. 

According to i Kin., Asa being threatened by Baasha, king of Israel, 
secured himself a respite by inducing Ben-hadad of Syria with a heavy 
bribe to invade Baasha's dominions. On the retirement of Israel Asa 
built himself two fortresses on his northern frontier to secure himself 
against Baasha. The Chronicler seems to be referring to the same 
occasion, but he says nothing of Baasha, nor of the intervention of 
Ben-hadad, and speaks of Asa building fortresses without mentioning 
their number. 

6. in those years] Cp. ver. i. 

7. Therefore he said] R.V. For lie said. 

and bars, while the land is yet before us; because, etc.] R.V. and 
bars; the land is yet before us, because, etc. 

8. that bare targets and spears... that bare shields and drew bows] 
LXX., bvvajxis OTrXo^opwv ( = ottXitcD;/) alpdvrcjp dvpeovs /cat dopara... 
ireXTajTai Kal To^orai. The Chronicler divides Asa's army into the 
heavy-armed men belonging to Judah and the light-armed bowmen 
belonging to Benjamin. Asa apparently had no chariots, "targets" 
and " shields" should be transposed as in ix. 15. 

of yudah three hundred thousand... of Benjamin... two hundred and 
fourscore thousand] The total is 580,000. Under Asa's successor, 
Jehoshaphat, the numbers are (xvii. 14 — 18), Judah 780,000, Benjamin 
380,000, making a total of 1,160,000, i.e. the double of the total given 
above. Whether the Chronicler drew these numbers from any ancient 
document is not known, but his main point seems to be that Judah was 
strong in the early days of Asa, while Asa shewed faith in God, and 
that Judah became still stronger under his really religious successor, 
Jehoshaphat. It is to be noted that it is not said that Asa brought 

vv. 9, lo.] 11. CHRONICLES, XIV. 193 

and drew bows, two hundred and fourscore thousand : all 
these were mighty Jiien of valour. 

And there came out against them Zerah the Ethiopian 9 
with a host of a thousand thousand, and three hundred 
chariots ; and came unto Mareshah. Then Asa went out 10 
against him, and they set the battle in array in the valley 

these 580,000 men into the field against the Ethiopians; cp. note on 
xiii. 3. 

9 — 15 (no parallel in Kings). The Battle of Mareshah. 

For a discussion of the historical probabilities of this account see 
Introduction, § 8. 

9. against ihetfi] We should expect either against him (i.e. Asa) 
or against yudah. Perhaps this account has been torn out from some 
older document without regard to the context, so that the reference of 
them is lost. Cp. notes on vv. 12, 13, 14. 

Zerah the Ethiopian'] Rather, Zerah the Cushite ("man of Cush"). 
Cush (Gen. x. 7) was the ancestor of certain Arabian tribes (including 
Saba), and Arabians and Cushites ("Ethiopians" A.V., also R.V.) are 
mentioned as neighbours (2 Chr. xxi. 16). It is therefore not im- 
probable that the leader of the inroad was an Arabian (Sabean) and 
not an Ethiopian. Zerah perhaps represents Dhirrih [Zirrth), a title 
(meaning "the magnificent") of several of the oldest princes of Saba. 

a thousand t/L02isand\ This was an inroad of the "children of the 
East" who were formidable from sheer weight of numbers. We may 
gather from xvi. 8 that the original invaders, starting from South 
Arabia, were joined by other hordes as they drew near the border 
of Judah. The number a thousand thousand is probably meant to 
signify that the host was too great to number; it is not to be taken 

three hundred chariots] The chariots, though comparatively few, are 
mentioned, (i) because Asa himself had tione at all, (2) perhaps also 
because they represent an Egyptian contingent. This suggestion re- 
ceives support from xvi. 8, where the Lubim (cp. xii. 3) are associated 
with the Cushites in the invasion. The cowardly foreign policy of 
Egypt may have led her on this occasion to defend her own borders 
from the barbarian hordes, by encouraging them to invade her neigh- 
bour's territories. 

The reading three hundred is supported by the LXX. and is probably 
right. The reading of the Pesh., "thirty thousand," and the wording 
of xvi. 8, "with very many chariots and horsemen," seem like a re- 
touching of the narrative to make the number of the chariots and horse- 
men correspond with the number of the whole host. 

Mareshah] See note on xi. 8. 

10. against him] R.V. to meet him. 

in the valley] Probably the valley in which Beit-Jibrin now stands, 
one of several valleys giving access from the Shephelah into central 



194 n. CHRONICLES, XIV. [vv. ii— 15. 

11 of Zephathah at Mareshah. And Asa cried unto the Lord 
his God, and said. Lord, it is nothing with thee to help, 
whether with many, or with them that have no power : help 
us, O Lord our God ; for we rest on thee, and in thy name 
we go against this multitude. O Lord, thou art our God ; 

12 let not man prevail against thee. So the Lord smote the 
Ethiopians before Asa, and before Judah ; and the Ethio- 

13 pians fled. And Asa and the people that were with him 
pursued them unto Gerar : and the Ethiopians were over- 
thrown, that they could not recover themselves ; for they 
were destroyed before the Lord, and before his host ; and 

14 they carried away very much spoil. And they smote all the 
cities round about Gerar ; for the fear of the Lord came 
upon them : and they spoiled all the cities ; for there was 

15 exceeding much spoil in them. They smote also the tents 

Judah (G. A. Smith, Hist. Geography, pp. 230 — 233). In such a place 
a large force might easily be discomfited by a few resolute men (cp. 
2 Sam. xvii. 9, 10). 

of Zephathah at Mareshah^ Read with LXX., north of Mareshah 
("Zaphonah" for "Zephathah"). No valley or town called "Zephathah" 
is known. 

11. it is nothing with thee to help, whether with many, or with 
them that have ito power] R.V. there is none beside thee to help, 
between the mighty and him that hath no strength. 

we rest on thee, and in thy name we go] R.V. "we rely on thee, 
and in thy name are we come. 

12. the Lord smote] Cp. xiii. 15. The use of The Name, Jehovah 
(translated The Lord), instead of the word "God" here and in verses 
13, 14 is in favour of the suggestion that the Chronicler took this account 
from some earlier document. 

the Ethiopians] Rather, the Cushites. 

13. Gerar] Identified with Jerdr, ruins three hours south of Gaza; 
cp. I Chr. iv. 39 (read "Gerar," LXX. Tepapa). 

the Ethiopians were overthrown, that they could not recover them- 
selves] R.V. there fell of the Ethiopians (read "the Cushites") so 
many that they could not recover themselves. 

very vmch spoil] R.V. very much booty. The phrase used belongs 
to a style earlier than that of the Chronicler. Cp. note on ver. 9 
[against them). 

14. the fear of the LORD] The Chronicler's own phrase is "the 
fear of God" (xx. 29). 

exceeding much spoil] R.V. om. exceeding. Again we miss a favourite 
expression of the Chronicler {larob). 

15. the tents of cattle] These words seem to be corrupt, and it is 
probable that the original reading gave the name of some Arabian 

vv. 1—6.] II. CHRONICLES, XV. 195 

of cattle, and carried away sheep and camels in abundance, 
and returned to Jerusalem. 

And the spirit of God came upon Azariah the son of 15 
Oded : and he went out to meet Asa, and said unto him, 2 
Hear ye me, Asa, and all Judah and Benjamin ; The Lord 
is with you, while ye be with him ; and if ye seek him, 
he will be found of you ; but if ye forsake him, he will 
forsake you. Now for a long season Israel hath bee?i with- 3 
out the true God, and without a teaching priest, and without 
law. But when they in their trouble did turn unto the 4 
Lord God of Israel, and sought him, he was found of them. 
And in those times there was no peace to him that went b 
out, nor to him that came in, but great vexations were upon 
all the inhabitants of the countries. And nation was de- 6 
stroyed of nation, and city of city : for God did vex them 

tribe. From a comparison of the LXX, here with the LXX. of xxii. i 
we conclude that this name was represented by 'XXeLfxa^oveis in Greek. 
The people called Maaovlrai by Ptolemy, and Mazin by Arabic writers 
are probably meant (Hommel, Expository Thiies^ viii. 378). 

Ch. XV. 1 — 15 (no parallel in Kings). The Prophecy of 
Azariah and its Sequel. 

2. went out to meet'] Cp. xix. 2. 

if ye seek hint] Cp, i Chr. xxviii. 9. 

3. for a long season] R.V. for long seasons. Vv. 3 — 6 contain 
the reflections of the Chronicler himself on the whole previous course of 
Israelite history. Azariah's own exhortation is continued in ver. 7. 

zvithoiit a teaching priest, and without law] The connexion between 
these two is closer than the English suggests. "Law" (Heb. torah) 
is properly "teaching, guidance." A "teaching'* (Heb. inoreh) priest 
is one who gives "torah" or "guidance" on doubtful points of morality 
or ritual. Cp. Mai. ii. 7. 

5. vexations] Rather, aflBictions; cp. Acts xii. i, "to vex (R.V. 
'to afflict') certain of the Church." 

of the countries] R.V, of the lands. The reference is probably 
to the Israelite territory only; cp. xi. 23 (R.V.); xxxiv. 33; and 
I Chr. xiii. 2 (R.V. mg.), 

6. nation was destroyed of 7iatiott, and city of city] R.V. they were 
broken in pieces, nation against nation, and city against city. 
Israel is meant. In the civil strife of the days of the Judges Israel 
appeared more than once as two nations destroying one another: cp. 
Judg. viii. 13 — 17; ix. 26fif.; xii. iff.; xx. i2ff. 

vex] Rather, afllict; see ver. 5. 


196 II. CHRONICLES, XV. [vv. 7—14. 

7 with all adversity. Be ye strong therefore, and let not your 
hands be weak : for your work shall be rewarded. 

8 And when Asa heard these words, and the prophecy of 
Oded the prophet, he took courage, and put away the 
abominable idols out of all the land of Judah and Benjamin, 
and out of the cities which he had taken from mount 
Ephraim, and renewed the altar of the Lord, that was 

9 before the porch of the Lord. And he gathered all Judah 
and Benjamin, and the strangers with them out of Ephraim 
and Manasseh, and out of Simeon : for they fell to him out 
of Israel in abundance, when they saw that the Lord his 

10 God was with him. So they gathered themselves together 
at Jerusalem in the third month, in the fifteenth year of the 

11 reign of Asa. And they offered unto the Lord the same 
time, of the spoil which they had brought, seven hundred 

12 oxen and seven thousand sheep. And they entered into a 
covenant to seek the Lord God of their fathers with all 

13 their heart and with all their soul ; that whosoever would 
not seek the Lord God of Israel should be put to death, 

14 whether small or great, whether man or woman. And they 

7. Be ye strong therefore'] R. V. But be ye strong-. The prophet's 
warning is continued in this verse. 

be weak] R.V. be slack. 

8. and the prophecy of Oded the prophet] Some words have fallen 
out of the text. Read, Even the prophecy which Azariah the son of 
Oded prophesied. 

the abominable idols] R.V. the abominations ; cp. 1 Kin. xiv. 23, 
24; XV. 12, 13. 

mount Ephraijn] R.V. the hill country of Ephraim. The term 
describes the hilly country between the plain of Esdrelon and the 
territory of Benjamin. 

that was before the porch] Cp. vii. 7 ; viii. 12. 

9. the strangers with them'] R.V. them that sojourned with them; 
cp. X. 17; xi. 16, 17; xvi. I. 

Simeon] The territory of this tribe lay in the South and it is natural 
to think that at the disruption Simeon followed Judah in allegiance to 
the house of David. It may be however that Simeon at first held aloof. 

10. in the third month] In this month the Feast of Weeks (i.e. 
of wheat harvest) was held ; Deut. xvi. 9. 

11. the sajne time] R.V. in that day. 
the spoil] Cp. xiv. 13 — 15. 

12. they oitered into a covenant] Cp. xxix. 10; 2 Kin. xxiii. 3. 

13. should be put to death] According to the Law; Deut. xvii. 2 — 7. 

vv. 15—17.] II. CHRONICLES, XV. 197 

sware unto the Lord with a loud voice, and with shouting, 
and with trumpets, and with cornets. And all Judah 15 
rejoiced at the oath : for they had sworn with all their 
heart, and sought him with their whole desire ; and he was 
found of them : and the Lord gave them rest round about. 

And also coiicenmig Maachah the mother of Asa the king, 16 
he removed her from being queen, because she had made an 
idol in a grove: and Asa cut down her idol, and stamped 
//, and burnt // at the brook Kidron. But the high places 17 

14. shouting'] The word (teru'dJi) is used to denote a blast with the 
festal trumpets ; see next note. 

triwipets\ The word {Mgo^rdh) means a special kind of trumpet 
used only for religious purposes; Num. x. i — 10; i Chr. xv. 24 (note). 
Driver, Amos, pp. 144 — 6, gives an illustration derived from the Arch 
of Titus. 

15. he was found of them] A fulfilment of the promise given in 
ver. 2. 

16 — 19 (i Kin. XV. 13 — 15). Other Religious Measures 

OF Asa. 

16. And also concerning Maachah] R.V. And also Maacah. 
"Maacah the daughter of Abishalom" is described as the mother of 
Abijam (Abijah) in i Kin. xv. 2 and as the mother of Asa in i Kin. 
XV. 10, although Asa is described as the son of Abijam (Abijah) in 
I Kin. XV. 8. Most probably Maacah was the grandmother of Asa 
but retained her position as queen-mother during two reigns, i.e. until 
removed by Asa. 

from being queen] R.V. mg. , from being- queen-motlier. 

an idol] R.V. an abominable image. On i Kin. xv. 13 Robertson 
Smith {Religion of the Semites, p. 188, note) suggests that the Asherah 
itself (cp. xiv. 3 note) was partly carved into a kind of image, "a grisly 
object." For the present passage see next note. 

in a grove] R.V. mg. (rightly as representing the meaning of the 
Chronicler) for Asherah, Asherah being here and in a lew other 
passages (i Kin. xviii. 19; 2 Kin. xxi. 7; xxiii. 4, 7) to be translated as 
the name of a goddess, about whom however next to nothing is known. 
According to some scholars the Chronicler was mistaken in imagining 
that "Asherah" was anything more than a common noun denoting 
the wooden symbol of a goddess. We must of course transhxte accord- 
ing to the meaning of the Chronicler whether he has fallen into an 
error or not. Cp. note on xiv. 3. 

cut down her idol, and stamped it] R.V. cut down her image, and 
made dust of it. 

the brook Kidron] On the east of Jerusalem, an unclean place; cp. 
1 Kin. xxiii. 4, "in the fields of Kidron." Bddeker, p. 96. 

17. the high places] Heb. bdmoth. These were not necessarily 

198 II. CHRONICLES, XV. XVI. [vv.18,19; 1,2. 

were not taken away out of Israel : nevertheless the heart 

18 of Asa was perfect all his days. And he brought mto the 
house of God tJie things that his father had dedicated, and 
that he himself had dedicated, silver, and gold, and vessels. 

19 And there was no more war unto the five and thirtieth year 
of the reign of Asa. 

16 In the six and thirtieth year of the reign of Asa Baasha 
king of Israel came up against Judah, and built Ramah, 
to the intent that he might let none go out or come in to 
2 Asa king of Judah. Then Asa brought out silver and gold 
out of the treasures of the house of the Lord and of the 
king's house, and sent to Ben-hadad king of Syria, that 

places of idolatrous worship, but they were sanctuaries not authorised 
by the Law; Deut. xii. i — 7. 

Israer\ Cp. note on xi. 3. 

perfect\ i.e. " whole, undivided in its allegiance." 

18. the things that his father had dedicated'] Probably spoils ofzuar; 
cp. I Chr. xviii. 11. The verse seems to say that Abijah had vowed a 
portion of his spoils, but that Asa first actually presented them in the 
Temple. May we not take the passage (which occurs also in 1 Kin.) as 
an indirect confirmation of Abijah's victory (2 Chr. xiii.)? 

19. there was no more war] This statement can be reconciled with 
I Kin. XV. 16, 32 only by interpreting it broadly to mean that nothing 
serious occurred until the war with Baasha had been going on for several 

Ch. XVI. 1 — 6 (=1 Kin. xv. 17 — 22). Asa asks help 
OF Ben-hadad. 

1. the six and thirtieth year] According to i Kin. xvi. 8 Baasha 
was succeeded by his son Elah in the six-and-twentieth year of Asa. 
The number thirty-six is probably therefore wrong. It should be 
noticed however that the thirty-sixth year of the separate kingdom of 
Judah corresponds with the sixteenth year of Asa, so that possibly two 
different reckonings are here confused, and so we should read. In the 
six-and-thirtieth year, that is, in the sixteenth year of Asa. So in 
XV. 19 we should read, in the five-and-thirtieth, that is, in the 
fifteenth year of the reign of Asa. 

Ramah] The modern er'-Rdm, situated on a commanding hill about 
two hours north of Jerusalem. Bddeker, p. 212. 

that he might let none go out] R. V. that he might not suffer any to 
go out (as in i Kin.). 

2. silver and gold] In i Kin., "all the silver and the gold that 
were left." 

Ben-hadad] At least three kings ot Syria bore this name, the two 
others being severally (i) a contemporary of Ahab (i Kin. xx. i ff.), (2) 
a contemporary of Jehoash the grandson of Jehu, 2 Kin. xiii. 25. 

vv. 3—7.] II. CHRONICLES, XVI. 199 

dwelt at Damascus, saying, T/iere is a league between me 3 
and thee, as if/iere was between my father and thy father : 
behold, I have sent thee silver and gold ; go, break thy 
league with Baasha king of Israel, that he may depart from 
me. And Ben-hadad hearkened unto king Asa, and sent 4 
the captains of his armies against the cities of Israel ; and 
they smote Ijon, and Dan, and Abel-maim, and all the store 
cities of Naphtali. And it came to pass, when Baasha 5 
heard //, that he left off building of Ramah, and let his 
work cease. Then Asa the king took all Judah ; and they 6 
carried away the stones of Ramah, and the timber thereof, 
whereaz/V// Baasha was a building ; and he built therewith 
Geba and Mizpah. 

And at that time Hanani the seer came to Asa king of 7 

Mfl!/ dwe/^ at Damascus'] The epithet distinguishes the king of 
Damascus from other kings of Syria, e.g. from the king of Hamath. 
Damascus] Heb. "Darmesek"; see note on i Chr. xviii. 5. 

4. and they smote] The places smitten were all in the extreme 
north of Israel. 

IJon'l The city cannot be identified, but the name is preserved in 
MerJ ^lyun, a table-land north of the Jordan valley. Bddeker, pp. 
296, 7. 

Abel-maim] In i Kin., "Abel-beth-maacah"; cp. 2 Sam. xx. 14, 
15. No doubt the two names designate one place. 

all the store cities] In i Kin., "all Cinneroth" (i.e. the district west 
of the Sea of Galilee). As this was a very fruitful district, the "store 
cities," of the Chronicler may be only another name for it. 

5. and let his work cease] In i Kin. and dwelt in Tirzah (Heb.), 
and returned to Tirzah (LXX.). Baasha (like Jeroboam; i Kin. xiv. 
17) fixed his seat of government at Tirzah in the centre of the Northern 
Kingdom in order to be able to watch Syria as well as Judah. The 
Chronicler takes no interest in the home of Baasha. 

6. took all Judah] In i Kin. sum?noned all Judah (so translate) ; 
none was exempted. 

was a building] R.V. had builded. 

Geba and Mizpah] The names signify, "the hill and the watch- 
tower." The two cities were on the northern border of Benjamin. 
For Mizpah see Jer. xli. i — 9. 

7 — 10 (not in i Kin.). The Intervention of Hanani. 

The Chronicler stands alone both in recording the condemnation 
of Asa in this passage and in himself condemning him in ver. 12. In 
I Kin. no blame is passed on Asa. 

7. Hanani the seer] Hanani as a seer is known to us from this 

200 II. CHRONICLES, XVI. [vv. 8—12. 

Judah, and said unto him, Because thou hast relied on the 
king of Syria, and not relied on the Lord thy God, there- 
fore is the host of the king of Syria escaped out of thine 

8 hand. Were not the Ethiopians and the Lubims a huge 
host, with very many chariots and horsemen? yet, because 
thou didst rely on the Lord, he delivered them into thine 

9 hand. For the eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout 
the whole earth, to shew himself strong in the behalf of 
them whose heart zV perfect towards him. Herein thou hast 
done foolishly : therefore from henceforth thou shalt have 

10 wars. Then Asa was wroth with the seer, and put him in a 
prison house ; for he was in a rage with him because of this 
thing. And Asa oppressed some of the people the same 

11 And behold, the acts of Asa, first and last, lo, they are 

12 written in the book of the kings of Judah and Israel. And 
Asa in the thirty and ninth year of his reign was diseased in 
his feetj until his disease was exceeding great: yet in his 

passage only; in xix. 1 and xx. 34 (also i Kin. xvi. i) however Jehu 
the prophet is called son of Hanani. 

therefore is the host of the king of Syria escaped'] The prophet 
declares that if Asa had not detached Syria by his presents, he might 
have smitten Israel and Syria combined. 

8. and the Lubims] The Lubim are not mentioned in xiv. 9 — 13, 
but as they were auxiliaries of the Egyptians (xii. 3) it is quite pro- 
bable that they represent the help given by Egypt to the Cushites as - 
they passed the Egyptian border on their way to invade Judah. Cp. 
note on xiv. 9 [three hundred chariots). 

with very 7?tany etc.] R.V. with chariots and horsemen exceeding 
many. See note on xiv. 9. 

9. rmi to and fro] Zech. iv. 10. 

therefore frotn henceforth] R.V. for from henceforth. 

10. in a prison house] Render, in the stocks (lit. in the house of 
the stocks). Jer. xx. 2; xxix. 26 (R.V.). 

oppressed] Lit. brake in pieces, an expression which when applied to 
things would mean, made spoil of when applied to persons treated 
outrageously, tortured, iXvfiTjvaTo LXX. 

11 — 14 (=1 Kin. XV. 23, 24). The Epilogue of Asa's Reign. 

11- of Judah and Israel] In i Kin. the appeal is to "the book of 
the chronicles of the kings of Judah." 

12. tintil his disease was exceeding great] R.V. his disease was 
exceeding great. 

vv.i3,i4; 1—4.] II. CHRONICLES, XVI. XVII. 201 

disease he sought not to the Lord, but to the physicians. 
And Asa slept with his fathers, and died in the one and 13 
fortieth year of his reign. And they buried him in his own 14 
sepulchres, which he had made for himself in the city of 
David, and laid him in the bed which was filled wiiJi sweet 
odours and divers kinds of spices prepared by the apothe- 
caries' art : and they made a very great burning for him. 

And Jehoshaphat his son reigned in his stead, and 17 
strengthened himself against Israel. And he placed forces 2 
in all the fenced cities of Judah, and set garrisons in the 
land of Judah, and in the cities of Ephraim, which Asa his 
father had taken. And the Lord was with Jehoshaphat, 3 
because he walked in the first ways of his father David, and 
sought not unto Baalim ; but sought to the Lord God of his 4 

he soicght not to the LoRD, but to the physicians] Physicians 
(Heb. rdph''tm) are condemned by implication here, no doubt as 
using incantations and adjurations. Contrast Ecclus. [Beti Sira) xxxviii. 
9 — 15, especially ver. 15 (Heb. text), He that sinneth against his Maker, 
will behave himself pi'oudly against a physician. 

13. in the one and fortieth year] Cp. i Kin. xv. 10. 

14. in his own sepulchres] In i Kin. 7vith his fathers. 

which he had 7nade for himself] R.V. wMcli he had hewn out for 
himself. This clause is absent from i Kin. 

divers kinds of spices] Mark xvi. i ; John xii. 3, 7; xix. 39, 40. 

a very great burning] Cp. xxi. 19. What is here meant is not 
cremation of the body, but only a burning of spices; Jer. xxxiv. 5. 

Ch. XVII. 1 — 6 (cp. I Kin. xxii. 41 — 43). Tpie Character 
OF Jehoshaphat's Reign. 

1. strengthened himself against Israel] Render, strengthened him- 
self in (over) Israel; cp. i. i ; xii. 13. 

Israel] See note on xi. 3. 

2. the cities of Ephraivi] Cp. xv. 8. 

3. in the first ways of his father David] Omit David (so LXX.), 
the person referred to being Asa (i Kin. xxii. 43). Asa's first ways 
(ch. xiv., XV.) were good, his latter ways (ch. xvi.), according to the 
Chronicler, were evil. 

7mto Baalim] R.V. unto the Baalim. Baal is not a proper 
name, but a title meaning " Lord," which was generally given to 
false gods. Israel might not call Jehovah, "My Baal" {Baali), 
Hos. ii. 16, 17. 

4. to the Lord God of his father] R.V. to the God of his father. 
The Chronicler frequently avoids introducing the name Jehovah (ren- 
dered Lord in A.V.) in places where it might be expected; cp. xx. 12: 

202 IL CHRONICLES, XVII. [vv. 5—10. 

father, and walked In his commandments, and not after the 

5 doings of Israel. Therefore the Lord stablished the king- 
dom in his hand; and all Judah brought to Jehoshaphat 
presents ; and he had riches and honour in abundance. 

6 And his heart was lift up in the ways of the Lord : more- 
over he took away the high places and groves out of Judah. 

7 Also in the third year of his reign he sent to his princes, 
even to Ben-hail, and to Obadiah, and to Zechariah, and to 
Nethaneel, and to Michaiah, to teach in the cities of Judah. 

8 And with them he sent Levites, even Shemaiah, and Netha- 
niah, and Zebadiah, and Asahel, and Shemiramoth, and 
Jehonathan, and Adonijah, and Tobijah, and Tob-adonijah, 
Levites ; and with them Elishama and Jehoram, priests. 

9 And they taught in Judah, and had the book of the law of 
the Lord with them, and went about throughout all the 
cities of Judah, and taught the people. 

10 And the fear of the Lord fell upon all the kingdoms of 

30. For another and different instance of reverent suppression of the 
divine name see xxviii. 9 (note). 

after the doings of Israel'\ Cp. xiii. 8, 9. 

5. brotight. . .presents'] Probably congratulatory gifts at his accession ; 
cp. I Sam. X. 27. 

riches a}id honour] Cp. xviii. i. 

6. moreover he took away] R.V. and furtliermore lie took away. 
In XX. 33= I Kin. xxii. 43 it is said that the high places were not taken 
avi^ay. Cp. what is said of Asa (xiv. 3 and xv. 17 = 1 Kin. xv. 14). It 
seems that in both cases the Chronicler incorporates mutually contradic- 
tory traditions. If the removal took place, it must have met with only 
partial success. 

and groves] R.V. and the Asherim. See note on xiv. 3. 

7 — 9 (no parallel in i Kin.). Jehoshaphat's Provision for 
Teaching the Law. 

7. he sent to his princes... to teach] R.V. lie sent Ms princes, 
even Ben-hail, and Obadiah, and Zechariah, and Nethanel, and 
Micaiah, to teach. 

9. and had the book] R.V. having the hook. The Chronicler no 
doubt means by this the Pentateuch as we have it, but in the source 
from which he drew the account one of the earlier codes embedded 
in our present Pentateuch may have been meant. It is improbable that 
the five books of Moses existed in the time of Jehoshaphat in the form 
in which we now have them. 

10 — 13 (no parallel in i Kin.). The Greatness of Jehoshaphat. 

10. the fear of the Lord] Cp. Gen. xxxv. 5. 

vv. 11—17.] 11- CHRONICLES, XVII. 203 

the lands that were round about Judah, so that they made 
no war against Jehoshaphat. Also some of the Philistines n 
brought Jehoshaphat presents, and tribute silver; and the 
Arabians brought him flocks, seven thousand and seven 
hundred rams, and seven thousand and seven hundred he 
goats. And Jehoshaphat waxed great exceedingly ; and he 12 
built in Judah castles, and cities of store. And he had 13 
much business in the cities of Judah : and the men of war, 
mighty men of valour, were in Jerusalem. And these are 14 
the numbers of them according to the house of their fathers : 
Of Judah, the captains of thousands ; Adnah the chief, and 
with him mighty me7i of valour three hundred thousand. 
And next to him was Jehohanan the captain, and with him 15 
two hundred and fourscore thousand. And next him was 16 
Amasiah the son of Zichri, who willingly offered himself 
unto the Lord ; and with him two hundred thousand 
mighty meji of valour. And of Benjamin ; Eliada a mighty 17 
man of valour, and with him armed men with bow and 

11. tribute silver] R.V. silver for tribute. 

the A radians] Cp. xxi. 16. 
flocks] Cp. 1 Kin. iii. 4. 

12. castles] Heb. birdniyyoth', cp. xxvii. 4 (same word); and xxvi. 
10 ("towers"). Such small castles or towers lie scattered along the 
pilgrim-road from Damascus to Mecca at the present day to make 
the way safe. 

cities of store] Cp. xi. 11, 12. 

13. 7tiuch business] R.V. many works. 

14 — 19 (no parallel in i Kin.). The Number of Jehoshaphat's 


The numbers here given, if they are to be literally understood, m.ust 
be pronounced impossibly high, especially since they are represented as 
exclusive of the garrisons in Judah, and perhaps as representing the 
forces stationed in Jerusalem itself (ver. 13). Cp. note on xiv. 8. 

14. these are the numbers of the?n] R.V. this was the numbering 
Of them. 

the house of their fathers] R.V. their fathers' houses. 
Adnah the chief] R.V. Adnah the captain; cp. ver. 15, Jehohanan 
the captain. 

15. next to him] Lit. at his hand', the same phrase is used in 
Neh. iii. 2, 4, 5, etc. 

yehohanan] Sometimes spelt Johanan. 

16. who willingly offered himself] Cp. Judg. v. 9. 

17. arjfied men with bow and shield two hundred thousand] R.V. 

204 II. CHRONICLES, XVII. XVIII. [vv. i8, 19; i— 3. 

18 shield two hundred thousand. And next him was Jehozabad, 
and with him an hundred and fourscore thousand ready 

19 prepared for the war. These waited on the king, besides 
those whom the king put in the fenced cities throughout all 

18 Now Jehoshaphat had riches and honour in abundance, 

2 and joined affinity with Ahab, And after ce?'tain years he 
went down to Ahab to Samaria. And Ahab killed sheep 
and oxen for him in abundance, and for the people that he 
had with him, and persuaded him to go up with him to 

3 Ramoth-gilead. And Ahab king of Israel said unto Jeho- 
shaphat king of Judah, Wilt thou go with me to Ramoth- 
gilead? And he answered him, I am as thou art, and my 
people as thy p>eople ; and ive will be with thee in the war. 

two hundred thousand armed with bow and shield (or "target ") i.e. 
light-armed troops; cp. note on xiv. 8. 

18. ready prepared for t/ie war] R.V. ready prepared for war. 
The same phrase is translated armed for war in i Chr. xii. 24. 

19. These waited] R.V. These were they that waited. Cp. 
1 Chr. xxvii. i, that served the king (the same Heb. verb is used). 

Ch. XVIII. 1 — 3 (cp. I Kin. xxii. i — 4). The Alliance 
BETWEEN Jehoshaphat and Ahab. 

1. joined affi,nity\ Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat married 
Athaliah the daughter of Ahab (2 Kin. viii. 16, 18, 26). Athaliah 
though called "daughter" of Omri in 2 Kin. viii. 26 was really his 

2. killed sheep and oxen] This phrase implies a feast, for flesh is 
eaten in the East only on festal occasions. The phrase used for supplying 
necessary food is to set bread and water before one. 

that he had with hini] R.V. that were with him. 

and persuaded him] R.V. and moved him. The meaning of both 
phrases is the same, for in old English to persuade means to use per- 
suasio7t without reference to the success of the action. 

Ramoth-gilead] Deut. iv. 43; i Kin. iv. 13; xxii. 3; 2 Kin. viii. 
28; ix. I and 14. Ramoth was a city of refuge and (under Solomon) 
the seat of the governor of a province. Probably it was the most 
important Israelite city east of Jordan. It has been identified — but not 
beyond doubt — with tlie modern es-Salt. Bddeker, p. 177. 

3. and we will be with thee in the zuar] In i Kin. the correspond- 
ing phrase is, ?ny horses as thy horses. The Chronicler makes the words 
of Jehoshaphat a definite promise. The phrases in i Kin. need not 
be more than the expression of oriental politeness. At the present 
day the Arab says to his guest, Afy house is thy house, but he generally 
means very little by the words. 

vv. 4— 9-] n. CHRONICLES, XVIII. 205 

And Jehoshaphat said unto the king of Israel, Inquire, I 4 
pray thee, at the word of the Lord to day. Therefore the 5 
king of Israel gathered together of prophets four hundred 
men, and said unto them. Shall we go to Ramoth-gilead 
to battle, or shall I forbear ? And they said. Go up ; for 
God will deliver // into the king's hand. But Jehoshaphat 6 
said. Is there not here a prophet of the Lord besides, that 
we might inquire of him ? And the king of Israel said unto 7 
Jehoshaphat, There is yet one man, by whom ive may 
inquire of the Lord : but I hate him ; for he never 
prophesied good unto me, but always evil : the same is 
Micaiah the son of Imla. And Jehoshaphat said, Let not 
the king say so. And the king of Israel called for one of^ 
his officer^-, and said, Fetch quickly Micaiah the son of 
Imla. And the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat king of 9 
Judah sat either of them on his throne, clothed in their 
robes, and they sat in a void place at the entering in of the 
gate of Samaria; and all the prophets prophesied before 

4 — 27 (i Kin. xxii. 5 — 28). The Prophecy of Micaiah. 

4. Jehoshaphat\ Cp. 1 Kin. iii. 11. the word^ Cp. Dan. ii. 10 (A.V.), "no king... asked such 
things at any magician." The use of "at" after verbs of asking is 

5. Therefore the king of Israel gathered together of prophets] R. V. 
Then the king of Israel gathered the prophets together. These no 
doubt were prophets of Jehovah (not of Baal) ; cp. ver. 4 and note on 
ver. 6. 

Shall we go... or shall I forbear?] In i Kin., "Shall I go... or shall I 
forbear?" (so LXX., but not Pesh., of Chron.j. 

will deliver it into the king's hand] R.V. shall deliver it into the 
hand of the king (as i Kin.). 

6. Is there not here a prophet of the LoRD besides] Or, Hath not the 
LORD here yet another prophet. The unanimity of the four hundred 
prophets aroused the suspicion of Jehoshaphat. 

7. prophesied good unto me] R.V. prophesieth good concerning me 
(similarly i Kin.). 

8. called for one of his officer^ R.V. called an officer. The Heb. 
word means "eunuch." From i Sam. viii. 15 we may perhaps conclude 
that such officers were known in Israel from the very beginning of the 
monarchy. Cp. i Chr. xxviii. r, note. 

9. either of them... clothed] R.V. each... arrayed. 

in a void place at the entering in] Render, in a threshingfloor at 
the entrance. The threshingfloor was convenient as being a large flat 
open space; cp. Gen. 1. 10; i Chr. xiii. 9, xxi. 18 ff. 

2o6 II. CHRONICLES, XVIII. [w. lo— 16. 

10 them. And Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah had made him 
horns of iron, and said, Thus saith the Lord, With these 

11 thou shalt push Syria until they be consumed. And all the 
prophets prophesied so, saying, Go up to Ramoth-gilead, 
and prosper : for the Lord shall deliver // into the hand of 
the king. 

12 And the messenger that went to call Micaiah spake to 
him, saying, Behold, the words of the prophets declare good 
to the king with one assent ; let thy word therefore, I pray 

13 thee, be like one of theirs, and speak thou good. And 
Micaiah said. As the Lord liveth, even what my God saith, 

14 that will I speak. And when he was come to the king, the 
king said unto him, Micaiah, shall we go to Ramoth-gilead 
to battle, or shall I forbear? And he said. Go ye up, and 

15 prosper, and they shall be delivered into your hand. And 
the king said to him, How many times shall I adjure thee 
that thou say nothing but the truth to me in the name of 

16 the Lord ? Then he said, I did see all Israel scattered 
upon the mountains, as sheep that have no shepherd : and 
the Lord said, These have no master; let them return 

10. made him Jiorns of iron] For a similar use of symbolic action by 
a prophet cp. Jer. xxvii. 2 (also xxviii. 10). For the meaning of the 
phrase cp. Amos vi. 13, "Have we not taken to us horns?" i.e. "Have 
we not acquired military power?" 

thoti shalt push'] Cp. Deut. xxxiii. 17. So Rameses II is described 
in an Egyptian psalm as "the strong bull against the Ethiopians; his 
horn pushes them." (Erman, Ancient Egypt, Eng. Tr., p. 57.) 

Syria] R.V. the Syrians. 

12. with one assent] R.V. with one mouth (so Heb. here and 
I Kin.). 

13. even what my God saith] Render, surely, what my God shall 
say. The divine message has not yet come to the prophet. 

14. Go ye tip... into your hand] Micaiah addresses both kings. 
In I Kin. Ahab only is addressed, Go and prosper, for the Lord shall 
deliver it into the hand of the king. Micaiah repeats in mocking tones 
the utterance of the other prophets. 

15. that thou say fwthing but the truth to me] R.V. that thou speak 
Tinto me nothing hut the truth. The tone of scorn in Micaiah's 
voice was noticed by the king. 

16. Then he said, I did see] Render, And he said, I see. 

the Lord said, These have no master] Render, The LORD hath said, 
These have a master who is no master. Ahab was no shepherd, but a 
spoiler of his people. To translate as A.V. and R.V. translate, is to 
strain the meaning of the Heb., and to refer "in peace" to the blood- 

vv. 17—22.] 11. CHRONICLES, XVIII. 207 

therefore every man to his house in peace. And the king of 17 
Israel said to Jehoshaphat, Did I not tell thee that he would 
not prophesy good unto me, but evil? Again he said, 18 
Therefore hear the word of the Lord ; I saw the Lord 
sitting upon his throne, and all the host of heaven standing 
on his right hand and on his left. And the Lord said. Who 19 
shall entice Ahab king of Israel, that he may go up and fall 
at Ramoth-gilead ? And one spake saying after this manner, 
and another saying after that manner. Then there came 20 
out a spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said, I will 
entice him. And the Lord said unto him. Wherewith? 
And he said, I will go out, and be a lying spirit in the 21 
mouth of all his prophets. And the Lord said. Thou shalt 
entice hirn^ and thou shalt also prevail : go out, and do even 
so. Now therefore behold, the Lord hath put a lying spirit 22 
in the mouth of these thy prophets, and the Lord hath 

stained retreat of Israel from Ramoth is to defy the plainest meaning of 
language. Ver. 16 means that the man who has misgoverned will not be 
permitted to lead to victory. 

18. Again he said'\ R.V. And he said. There are three stages in the 
prophet's dealings with the king, (i) irony in ver. 14, (2) serious advice 
in ver. 16, (3) denunciation of death in vv. 18 — 22. 

I satv] Render, I see. The vision comes to the prophet as he stands 
before the two kings; cp. ver. 13 and Mark xiii. 11. 

19. Who shall entice Ahab] So i Rin. (R.V.). The same Heb. 
word is used in Jer. xx. 7, "thou hast deceived (mg. 'enticed') me," 
where Jeremiah complains that he has been called to the fruitless labour 
of a hated prophet. For the underlying thought that delusion is some- 
times a preliminary part of Divine punishment cp. 2 Thess. ii. 11 
(cp. ibid. 9). It should be noted however that the " lying spirit " in the 
mouth of the 400 prophets played only a subordinate part in Ahab's fall, 
and indeed could have played no part at all, but for the fact that the 
king was more than willing to be enticed. Ahab had already made up 
his mind; he consulted the 400 only as an afterthought to satisfy 
Jehoshaphat (ver. 4), he excluded the plain-speaking Micaiah until 
Jehoshaphat insisted on his presence (vv. 6, 7), and he scorned the true 
prophet's warning of the falseness of the 400 (ver. 26). Delusion as a 
Divine punishment comes only upon the man who is willing to be 

20. Then there caftie out] R.V. And there came forth. 

a spirit] Heb. the spirit, but the definite art. simply singles out one 
spirit from the rest. The Evil Spirit (Heb. "the Satan") is not meant 

21. go out] R.V. go forth. 

2o8 II. CHRONICLES, XVIII. [vv. 23—29. 

23 spoken evil against thee. Then Zedekiah the son of 
Chenaanah came near, and smote Micaiah upon the cheek, 
and said, Which way went the spirit of the Lord from me 

24 to speak unto thee ? And Micaiah said, Behold, thou shalt 
see on that day when thou shalt go into an inner chamber 

25 to hide thyself. Then the king of Israel said. Take ye 
Micaiah, and carry him back to Amon the governor of the 

26 city, and to Joash the king's son ; and say. Thus saith the 
king, Put this fellow in the prison, and feed him with bread 
of affliction and with water of affliction, until I return in 

27 peace. And Micaiah said, If thou certainly return in peace, 
the7i hath not the Lord spoken by me. And he said. 
Hearken, all ye people. 

28 So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah 

29 went up to Ramoth-gilead. And the king of Israel said 
unto Jehoshaphat, I will disguise myself, and will go to the 
battle ; but put thou on thy robes. So the king of Israel 

23. Zedekia/i\ He takes the lead as in ver. 10. 

smote .. .icpon the cheek'] This phrase is tantamount to "gave an 
insulting blow"; cp. Mic. v. i ; Matt. v. 39. 

24. Behold, thou shalt see] Micaiah answers Zedekiah's gibe with the 
verb "see" (rather than "know") because of its double meaning, 
"Behold, thou shalt be a seer, thou shalt possess the power of vision" 
when it is too late. 

go into an inner chamber] "Seek safety in hiding from enemies"; 
cp. I Kin. XX. 30 (same Heb. phrase). 

25. carry him back] Micaiah is not to accompany the expedition, 
having foretold its failure. 

26. bread of affiiction... water of aff,iction] Cp. Ezek. iv. 9 — 11. 

27. If thou certai7ily return in peace] R.V. If thou return at aU in 
peace (so i Kin.). 

Hearken, all ye people] R.V. Hear, ye peoples, all of you. The 
"peoples" represented at this gathering were probably, Israel, Judah, 
Edom, and Moab. The phrase occurs in Mic. i. 2. 

28 — 34 (=1 Kin. xxii. 29 — 37). The Death of Ahab at 

29. / will disguise myself] Ahab's proposal is that he himself 
(disguised) should take part in the fighting, and that Jehoshaphat in 
royal robes should remain in the rear. Thus Ahab would be doubly 
protected, i.e. by his disguise and by the chance that Jehoshaphat would 
be mistaken for him, while Jehoshaphat in the rear would run no risk. 

put thou on thy robes] Render, be clothed in thy robes, i.e. do not 
put on thy armour, but keep out of the fighting. 

vv. 30—33.] II. CHRONICLES, XVIII. 209 

disguised himself; and they went to the battle. Now the 30 
king of Syria had commanded the captains of the chariots 
that 'we7'e with him, saying, Fight ye not with small or great, 
save only with the king of Israel. And it came to pass, 31 
when the captains of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat, that 
they said. It is the king of Israel. Therefore they com- 
passed about him to fight : but Jehoshaphat cried out, and 
the Lord helped him; and God moved them to depart from 
him. For it came to pass, that when the captains of the 32 
chariots perceived that it was not the king of Israel, they 
turned back again from pursuing him. And a certain man 33 
drew a bow at a venture, and smote the king of Israel 
between the joints of the harness : therefore he said to his 

and they went to the battle^ i Kin. (more correctly) and he (Ahab) 
went into the battle (so LXX. here). 

30. the captains of the chariots that were %vith hini\ R.V. the 
captains of Ms chariots. Thirty-two in number (i Kin.). While the 
rest of the Syrian army met the Israelite attack, the chariots were to act 
as an independent force, whose primary task should be to kill or capture 
Ahab. The king of Syria felt himself overmatched and thought that 
the only chance of victory lay in the fall of the Israelite commander. 
Cp. 1 Kin. iii. 26 (the king of Moab tries to break through to the king 
of Edom). 

Fight ye not with small or great^ R.V. Fight neither with small nor 
great (so in i Kin.). 

31. saw J ehoshaphat . . .to fight'X Render, saw Jehoshaphat, (now 
they said, It is the king- of Israel !) that they turned about against 
him to fight. The captains of the chariots obeying the orders given 
them made a circuit in order to reach the rear of the Israelite army 
where Jehoshaphat was stationed. The same fact is described in i Kin. 
by the phrase, they turned aside. The A.V. of Chronicles they compassed 
about him (i.e. "surrounded him"; cp. xxi. 9) is a possible, but less 
probable, interpretation. 

and God moved them to depart from him"] These words anticipate 
ver. 32 and are not found in i Kin. Probably a panic fell on the 
Syrian charioteers when they found themselves far from the rest of the 
Syrian army and yet not near the king of Israel. 

33. Aftd a certain matt drew a bow] Render, But a certain man 
had drawn a how. God had already brought about that which the 
Syrians were labouring to perform. 

at a venture] Better, as mg., in his simplicity, i.e. without knowing 
that he was aiming at Ahab. Cp. 2 Sam. xv. 11. 

between the joints of the harness] Probably between the breastplate 
(or coat of mail) and the appendages to it ; the wound would be in the 
lower part of the body. 



2IO II. CHRONICLES, XVIII. XIX. [vv. 34; i— 4. 

chariot man, Turn thine hand, that thou mayest carry me 
34 out of the host ; for I am wounded. And the battle in- 
creased that day : howbeit the king of Israel stayed himself 
up in his chariot against the Syrians until the even : and 
about the time of the sun going down he died. 
19 And Jehoshaphat the king of Judah returned to his house 

2 in peace to Jerusalem. And Jehu the son of Hanani the 
seer went out to meet him, and said to king Jehoshaphat, 
Shouldest thou help the ungodly, and love them that hate 
the Lord ? therefore is wrath upon thee from before the 

3 Lord. Nevertheless there are good things found in thee, 
in that thou hast taken away the groves out of the land, and 

4 hast prepared thine heart to seek God. And Jehoshaphat 
dwelt at Jerusalem : and he went out again through the 
people from Beer-sheba to mount Ephraim, and brought 

thai thou mayest carry me] R.V. and carry me (so i Kin.). 

woimded] R.V. sore wounded (so i Kin., R.V.). 

34. stayed himself zip in his chariot] i Kin. was stayed up. The 
expression in Chron. probably means that Ahab by his continued 
presence on the field stayed his army from retreat until sundown. 
Ahab sustained his reputation as a good soldier (cp. i Kin. xx. 14; 
xxii. 31) to the last; his death caused the failure of the attack on 
Ramoth (i Kin. xxii. 36). 

of the sun going down] R.V. of the going down of the sun. 

Ch. XIX. 1 — 3 (no parallel in Kings). The Reproof of 
Jehu the Prophet. 

1. m/m^<?] i.e. in safety. LXX. (B) om. the phrase. 

2. fehu the son of Hanani] He must have been an old man at this 
time for he had prophesied against Baasha (i Kin. xvi. i), since whose 
time two kings had reigned in Israel, viz., Omri (12 years) and Ahab 
(22 years). 

the ungodly] R.V. the wicked. 

and love them that hate the Lord] Cp. Ps. cxxxix. 21, 22. 

therefore is wrath upon thee] R.V. for this thing wrath is upon thee, 
i.e. a visitation of wrath is impending. The visitation is described in 
chap. XX. For "wrath" (Heb. qe^eph) cp. 2 Kin. iii. 27 R.V. mg. 

3. good things] Cp. xii. 12 (note). 

taken away the groves] R.V. put away the Asheroth (plur. of 
**Asherah"); cp. xvii. 6 (note). 

4 — 11 (no parallel in Kings). Jehoshaphat's Home Policy. 

4. Beer-sheba] Cp. note on i Chr. iv. 28. 

brought them back] Some further measures against idolatry seem to 
be meant. 

vv. 5—9.] II. CHRONICLES, XIX. 211 

them back unto the Lord God of their fathers. And he s 
set judges in the land throughout all the fenced cities of 
Judah, city by city, and said to the judges, Take heed what 6 
ye do : for ye judge not for man, but for the Lord, who is 
with you in the judgment. Wherefore now let the fear of 7 
the Lord be upon you ; take heed and do // .• for t/iere is 
no iniquity with the Lord our God, nor respect of persons, 
nor taking of gifts. Moreover in Jerusalem did Jehoshaphat 8 
set of the Levites, and of the priests, and of the chief of the 
fathers of Israel, for the judgment of the Lord, and for 
controversies, when they returned to Jerusalem. And he 9 

5. and he setjudges\ Cp. ver. 11 "also the Levites shall be officers"; 
and Deut. xvi. 18 "judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy 

In the earliest days justice was administered in Israel, as among the 
Bedouin of to-day, probably by all heads of families and (in difficult 
cases) by the one head who was distinguished above the rest for 
impartiality and for knowledge of tribal custom. In later days when 
Israel was settled in Canaan the "elders of the cities" and the "elders 
qf the priests " exercised the same functions. 

Jehoshaphat's measures were twofold, (1) to establish judges throughout 
the cities of Judah, (2) to establish (in accordance with Deut. xvii. 8 ff.) 
a kind of court of appeal in Jerusalem itself. 

As to the first measure no doubt the work consisted in removing evil 
judges and confirming the good in their office, rather than in appointing 
judges for the first time. The second measure, however, was probably 
altogether new; David (2 Sam. xiv. 4ff. ; xv. 3) and Solomon (r Kin. 
iii. 16) had kept judgment in their own hands. The prominent position 
assigned to the priests as judges is in accordance with Deut. xvii. 9 ; 
xix. 17. 

6. Take heed'\ R.V. Consider. 

who is with you in the Judgment'] Render, and He is with you in 
giving judgment (cp. R.V. and mg.). The judges in deciding cases 
against the rich and powerful were to strengthen themselves with the 
thought "God is with us" ("Immanuel"). 

8. the chief of the fathers of Israel] R.V. the heads of the 
fathers' houses of Israel. 

for the judg7nent of the LORD, and for controversies] By the first 
expression the Chronicler no doubt refers to matters regarding which 
some decision could be found in the Law of the Lord (i.e. the Pentateuch). 
The second ("controversies") probably means civil disputes for which 
arbitration rather than a strictly legal decision was suitable. 

when they returned to Jerusalem] R.V. And they returned to 
Jerusalem. These words seem to be corrupt; read, and they (i.e. the 
judges appointed by Jehoshaphat) dwelt in Jerusalem. The most 

14 2 

212 II. CHRONICLES, XIX. XX. [vv. io,ii; i. 

charged them, saying, Thus shall ye do in the fear of the 

10 Lord, faithfully, and with a perfect heart. And what cause 
soever shall come to you of your brethren that dwell in their 
cities, between blood and blood, between law and com- 
mandment, statutes and judgments, ye shall even warn 
them that they trespass not against the Lord, and so wrath 
come upon you, and upon your brethren : this do, and ye 

11 shall not trespass. And behold, Amariah the chief priest 
is over you in all matters of the Lord ; and Zebadiah the 
son of Ishmael, the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the 
king's matters : also the Levites shall be officers before you. 
Deal courageously, and the Lord shall be with the good. 

20 It came to pass after this also, that the children of Moab, 
and the children of Ammon, and with them other beside the 

difficult cases could ahuays be decided in Jerusalem, because the judges 
were always there. 

9. a perfect heart'] i.e. a heart undivided in its allegiance; cp. i Chr. 
xii. 38. The judges were not to attempt to combine the service of God 
with the taking ol bribes. 

10. And what cause soever shall come to you of your brethreti] R.V. 
And whensoever any controversy shall come to you from your 

between blood a7id blood] To decide between one kind of blood- 
shedding and another, i.e. between manslaughter and murder. Deut. 
xvii. 8. 

between law and commandment] To decide what particular ordinance 
applies to a particular case. 

ye shall even warn them] R.V. ye shall warn them. Cp. Ezek. iii. 
17 — 21. 

that they trespass not agaijtst] R.V. that they be not guilty towards. 
Cp. Is. xxiv. 6 ("found guilty" R.V.). 

W7'ath] Heb. qe^eph; see note on ver. 2. 

ye shall not trespass] R. V. ye shall not be guilty. 

11. Amariah] Perhaps he who is mentioned i Chr. vi. 11 [v. 37, 

officers before you] i.e. waiting to execute your instructions. 
Deal courageously] Render, Be strong and work (as in Hag. ii. 4). 
shall be with the good] R.V. be with the good (a blessing rather than 
a promise). 

Ch. XX. 1—4 (no parallel in Kings). The Invasion of the 


For a discussion of the historical probabilities of the following account 
see Introduction, § 8, and G. A. Smith, Hist. Geography, pp. 272, 3. 

1. other beside the Ammonites] Render, some of the Meunim 
(xxvi. 7; I Chr. iv. 41, R.V.). In all three places LXX. has MeLvatoi 

vv. 2—6.] II. CHRONICLES, XX. 213 

Ammonites, came against Jehoshaphat to battle. Then 2 
there came so7ne that told Jehoshaphat, saying, There 
Cometh a great multitude against thee from beyond the sea 
on this side Syria ; and behold, they be in Hazazon-tamar, 
which is En-gedi. And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself 3 
to seek the Lord, and proclaimed a fast throughout all 
Judah. And Judah gathered themselves together, to ask 4 
help of the Lord : even out of all the cities of Judah they 
came to seek the Lord. And Jehoshaphat stood in the 5 
congregation of Judah and Jerusalem, in the house of the 
Lord, before the new court, and said, O Lord God of our 6 

(Mivatot). They were an Arabian people whose name seems to be pre- 
served in that of Ma' in, a village (south-east of Petra) on the pilgrim 
route between Damascus and Mecca. Bddeker, p. 144. The Minaeans 
have been supposed to be a very ancient people, but the only dated 
inscription coming from them with which we are acquainted belongs to 
the reign of one of the Ptolemies and cannot be earlier than circ. 
300 B.C. 

2. 071 this side Syria] R.V. from Syria (so LXX.). The text is 
corrupt, and the words are either a gloss on /ro/u beyond the sea or a 
corruption of the original reading. From Edom is an easy correction. 

which is En-gedi\ R.V. (the same is En-gedi). Cp. G. A. Smith, 
Hist. Geography as quoted above, and Bddeker, p. 140. En-gedi is on 
the west coast of the Dead Sea at a point where a rugged pass leads up 
into the hill-country of Judah. 

Hazazon-tamar] Gen. xiv. 7. The name seems to describe the 
place as stony and as containing palm-trees. It is in fact an oasis. 

3. set himself to seek the Lord] Render, set his face to seek unto 
the LORD. 

proclaimed a fast] A fast involved the assembling of the people ; 
I Kin. xxi. 9, 12; Jer. xxxvi. 6, 9; Joel ii. 15. Special fasts were 
proclaimed for war, famine, or any other calamity or serious event. 

4. to ask help] R.V. to seek help. 

5—13 (no parallel in Kings). The Prayer of Jehoshaphat. 
This prayer should be compared with Solomon's (vi. 14 ff.). 

5. stood] Rather, rose up. 

before the new court] The Temple of Solomon seems to have differed 
in respect of its courts from the Second Temple; and it is difficult to 
tell of what court the Chronicler is thinking in this passage. The Heb. 
word for "court" here is hd(^er, but in iv. 9 (see note there) the "court 
(hdfer) of the priests" is distinguished from a court called the "great 
court" (Heb. "great Azdrdh''). Perhaps the Chronicler means here 
"the hdfer of the priests" for Jehoshaphat stands not in but be/ore it. 
Solomon's great prayer was offered according to the Chronicler (vi. 13) 
in "the court" (Heb. Azdrdh). 

6. Lord God] R.V. LORD, the God; cp. xxi. 10, ic. 

214 II. CHRONICLES, XX. [w. 7— 12. 

fathers, art not thou God in heaven? and rulest not thou 
over all the kingdoms of the heathen ? and in thine hand is 
there not power and might, so that none is able to withstand 

7 thee ? Art not thou our God, who didst drive out the 
inhabitants of this land before thy people Israel, and gavest 

8 it to the seed of Abraham thy friend for ever? And they 
dwelt therein, and have built thee a sanctuary therein for 

9 thy name, saying. If, whe?i evil cometh upon us, as the 
sword, judgment, or pestilence, or famine, w^e stand before 
this house, and in thy presence, (for thy name is in this 
house,) and cry unto thee in our affliction, then thou wilt 

10 hear and help. And now behold, the children of Ammon 
and Moab and mount Seir, whom thou wouldest not let 
Israel invade, when they came out of the land of Egypt, but 

11 they turned from them, and destroyed them not; behold, I 
say, how they reward us, to come to cast us out of thy 

12 possession, which thou hast given us to inherit. O our 

art not thou God'] cp. Josh. ii. 11. 

rtilcst not thou over all the kingdofns of the heathen?] R.V. art not thou 
ruler over all the kingdoms of the nations? Cp. Ps. xxii. 28. 

is there not power] R.V. is power. Cp. xiv. 11 (Asa's prayer). 

7. Art not thou our God, who didst drive out] R.V. Didst not thou, 
our God, drive out. Cp. Deut. ix. 5. 

thy friend] Cp. Is. xli. 8. 

9. If when evil cometh] R.V. If evil come. 

as the sword, judgtiient] Omit as and render with R.V. mg. the 
sword of judgement (cp. Ezek. xiv. 17). 

we stand before this house, and in thy presence] R.V. we will stand 
before this house, and before thee. 

then thou wilt hear and help] R.V. and thou wilt hear and save. 

10. jHOunt Sei7-] Here and in ver. 23 in the enumeration of the 
allied peoples "Mount Seir" takes the place of the "Meunim" of ver. i, 
yet no doubt the same contingent is meant. Mount Seir was indeed 
part of the territory of the Edomites, and the Meunim (Minaeans) were 
Arabians, but the two peoples were cognate and moreover were 
neighbours, so that Minaean invaders would probably bring along with 
them Edomite kinsmen in passing through Mount Seir. Mount Seir 
extended from the south of the Dead Sea to the head of the Gulf of 

whom thoji wouldest not etc.] Cp. Deut. ii. 4, 5, 9, 19; see also 
Num. XX. 14 — 21. 

but they turned] R.V. but they turned aside. 

11. thy possession] A "possession" means that which one takes 
possession of by the sword. Canaan is God's "possession" because 
it was conquered by His arm (Ps. xliv. 3). 

vv. 13—19.] II. CHRONICLES, XX. 215 

God, wilt thou not judge them ? for we have no might 
against this great company that cometh against us ; neither 
know we what to do : but our eyes are upon thee. And all 13 
Judah stood before the Lord, with their little ones, their 
wives, and their children. 

Then upon Jahaziel the son of Zechariah, the son of h 
Benaiah, the son of Jeiel, the son of Mattaniah, a Levite of 
the sons of Asaph, came the spirit of the Lord in the midst 
of the congregation ; and he said, Hearken ye, all Judah, 15 
and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem, and thou king Jehoshaphat, 
Thus saith the Lord unto you. Be not afraid nor dismayed 
by reason of this great multitude; for the battle is not 
yours, but God's. To morrow go ye down against them : 16 
behold, they come up by the cliff of Ziz ; and ye shall find 
them at the end of the brook, before the wilderness of 
Jeruel. Ye shall not need to fight in this battle : set your- 17 
selves, stand ye sti//, and see the salvation of the Lord with 
you, O Judah and Jerusalem : fear not, nor be dismayed ; 
to morrow go out against them : for the Lord wi// be with 
you. And Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the 18 
ground : and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell 
before the Lord, worshipping the Lord. And the Levites, 19 

12. our eyes are upon thee'] Cp. xiv. 11. 

13. their little ones... and their children] Cp. xxxi. 18, "their 
little ones... and their sons and their daughters." "Little ones" (Heb. 
taph) seems always to mean qnite S77iall children. 

14 — 19 (no parallel in Kings). The Prophecy of Jahaziel. 

14. yahaziel] Nothing is known of him beyond that which is 
recorded of him in this chapter. His name is significant ("God giveth 

15. the battle is not yours ^ but God's] Jahaziel gives a special turn to 
the general truth, "The battle is the Lord's" (David to Goliath, i Sam. 
xvii. 47). 

16. the cliff of Ziz] R.V. the ascent of Ziz. The exact positions of 
this and of the "brook" and of the "wilderness" mentioned in this ver. 
are unknown, but probably the invaders followed not the direct road 
from En-gedi to Beth-lehem, but one a little to the left of this. 

the b7-ook] R.V. the valley (Heb. nahal)^ strictly "ravine" or 

17. see the salvation] Cp. Ex. xiv. 13. 

will be with you] R.V. is with you; cp. xv. 2. 

18. fell] R.V. fell down. 

2i6 II. CHRONICLES, XX. [vv. 20— 22. 

of the children of the Kohathites, and of the children of the 
Korhites, stood up to praise the Lord God of Israel with a 
loud voice on high. 

20 And they rose early in the morning, and went forth into 
the wilderness of Tekoa : and as they went forth, Jehosha- 
phat stood and said, Hear me, O Judah, and ye inhabitants 
of Jerusalem ; Believe in the Lord your God, so shall you 
be established ; believe his prophets, so shall ye prosper. 

21 And when he had consulted with the people, he appointed 
singers unto the Lord, and that should praise the beauty of 
holiness, as they went out before the army, and to say, 

22 Praise the Lord ; for his mercy endureth for ever. And 
when they began to sing and to praise, the Lord set 
ambushments against the children of Ammon, Moab, and 

19. the Korhites\ R.V. the Korahites. The Korahites were a 
branch of the Kohathites (i Chr. vi. 22 [7 Heb.], 37, 38 [22, 23 Heb.]); 
the Chronicler simply defines his first statement ; those who stood up to 
praise were Kohathites by clan, Korahites by family. 

a loud voice on high'] R.V. an exceeding loud voice. 

20 — 25 (no parallel in Kings). The Deliverance. 

20. Tekoa] The modern Teku^a, a ruin on a hill 2790 feet above 
the sea, about six miles south of Beth-lehem. It was an ancient place ; 
xi. 6; I Chr. ii. 24; 2 Sam. xiv. 2; Amos i. i. The "wilderness of 
Tekoa" means that part of the "wilderness of Judah" which was near 

Believe. shall you be established] Heb. ha^amTnu...tFdmenil. Cp. 
Is. vii. 9, "If ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be established." In 
both places there is a play on the words in the Heb.; "believe" and 
"be established" representing two voices of the same verb. 

21. consulted] R.V. taken counsel. 

singers unto the LoRD, and that should praise] R.V. them that should 
sing unto the LORD, and praise. Cp. the preliminaries of the Battle of 
the Standard fought between the Scots and English in 11 38. 

the beauty of holiness] Cp. r Chr. xvi. 29 (note). 

before the army] Contrast Josh. vi. 7, 9 (the armed men precede the 

Praise] R.V. Give thanks; cp. i Chr. xvi. 41. 

22. the Lord set afnbtcshments] R.V. the LORD set liers in wait. All 
that is meant by this is that the Lord suggested to Jehoshaphat the plan 
of setting an ambush; cp. Josh. viii. 2 (where it is said that the Lord 
suggested the same plan to Joshua). Jehoshaphat himself marched with 
the bulk of his forces, but the flower of the Judsean army was probably 
disposed in ambush. G. A. Smith {Hist. Geography, p. 272) points out 
that the country between En-gedi and Tekoa is well suited for attack by 

vv. 23—28.] II. CHRONICLES, XX. 217 

mount Seir, which were come against Judah ; and they were 
smitten. For the children of Ammon and Moab stood up 23 
against the inhabitants of mount Seir, utterly to slay and 
destroy them: and when they had made an end of the 
inhabitants of Seir, every one helped to destroy another. 
And when Judah came toward the watch tower in the 24 
wilderness, they looked unto the multitude, and behold, 
they were dead bodies fallen to the earth, and none escaped. 
And when Jehoshaphat and his people came to take away 25 
the spoil of them, they found among them in abundance 
both riches with the dead bodies, and precious jewels, 
which they stript off for themselves, more than they could 
carry away : and they were three days in gathering of the 
spoil, it was so much. And on the fourth day they 26 
assembled themselves in the valley of Berachah ; for there 
they blessed the Lord : therefore the name of the same 
place was called, The valley of Berachah, unto this day. 
Then they returned, every man of Judah and Jerusalem, 27 
and Jehoshaphat in the forefront of them, to go again to 
Jerusalem with joy; for the Lord had made them to rejoice 
over their enemies. And they came to Jerusalem with 28 

23. For the children of Ammon] Render, And the children of 
Ammon. The sudden attack of the ambushed Judseans created a panic 
and a suspicion of treachery among the allies ; so at Gideon's surprise 
of Midian every man turned his sword against his fellow (Judg. vii. 22). 

utterly to slay] Lit. to devote; cp. Lev. xxvii. 28, 29. 

24. toward the watch tower] R.V. to the watch-tower. This tower 
may have been one of the castles mentioned in xvii. 12. 

unto the multitude] R.V. upon the multitude. 

and none escaped] R.V. and there were none that escaped. 

25. to take away the spoil] R.V. to take the spoil. 

they found among them in abundance both riches with the dead bodies] 
The Heb. text is faulty. LXX. ebpov kttjvt] tpoXXo. xat aTroaKeinji' koI 
(TKvXa, i.e. "they found much cattle and property and spoils." 

in gathering] R.V. in taking. 

26—30 (no parallel in Kings). The Sequel of the Deliverance. 

26. valley of Berachah] A wddi Bereikut south of Tekoa is men- 
tioned by Robinson. It is probable that also the "valley of Jehosha- 
phat" mentioned by Joel (iii. [iv. Heb.] 2) is to be identified with the 
scene of Jehoshaphat's deliverance. 

27. with joy] Rather, with rejoicing; cp. ver. 28. LXX., ev 
cixppoaivQ fxeyaXy. 

2i8 II. CHRONICLES, XX. [vv. 29—34. 

psalteries and harps and trumpets unto the house of the 

29 Lord. And the fear of God was on all the kingdoms of 
those countries, when they had heard that the Lord fought 

30 against the enemies of Israel. So the realm of Jehoshaphat 
was quiet : for his God gave him rest round about. 

31 And Jehoshaphat reigned over Judah : he was thirty and 
five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty 
and five years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was 

32 Azubah the daughter of Shilhi. And he walked in the way 
of Asa his father, and departed not from it, doing that 

33 which was right in the sight of the Lord. Howbeit the 
high places were not taken away : for as yet the people had 
not prepared their hearts unto the God of their fathers. 

34 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, first and last, 
behold they are written in the book of Jehu the son of 
Hanani, who is mentioned in the book of the kings of 

29. was on all'\ Rather, came upon all ; cp. xiv. 14; xvii. 10. 

the kingdoms of those coufitries'\ R.V. tlie kingdoms of the countries 
(a characteristic phrase with the Chronicler; cp. xii. 8; xvii. 10 and 
I Chr. xxix. 30). 

31 — 34 (=1 Kin. xxii. 41 — 45). The Summary of Jehoshaphat's 


There are several variations of text between Kings and Chron. here ; 
and in particular the Chronicler omits the statement that Jehoshaphat 
made peace with Israel. 

31. reigned over JudaK\ In Kings, began to reign over Judah in the 
fourth year of Ahab king of Israel'. The Chronicler will not date the 

accession of a southern king by the year of an ungodly northern king. 

32. departed not'] R.V. turned not aside. 
ifi the sight] R.V, in the eyes. 

33. the high places] Cp. xv. 17, note. 

for as yet the people had not prepared their hearts] R.V. neither as 
yet had the people set their hearts ; cp. xii. 14. In Kings it is said 
particularly that the people sacrificed and burnt incense at the high 

34. in the book of Jehu] R.V. in the history of Jehu. 
Jehu] See xix. 2 (note). 

who is tnentioned] R.V. which is inserted. Chronicles of particular 
reigns were joined together to form one continuous Chronicle. 

35 — 37 (cp. I Kin. xxii. 48, 49). The Destruction of 
Jehoshaphat's Fleet. 

The Chronicler gives an account of this incident quite different from 
that given in Kings. According to the latter it seems that Jehoshaphat's 

VV.35— 37; 1,2.] 11. CHRONICLES, XX. XXI. 219 

Israel. And after this did Jehoshaphat king of Judah join 35 
himself with Ahaziah king of Israel, who did very wickedly : 
and he joined himself with him to make ships to go to 36 
Tarshish : and they made the ships in Ezion-gaber. Then 37 
Eliezer the son of Dodavah of Mareshah prophesied against 
Jehoshaphat, saying, Because thou hast joined thyself with 
Ahaziah, the Lord hath broken thy works. And the ships 
were broken, that they were not able to go to Tarshish. 

Now Jehoshaphat slept with his fathers, and was buried 21 
with his fathers in the city of David. And Jehoram his son 
reigned in his stead. And he had brethren the sons of Jeho- 2 
shaphat, Azariah, and Jehiel, and Zechariah, and Azariah, 

fleet was wrecked through the inexperience of his mariners, and that he 
rejected the offer of the king of Israel to lend the services of more 
experienced seamen. In Chron. the loss of the ships is ascribed 
through the mouth of a prophet to Divine displeasure caused by 
Jehoshaphat's association with Ahaziah. The accounts may be partly 
reconciled by the supposition that Jehoshaphat accepted the aid of the 
king of Israel in building but not in navigating the ships. The 
Chronicler here follows his habit of looking upon great public calamities 
as the direct punishment of particular sins. 

35. who did very wickedly] R. V. the same did very wickedly. 

36. ships to go to Tarshish] In Kings, ships of Tarshish to go to 
Ophir: cp. ix. 21 (=1 Kin. x. 22), note. In both passages the reading 
of Kings, "ships (or 'navy') ^Tarshish," i.e. large sea-going ships (cp. 
Ps. xlviii. 7) is to be preferred, because (1) Eziou-geber was a port for 
vessels sailing eastward, while Tarshish was in the west, (2) gold, the 
object of the voyage (cp. i Kin. xxii. 48), came from Ophir (viii. 18; 
I Kin. ix. 28 ; x. 11 ; Ps. xlv. 9). 

Tarshish] Cp. i Chr. i. 7 (note). 
Ezion-%€^&t] Cp. viii. 17 (note). 

37. Mareshah] Cp. xi. 8 (note) ; xiv. 10. 

hath broken] R.V. hath destroyed. The same Heb. word is used 
I Chr. xiii. 11 ("had broken forth," R.V.); xiv. 11 ("hath broken 
forth," R.V. mg.). 

Ch. XXI. 1 (=1 Kin. xxii. 50). Jehoshaphat succeeded by 


2—4 (no parallel in Kings). The Names and the Fate of 

THE other Sons of Jehoshaphat. 
2. brethren the sotis of Jehoshaphat] It was necessary to define 
brethren, for the word by itself means no more than "kinsmen"; cp. 
I Chr. xii. 2 (note). 

Azariah] Since this name is repeated (with a slight variation of 
spelling) in the list it is probable that the text is corrupt. The error 

220 II. CHRONICLES, XXI. [vv. 3—9. 

and Michael, and Shephatiah: all these were the sons of 

3 Jehoshaphat king of Israel. And their father gave them 
great gifts of silver, and of gold, and of precious things, with 
fenced cities in Judah: but the kingdom gave he to Jehoram; 

4 because he was the firstborn. Now when Jehoram was risen 
up to the kingdom of his father, he strengthened himself, 
and slew all his brethren with the sword, and divers also of 
the princes of Israel. 

5 Jehoram was thirty and two years old when he began to 

6 reign, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem. And he 
walked in the way of the kings of Israel, like as did the 
house of Ahab: for he had the daughter of Ahab to wife: 
and he wrought that which was evil in the eyes of the Lord. 

7 Howbeit the Lord would not destroy the house of David, 
because of the covenant that he had made with David, and 
as he promised to give a light to him and to his sons for 

8 ever. In his days the Edomites revolted from under the 

9 dominion of Judah, and made themselves a king. Then 

may be no more than the omission of some epithet which distinguished 
one Azariah from the other in the original text of the list. The LXX. 
gives no help. 

king of Israel] Cp. xi. 3, note. 

3. their father gave theni] Rehoboam did the same ; xi. 23. 
precious things'] Heb. mlgddnoth; cp. xxxii. 23 ("presents," A.V.; 

''precious things," R.V.). 

4. to the kingdovi] R.V. over the kingdom. 

he strengthened hitnself, and slew] R.V. and had strengthened himself, 
he slew. For "strengthened himself" cp. i. i (note). 

5 — 7 ( = 2 Kin. viii. 17 — 19). The Character of Jehoram's 


6. like as did] R.V. as did. 
of Ahab] Cp. xviii. i (note). 

in the eyes] R.V. in the sight (less literal). 

7. the house of David] In 2 Kin. fudah, a term sparingly used in 
Chron. ; cp. xi. 3 (note). 

a light] R.V. a lamp. Thus figuratively applied the Heb. word is 
written nir; ordinarily "lamp" is ner'm Heb, 
for ever] R.V. alway (as in 2 Kin.). Heb. literally, '*all the days." 

8 — 10 ( = 2 Kin. viii. 20 — 22). The Revolt of Edgm. 

8. from tinder the dominion] R.V. from under the hand (as 2 Kin.). 
viade themselves a king] R.V. made a king over themselves (as 

2 Kin.). 

vv. lo, II.] 11. CHRONICLES, XXI. 221 

Jehoram went forth with his princes, and all his chariots 
with him : and he rose up by night, and smote the Edomites 
which compassed him in, and the captains of the chariots. 
So the Edomites revolted from under the hand of Judah 10 
unto this day. The same time also did Libnah revolt from 
under his hand; because he had forsaken the Lord God of 
his fathers. Moreover he made high places in the moun- n 
tains of Judah, and caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to 
commit fornication, and compelled Judah thereto. 

9. Then Jehorai^i went fortJil R.V. Then Jehoram passed over. 
The Heb. root rendered "pass over" means {a) to pass over a sea or 
river or other landmark, (3) to pass by persons. In the latter significa- 
tion it is applied (as here) to the vanguard of an army w^hich passes by 
the main body in order to take the lead ; cp. Josh. vi. 7. In this case 
Jehoram pushed on with the vanguard (consisting of all his chariots) 
leaving the "people" (2 Kin. viii. 21), i.e. the bulk of his army to 
follow. A disaster ensued. Jehoram was hemmed in by the Edomites, 
and though he cut his way through them by a night surprise, his success 
came too late, for the rest of the army, thinking that the vanguard was 
cut off, dispersed to their homes. This last fact, which explains the 
failure of the campaign, is omitted by the Chronicler. 2 Kin. viii. 21 
should read. And it came to pass, though he rose by night and smote the 
Edomites... that the people fie d to their tents. 

with his princes^ In 2 Kin. to Zair. Nothing is known of such a 
place, but some place name is to be expected here. 

and the captains of the chariots^ The clause is governed by the verb 
"compassed" (read perhaps el for eth in the Heb.). 

10. The saf?ie time also did Libtiah revolf] R.V. Tlien did Libnah 
revolt at the same time. The exact position of Libnah is not known, 
but it was in the south of Judah, probably not far from Lachish ( Tell-el- 
Hesi) and from the Edoniite ten-itory. The reason of the revolt is * 
probably given in the Pesh. rendering of this clause, viz. "Then did the 
Edoffiites who dwelt in Libnah revolt." Libnah was perhaps partly 
Edomite. According to i Chr. vi. 57 (42 Heb.) Libnah was a priestly 

because he had forsaken, etc.] Not in Kings. 

the Lord God] R.V. the LORD, the God ; cp. xxviii. 6 (note). 

11—15 (not in Kings). Jehoram's Sins and Elijah's written 

11. in the mountains'] So Pesh., but ^v wbXeaLv LXX. The 
difference between the two readings in Heb. is very small. 

caused... to commit fornication] R.V. made... to go a whoring, i.e. led... 
into idolatry according to a much used metaphor of Scripture. 

compelled yudah thereto] Lit., banished Judah, i.e. from the presence 
of Jehovah (a second metaphor meaning the same as the last, but on the 
negative side ; "lead into idolatry "= "lead away from Jehovah "). 

222 II. CHRONICLES, XXI. [w. 12—17. 

12 And there came a writing to him from Elijah the prophet, 
saying, Thus saith the Lord God of David thy father, Be- 
cause thou hast not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat thy 

13 father, nor in the ways of Asa king of Judah, but hast walked 
in the way of the kings of Israel, and hast made Judah and 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem to go a whoring, like to the 
whoredoms of the house of Ahab, and also hast slain thy 
brethren of thy father's house, which were better than thy- 

14 self: behold, with a great plague will the Lord smite thy 
people, and thy children, and thy wives, and all thy goods : 

15 and thou shalt have great sickness by disease of thy bowels, 
until thy bowels fall out -by reason of the sickness day by 

16 day. Moreover the Lord stirred up against Jehoram the 
spirit of the Philistines, and of the Arabians, that were near 

17 the Ethiopians : and they came up into Judah, and brake 
into it, and carried away all the substance that was found in 

12. a writing^ This is the only place in which any writing of 
Elijah is mentioned. Even in Jehoshaphat's reign Elijah seems to 
have been no longer among the living ; cp. 2 Kin. iii. 11 (where Elisha 
seems already to have taken Elijah's place). A prophecy of Elijah 
against Jehoram of Judah is an unlikely event, as perhaps the Chronicler 
himself felt. May it be that some adaptation of words of Elijah to suit 
Jehoram's case was placarded by some unknown hand outside Jehoram 's 
palace ? 

the Lord God] R. V. the LORD, tHe God, lit. Jehovah the God. 

13. like to the whoredofns of the house of Ahab] R.V. like as the 
house of Ahab did. 

14. w\\h a great plague will the LoRD smite] R.V. the LORD -will 
smite with a great plague (" stroke," mg.). For "plague" cp. vi. 28, 
29. Jehoram's "plague" is described in verses 16, 17. 

thy goods] R.V. thy substance (Gen. xii. 5); the Heb. word includes 
both "goods" and "chattels" (i.e. live stock). 

15. day by day] R.V. mg., year after year ; a prolonged sickness. 

16, 17 (no parallel in Kings). The Invasion of the Philistines 

AND Arabians. 

16. Moreover] R.V. And. 

stirred tip... the spirit] Cp. xxxvi. 22 and i Chr. v. 26. 
that were near the Ethiopians] Render, which are beside the 
Cushites; cp. R.V. and xiv. 9 (note). 

17. a7td brake into it] The proper meaning of the Heb. verb is 
"to make a breach in a city- wall [and so take tlie city]"; cp. xxxii. i. 
The word is metaphorically applied (here and Is. vii. 6) to a whole 

vv. 18—20; I.] II. CHRONICLES, XXI. XXII. 223 

the king's house, and his sons also, and his wives; so that 
there was never a son left him, save Jehoahaz, the youngest 
of his sons. And after all this the Lord smote him in his is 
bowels with an incurable disease. And it came to pass, that 19 
in process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell 
out by reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases. 
And his people made no burning for him, like the burning 
of his fathers. Thirty and two years old was he when he 20 
began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem eight years, 
and departed without being desired. Howbeit they buried 
him in the city of David, but not in the sepulchres of the 

And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his 22 
youngest son king in his stead : for the band of meft that 
came with the Arabians to the camp had slain all the eldest. 
So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned. 

in the king^s house] R. V. mg. , belonging to the king's house. The 
rendering of A.V. suggests that the allies entered Jerusalem, but this 
was almost certainly not the case. 

yehoahaz] In xxii. i he is called Ahaziah, which is only another 
form of the name, the prefix Jeho- of the one, and the ending -iah of 
the other being each the representative of the divine name Jehovah. 
The name in either form means "Jehovah hath taken" (or "chosen"). 
Two similar cases are J ehoshaphat and Shephatiah (ver. i) and jfehoiia- 
than and Nethaniah in xvii. 8. 

18 — 20 (cp. 2 Kin. viii. 24). Death and Burial of Jehoram. 

19. after the end] R.V. at the end. 

by reason of his sickness] LXX. iieTO. ttiz vbaov, i.e. in the course of his 

710 burning] Cp. xvi. 14 (note). 

20. and departed without being desired] Render, he lived so that 
none desired him (or "delighted in him"). Cp. LXX., iiropiiiQ-t] ovk 
iv iTraivij}, lit. "he walked without praise." 

Howbeit] R.V. and. 

but not in the sepulchres of the kings] According to Kings he * * was 
buried with his fathers." Cp. xxiv. 25. 

Ch. XXII. 1 — 4 ( = 2 Kin. viii. 25—27). The Reign of Ahaziah. 

1. the inhabitants of yej-usalem, etc.] This unusual formula is no 
doubt intended to call attention to the fact that the succession of the 
youngest son was unusual, possibly there was opposition to it. 

with the Arabians to the camp] Render, with the Arabians of 
Mazin; LXX., "Apa/Ses oi 'AXeifia^oveh. Cp. jciv, 15 (note on th^ 
tents of cattle). 

224 H. CHRONICLES, XXII. [vv. 2— 7. 

2 Forty and two years old was Ahaziah when he began to 
reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother's 

3 name also was Athaliah the daughter of Omri. He also 
walked in the ways of the house of Ahab: for his mother 

4 was his counseller to do wickedly. Wherefore he did evil 
in the sight of the Lord, like the house of Ahab: for they 
were his counsellers after the death of his father to his 

5 destruction. He walked also after their counsel, and went 
with Jehoram the son of Ahab king of Israel to war against 
Hazael king of Syria at Ramoth-gilead : and the Syrians 

6 smote Joram. And he returned to be healed in Jezreel, be- 
cause of the wounds which were given him at Ramah, when 
he fought with Hazael king of Syria. And Azariah the son 
of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Jehoram the son 

7 of Ahab at Jezreel, because he was sick. And the destruc- 
tion of Ahaziq,h was of God by coming to Joram: for when 
he was come, he went out with Jehoram against Jehu the 

2. Forty and two years old] LXX, , oov eUoai irCjv agreeing nearly 
with 2 Kin. viii. 26, "two-and-tvventy years old" (Heb. and LXX.). 

daughter of Omri\ So 2 Kin. viii. 26, but more correctly "daughter 
of Ahab" {ibid. ver. 18). 

4. after the death of his father] This phrase suggests that he acted 
as regent in his father's hfetime during his father's two years' illness. 

5, 6 ( = 2 Kin. viii. 28, 29). The Alliance with Jehoram 

OF Israel. 

6. smote yoranz] R.V. wounded Joram (as 2 Kin.). 

6. Jezreel] A city some distance to the north of Samaria, giving its 
name to the plain of Jezreel (Esdrelon). Ahab had a house there 
(i Kin. xxi. i), probably a cou7ttry house judging from the incident 
of Naboth's vineyard. It is the modern ZerHn, a town situated on 
a hill commanding a wide view towards the west and the east. 
Bddeker, pp. 242, 243. 

because of the wou7tds] R.V. (with 2 Kin.) of the wounds. A.V. 
gives a misleading translation of a corrupt Heb. text. 
Ra?7iah] i.e. Ramoth-gilead. 

7 — 9 (cp. 2 Kin. ix. 21; x. 13, 14; ix. 27, 28). The Death of 


Here the Chronicler gives a hasty (and not quite accurate) summary 
of the events recorded in 2 Kin. ix. and x. 11 — 14. 

7. destructioii] Rather, ruin, or downfall, LXX., /faraa-rpo^ij. 
Ahaziah's brethren fell with him (ver. 8). 

by coming to Joram] R.V. in that he went unto Joram. 

vv. 8— II.] II. CHRONICLES, XXII. 225 

son of Nimshi, whom the Lord had anointed to cut off the 
house of Ahab. And it came to pass, that when Jehu was 8 
executing judgment upon the house of Ahab, and found the 
princes of Judah, and the sons of the brethren of Ahaziah, 
that ministered to Ahaziah, he slew them. And he sought 9 
Ahaziah : and they caught him, (for he was hid in Samaria,) 
and brought him to Jehu: and when they had slain him, 
they buried him : Because, said they, he is the son of Jeho- 
shaphat, who sought the Lord with all his heart. So the 
house of Ahaziah had no power to keep still the kingdom. 

But when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her 10 
son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal of 
the house of Judah. But Jehoshabeath, the daughter of the n 
king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him from 

had anoint ed^ Cp. 2 Kin. ix. r — 10. 

8. And it came to pass, that when... and found... that ministered to 
Ahaziah, he slew them] R.V. And it came to pass, •wlien...tliat he 
found... ministering' to Ahaziah, and slew them. 

the sons of the brethren of Ahaziah] In 1 Kin. x. 13, "the brethren 
(i.e. kinsmen) of Ahaziah." The brethren (in the strict sense of the 
word) of Ahaziah had already been killed (ver. i ). 

that ministered] R.V. ministering. According to 2 Kin. they were 
going to "salute the children of the king and the children of the queen" 
(probably a courtly expression for "salute the king and the queen"). 

9. for he was hid in Samaria] R.V. now he was hiding in Samaria. 
Thus according to Chron. Ahaziah fled southward from Jezreel ; while 
according to 2 Kin. his flight was westward to Megiddo (perhaps to be 
identified with Khan el-Lejjun, Bddeker, p. 227). The statement in 
icings is more probably correct. 

and brought him to fehu: and when they had slain him, they buried 
him : Because, said they] R.V. and they brought him to Jehu, and 
Slew him ; and they buried him, for they said. Again the account 
given in Kings is to be preferred, viz. that Ahaziah fled wounded to 
Megiddo (which had not yet transferred its allegiance to Jehu) and died 
there (of his wounds). His body may have been brought to Jehu. 

had no power to keep still] R.V. had no power to hold. 

10 — 12 ( = 2 Kin. xi. i — 3). The Reign of Athaliah. 

10. But when] R.V. Now when. 

destroyed] This is the reading of Kings and of the LXX. of Chron. 
The Heb. reads spake with, which is perhaps a euphemism ; cp. the 
English "deal with." 

11. Jehoshabeath] In Kings "Jehosheba." The two are forms of 
the same name; cp. "Elisabeth" (Luke i. 7) and **Elisheba" (Ex. vi. 
23), a similar pair. 

CHRON. 15 

226 II. CHRONICLES, XXII. XXIII. [vv.12; 1—4. 

among the king's sons that were slain, and put him and his 
nurse in a bedchamber. So Jehoshabeath, the daughter of 
king Jehoram, the wife of Jehoiada the priest, (for she was 
the sister of Ahaziah,) hid him from Athaliah, so that she 

12 slew him not. And he was with them hid in the house of 
God six years : and Athaliah reigned over the land. 

23 And in the seventh year Jehoiada strengthened himself, 
and took the captains of hundreds, Azariah the son of Je- 
roham, and Ishmael the son of Jehohanan, and Azariah the 
son of Obed, and Maaseiah the son of Adaiah, and Elisha- 

2 phat the son of Zichri, into covenant with him. And they 
went about in Judah, and gathered the Levites out of all the 
cities of Judah, and the chief of the fathers of Israel, and 

3 they came to Jerusalem. And all the congregation made a 
covenant with the king in the house of God. And he said 
unto them, Behold, the king's son shall reign, as the Lord 

4 hath said of the sons of David. This is the thing that ye 

in a bedchamber] R.V. mg., in the chamber for the beds, i.e. in a 
store room in which bed furniture was kept. 

the wife of Jehoiada the priest'] Cp. xxiii. i. This relationship is 
not given in Kings. 

12. with theni] i.e. with Jehoiada and Jehoshabeath. In Kings 
"with her." 

in the house of God] "The chamber for beds" (in the palace?) was 
only a temporary hiding-place. 

Ch. XXIII. 1 — 11 (=2 Kin. xi. 4 — 12). The Conspiracy 
AGAINST Athaliah. 

1. strengthened himself] Cp. i. i (note); the phrase does not occur 
in the parallel passage of Kings. 

Azariah, etc.] These names do not occur in Kings. 

captains of hundreds] In 2 Kin. "captains over hundreds of the 
Carites (i.e. Cherethites) and of the guard." The Chronicler takes the 
captains to be captains of Levites. 

2. gathered the Levites] This statement is not found in Kings, nor 
is it there stated as here (ver. 6) that only Levites were allowed inside 
the Temple to guard the king. 

the chief of the fathers] R.V. the heads of fathers' houses. 
Israel] See xi. 3 (note). 

3. made a covenant] Cp. i Chr. xi. 3 (note). 

hath said of] R.V. hath spoken concerning. Cp. 2 Sam. vii. 16; 
I Chr. xvii. 17. 

4. This is the thing that ye shall do] The main features of the 
arrangement as given here and in 2 Kin. are clear, although some 


shall do ; A third part of you entering on the sabbath, of the 
priests and of the Levites, shall be porters of the doors ; and 5 

details are obscure. From Kings it appears that it was the custom on 
the Sabbath for two-thirds of the royal guards to be free and for one- 
third to be on duty at the palace. In order to avoid arousing suspicion 
this last third was, according to Jehoiada's directions, to be at the 
palace as usual, but it was to be subdivided into thirds and so distributed 
as to close the various means of communication between the palace and 
the rest of the city. Thus Athaliah was to be held as in a trap by her 
own guards {1 Kin. xi. 5, 6). The two-thirds who were free from duty 
on the Sabbath were to be stationed in the Temple about the young king 
to guard him at his coronation. 

The arrangements are differently (and no doubt less accurately) stated 
in Chron. In the first place Levitical Temple guards take the place of 
the royal guards, secondly, the only division of the guards recognised is 
a simple division into thirds, finally, the stations of the different divisions 
are differently given, viz., one-third in the Temple, one-third in the 
palace, and one-third at " the gate of the foundation." 

Using the modern terms •'battalion" and "company" for the divisions 
and subdivisions given in Kings, the arrangements may be stated in a 
form which allows easy comparison between Kings and Chron., as 
follows : — 

(A) 2 Kin. xi. 5 — 7. 
(Royal guards in three battalions.) 
ist battalion on duty at the king's house (palace). 
A com.pany within the palace (ver. 5), 
B ,, at the gate of Sur {SVR Heb.), 
C ,, at another gate ("behind the guard," ver. 6). 
2nd and 3rd battalions off duty, but brought into the house of the 
Lord (the Temple) by Jehoiada (ver. 7). 

(B) 2 Chron. xxiii. 4, 5. 

(Levites in three bands.) 

Band I. (= ist battalion C company of 2 Kin.) in the house of God, 

the Chronicler supposing that "the house" (2 Kin. xi. 6) means the 

house of the Lord. More probably it means "the house of the king" 

{}bid. ver. 5). 

Band II. (=ist battalion A company of 2 Kin.) at the king's house 
(so 2 Kin.). 

Band HI. (= ist battalion B company of 2 Kin.) at the gate of "the 
foundation" [JSVD Heb.). 

(The Chronicler passes over the 2nd and 3rd battalions, because he 
has already assigned their duty to ist battalion C company.) 

of the priests and of the Levites^ Not in Kings. The words are a 
mistaken gloss of the Chronicler, for it is clear that in Kings lay 
guards are meant. 

porters of the doors] R.V. mg., of tlie thresholds, i.e. of the Temple 
ace. to the Chronicler, for the word for "doors" (or "thresholds," 
sippim in Heb.) is always used for the thresholds of some sanctuary, 


228 II. CHRONICLES, XXIII. [vv. 6— 9. 

a third part shall be at the king's house; and a third part at 
the gate of the foundation : and all the people shall be in the 

6 courts of the house of the Lord. But let none come into 
the house of the Lord, save the priests, and they that 
minister of the Levites; they shall go in, for they are holy: 

7 but all the people shall keep the watch of the Lord. And 
the Levites shall compass the king round about, every man 
with his weapons in his hand; and whosoever else cometh 
into the house, he shall be put to death: but be you with 

8 the king when he cometh in, and when he goeth out. So 
the Levites and all Judah did according to all things that 
Jehoiada the priest had commanded, and took every man 
his men that were to come in on the sabbath, with them 
that were to go out on the sabbath : for Jehoiada the priest 

9 dismissed not the courses. Moreover Jehoiada the priest 
delivered to the captains of hundreds spears, and bucklers, 

eg. of the Tabernacle (i Chr. ix. 19, 22), of the Temple of Solomon 
(2 Chr. iii. 7), of (apparently) some Israelite shrine (Amos ix. i). In 
the parallel passage (2 Kin. xi. 6) however " the watch of the house " 
clearly means "the watch of the king's house" [ibid. ver. 5). 

5. a third part shall be at the king''s house ; and a third part at the 
gate of the foundation] These two-thirds according to the scheme given 
above were both stationed about the palace, but they are not to be 
reckoned as two-thirds of the whole guard. 

the gate of the foundation] "Gate of fSVD^^ (Heb.). This is 
certainly the "Gate of Sur" i^SVR in Heb.) of 2 Kin. xi. 6. Probably 
however we should read "Gate of SVS (or SVSIM),^^ i.e. "Horse 
Gate" (ver. 15 ; cp. 2 Kin. xi. 16) both here and in Kings. 

6. let none come into the house of the Lord] It is clear on the 
contrary from Kings (ver. 11) that the royal guards (who were laymen) 
were brought into the Temple itself under Jehoiada's directions. Ritual 
custom was broken through for such a crisis. 

all the people] Not mentioned in Kings; but cp. 2 Kin. xi. 14. 

7. into the house] 2 Kin. "within the ranges" ("within the ranks," 
R.V.). Any one who should attempt to break through the ranks of the 
guard to get near to the king was to be killed. According to the 
Chronicler Jehoiada's precaution would protect the sanctity of the 
Temple as well as the person of the young king. 

he shall be put to death] R.V. let him be slain (so 2 Kin.). 

8. the Levites and all Judah] In 2 Kin. "the captains over the 
hundreds." See notes on ver. 4. 

for Jehoiada the priest dismissed not the courses] Not in Kings. 
The Levites (i Chr. xxiii. 6), the priests {ibid. xxiv. i), and the king's 
army {ibid, xxvii. i ff.) were each divided into "courses," but it is clear 
from the context that courses of Levites are meant here. 

vv. 10—13.] H. CHRONICLES, XXIII. 229 

and shields, that had been king David's, which were in the 
house of God. And he set ail the people, every man having 
his weapon in his hand, from the right side of the temple to 
the left side of the temple, alo7ig by the altar and the temple, 
by the king round about. Then they brought out the 
king's son, and put upon him the crown, and gave him the 
Testimony, and made him king. And Jehoiada and his 
sons anointed him, and said, God save the king. Now 
when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and 
praising the king, she came to the people itito the house of 
the Lord: and she looked, and behold, the king stood at 
his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the 

9. shields] Heb. sheldthn ; see note on i Chr. xviii. 7. 

10. having his zveapon] R.V. with, Ms weapon. The Heb. word 
{shelah) means a "missile weapon." 

the temple] R.V. the house. 

11. put upon him the crown, and gave him the Testimony] So LXX. 
and Heb. both here and in 2 Kin. xi. 12. It was the custom that 
the king at his accession should give a kind of charter to his people, 
and so "the testimony" mentioned here was probably some document 
testifying to the promises which had been thus made. When the crown 
was put upon the head of Joash this document was bound on with it, as 
a sign that his subjects' allegiance to him depended on his faithfulness 
towards them. The wearing of an inscription or of a document on a 
solemn occasion, though strange to Western thought, is not alien from 
Eastern methods; cp. Ex. xxviii. 36!?. ; Deut. vi. 6—8; Job xxxi. 35, 
36. Wellhausen has a brilliant but unconvincing conjectural emenda- 
tion of this passage, viz., put upon him the crown aftd the bracelets ; cp. 
2 Sam. i. 10. The change in Heb. is a small one, but is it certain that 
bracelets formed part of the royal insignia? Rashi for "the testimony" 
gives "the ornaments." 

Jehoiada and his sons] In Kings, "they anointed him" (without 
specifying the actors). 

God save the king] Lit., Let the king live! 

12 — 15 ( = 2 Kin. xi. 13 — 16). Death of Athaliah. 

12. Now when] R.V. And when. 

praising the king] Perhaps verses were extemporised in praise of a 
king at his coronation just as over a maiden at her marriage ; cp. 
Ps. Ixxviii. 63 (A.V. mg. and R.V.). 

she came] Athaliah was allowed to pass the palace guard, but now it 
was too late for her to save her crown. 

13. at his pillar] R.V. by his pillar; cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. 3 ( = 2 Chr. 
xxxiv. 31, "in his place"). Others translate, upon his platform. 

at the entering in] Read (as 2 Kin.) as the manner was. 

230 II. CHRONICLES, XXIII. [vv 14—18. 

trumpets by the king: and all the people of the land re- 
joiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with 
instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise. 
Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said, Treason, Treason. 

14 Then Jehoiada the priest brought out the captains of hun- 
dreds that were set over the host, and said unto them, 
Have her forth of the ranges: and whoso followeth her, let 
him be slain with the sword. For the priest said, Slay her 

15 not m the house of the Lord. So they laid hands on her; 
and when she was come to the entering of the horse gate by 
the king's house, they slew her there. 

16 And Jehoiada made a covenant between him, and be- 
tween all the people, and between the king, that they should 

17 be the Lord's people. Then all the people went to the 
house of Baal, and brake it down, and brake his altars and 
his images in pieces, and slew Mattan the priest of Baal 

18 before the altars. Also Jehoiada appointed the offices of 

also the singers... to sing praise^ R.V. the singers also played on 
instruments of music, and led the singing of praise. 

14. brought out] Read (as 2 Kin.) commanded. 

of the ranges] R.V. between the ranks ; she was to be taken out 
between two lines of guards. 

15. they laid hands on her] R.V. they made way for her. 

and when she was come to the entering of the horse gate by the king''s 
house, they etc.] R.V. and she went to the entry of the horse gate 
to the king's house : and they etc. 

the horse gate] Perhaps the "gate of the foundation" (ver. 5, note). 

16 — 21 ( = 2 Kin. xi. 17 — 20). The Sequel of the Fall of 


16. between him... the king] R.V. between himself, and all the 
people, and the king. Jehoiada puts himself first as regent. Better 
in 2 Kin. "between the Lord and the king and the people." 

that they should be the Lord's people] Cp. xxix. 10, xxxiv. 31 ; 
Ex. xxiv. r — 11; Deut. xxvi. 17, 18; Neb. ix. 36—38. 

17. Then all] R.V. And all. 

the house of Baal] When this was erected is not known, perhaps 
imder Jehoram (xxi. 6) or Ahaziah (xxii. 3), but it was doubtless 
intended for the worship of the Tyrian Baal, for Athaliah was probably 
grand-daughter of a Tyrian king (cp. 2 Kin. viii. 18 with i Kin. xvi. 

18. And Jehoiada appointed, etc.] This whole ver. is represented 
in Kings simply by the words, "And the priest appointed officers 
('offices,' mg.) over the house of ihe Lord" (i.e. officers for the care of 
the Temple, e.g. to see to cleaning and repairing it). 

VV.I9— 2i; 1—4.] II. CHRONICLES, XXIII. XXIV. 231 

the house of the Lord by the hand of the priests the 
Levites, whom David had distributed in the house of the 
Lord, to offer the burnt offerings of the Lord, as it is 
written in the law of Moses, with rejoicing and with singing, 
as it was ordained by David. And he set the porters at the 19 
gates of the house of the Lord, that none which was un- 
clean in any thing should enter in. And he took the 20 
captains of hundreds, and the nobles, and the governors of 
the people, and all the people of the land, and brought 
down the king from the house of the Lord : and they came 
through the high gate i7ito the king's house, and set the 
king upon the throne of the kingdom. And all the people 21 
of the land rejoiced : and the city was quiet, after that they 
had slain Athaliah with the sword. 

Joash was seven years old when he bega7i to reign, and 24 
he reigned forty years in Jerusalem. His mother's name 
also was Zibiah of Beer-sheba. And Joash did that which 2 
ivas right in the sight of the Lord all the days of Jehoiada 
the priest. And Jehoiada took for him two wives; and he 3 
begat sons and daughters. And it came to pass after this, 4 
that Joash was minded to repair the house of the Lord. 

by the hand] R.V. under the hand. 

as it was ordained by David] R.V. according to the order of David. 
Note that the Chronicler ascribes all sacrificial arrangements to the law 
of Moses, but all musical arrangements to David. 

19. he set the porters] Cp. i Chr. xxvi. iff., 13 ff. Jehoiada re-estab- 
lished a Davidic arrangement which had fallen into disuse. 

20. the nobles] Heb. addtrJm ; cp. Neh. iii. 5 (with Kyle's note). 
In 2 Kin., "the Carites"; cp. ver. i (note). 

the high gate] R.V. the upper gate ; cp. xxvii. 3, "the high ('upper,' 
R.V.) gate of the house of the Lord." In 2 Kin., "by the way of the 
gate of the guard" (doubtless one of the gates of the palace). The 
Chronicler writing at a time when the palace had ceased to exist, 
prefers to fix localities by reference to the Temple. 

21. after that they had slain] R.V. and they slew. 

Ch. XXIV. 1—3 ( = 2 Kin. xi. 21— xii. 3). JOASH BEGINS 
TO Reign. 

3. And Jehoiada, &\.c.] This ver. is not in Kings. It was the duty 
of a Jewish father to provide his son with a wife ; Jehoiada standing in 
loco parentis does this for Joash. 

4—14 ( = 2 Kin. xii. 4 — x6). The Restoration of the Temple. 

4. to repair] R.V. to restore, Heb. "to renew." Cp. ver. 12. 

232 II. CHRONICLES, XXIV. [vv. 5—7. 

5 And he gathered together the priests and the Levites, and 
said to them, Go out unto the cities of Judah, and gather of 
all Israel money to repair the house of your God from year 
to year, and see that ye haste the matter. Howbeit the 

6 Levites hastened it not. And the king called for Jehoiada 
the chief, and said unto him, Why hast thou not required 
of the Levites to bring in out of Judah and out of Jeru- 
salem the collection, acco?'ding to the commandment of Moses 
the servant of the Lord, and of the congregation of Israel, 

7 for the tabernacle of Witness? For the sons of Athaliah, 
that wicked woman, had broken up the house of God; and 
also all the dedicate things of the house of the Lord did 

5. and the Levites] Not in Kings ; cp. xxiii. 2 (note). 

Go out mito the cities of Judah] Nothing is said in Kings about 
collecting money outside Jerusalem, but the restoration fund was to 
consist of a poll tax (paid at the Temple at the Great Feasts, Ex. xxiii. 
14 — 17) and of free-will offerings paid in money. 

hastened It not] In Kings, "in the three and twentieth year of king 
Jehoash the priests had not repaired the breaches of the house." 

6. of the Levites] See note on ver. 5. 

the collection, according to the commandment of Moses] R.V. the tax 
of Moses ; cp. Ex. xxx. 14 — 16; xxxviii. 25, 26. 

the tabernacle of Witness] R.V. tlie tent of the testimony. " The 
testimony" refers to the Ten Commandments, which contained the 
substance of God's testimony (protestation) to Israel. The two tables 
of stone were called "tables of the testimony" (Ex. xxxi. 18, R.V.); 
the ark which contained them was called the "ark of the testimony" 
(Ex. XXV. 22) ; the vail which hung before the ark was the "vail of the 
testimony" (Lev. xxiv. 3) ; the tent which contained the ark was either 
the "tabernacle (Heb. miskan) of the testimony" (Ex. xxxviii. 21, 
R.V.) or the "tent (Heb. ohel) of the testimony" (Num. ix. 15). The 
tabernacle, with all its contents, was to be a standing protest to Israel 
that Jehovah was with His people according to covenant, and that every 
breach of the covenant would call forth punishment. Cp. Dcut. iv. 25, 
26; viii. 19, etc. 

7. the sons of Athaliah] To be understood figuratively, "the 
adherents of Athaliah." So " a son of the apothecaries " (Neh. iii. 8 ; 
cp. A.V. with R.V.) is "a member of the apothecaries' guild" and "the 
sons of the prophets" (2 Kin. ii. 15 etc.) are "the adherents (or 
'scholars') of the prophets." So again in Ps. cxxxvii. 8 Edom is called 
"daughter of Babylon " as having attached herself to the Chaldeans at 
the destruction of Jerusalem. 

had broken up] Rather, had broken into. 

all the dedicate things] Cp. xv. 18; i Chr. xviii. 10, 11. Probably 
gold, silver and brass. 

vv. 8— 14.] II. CHRONICLES, XXIV. 233 

they bestow upon Baalim. And at the king's command- 8 
ment they made a chest, and set it without at the gate of 
the house of the Lord. And they made a proclamation 9 
through Judah and Jerusalem, to bring in to the Lord the 
collection that Moses the servant of God laid upon Israel 
in the wilderness. And all the princes and all the people 10 
rejoiced, and brought in, and cast into the chest, until they 
had made an end. Now it came to pass, that at what n 
time the chest was brought unto the king's office by the 
hand of the Levites, and when they saw that there was 
much money, the king's scribe and the high priest's officer 
came and emptied the chest, and took it, and carried it to 
his place again. Thus they did day by day, and gathered 
money in abundance. And the king and Jehoiada gave it 12 
to such as did the work of the service of the house of the 
Lord, and hired masons and carpenters to repair the house 
of the Lord, and also such as wrought iron and brass to 
mend the house of the Lord. So the workmen wrought, 13 
and the work was perfected by them, and they set the house 
of God in his state, and strengthened it. And when they 14 
had finished zV, they brought the rest of the money before 
the king and Jehoiada, whereof were made vessels for the 
house of the Lord, eveji vessels to minister, and to offer 
withal^ and spoons, and vessels of gold and silver. And 

did they bestow vpott Baalim^ Or, did they make into images of 
Baal. Cp. Hos. ii. 8, R.V. mg. 

8. And at the ktng^s commandment^ R.V. So the Mng commanded, 

a chest'\ Heb. a single chest (to receive all contributions). 

9. to the Lord the collection'] R.V. for the LORD the tax. Kings 
has nothing corresponding to this ver. ; cp. ver. 5 (note). 

11. at what time... by the hand of the Levites] This clause is not in 

the claiei pries f s officer] According to Kings the high priest was present 

12. to repair] R.V. to restore (as ver. 4). 
to mend] R.V. to repair. 

13. they set] R.V. they set up. 

in its state] i.e. according to its former state. 

14. the rest 0/ the money] Thus expressed this ver. does not directly 
conflict with 2 Kin. xii. 13, 14, which states that the money gathered 
was not spent on gold and silver vessels for the Temple but was given to 
the workmen who repaired the house. 

234 11- CHRONICLES, XXIV. [w. 15—20. 

they offered burnt offerings in the house of the Lord con- 
tinually all the days of Jehoiada. 

15 But Jehoiada waxed old, and was full of days when he 
died; an hundred and thirty years old was he when he died. 

16 And they buried him in the city of David among the kings, 
because he had done good in Israel, both towards God, and 

17 towards his house. Now after the death of Jehoiada came 
the princes of Judah, and made obeisance to the king. 

18 Then the king hearkened unto them. And they left the 
house of the Lord God of their fathers, and served groves 
and idols: and wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for 

19 this their trespass. Yet he sent prophets to them, to bring 
them again unto the Lord ; and they testified against them : 

20 but they would not give ear. And the spirit of God came 

continually^ Perhaps primarily in allusion to the morning and even- 
ing daily sacrifice (Num. xxviii. 3 — 6), but having also a wider reference 
to the whole round of sacrifices. 

15—19 (no parallel in 2 Kin.). The Apostasy of Joash. 

15. when he died'] R.V. and he died. 

an hundred and thirty years'] The age of Jacob (Gen. xlvii. 9). 

16. among the kings] Cp. ver. 25 and xxi. 20. 

17. made obeisance] Obeisance foreshadowed a request ; cp. i Kin. 
i. 16. 

18. they left the house of the Lord] Cp. xxix. 6, "[they] have turned 
away their faces from the habitation of the Lord. " These phrases are 
a kind of euphemism meaning " to commit apostasy." 

served groves and idols] R.V. served the Asherim and the idols ; cp. 
xiv. 3 (note). 

wrath] Heb. qe^eph ; cp. xix. 2 (note). 

wrath came] Cp. verses 25, 26. 

their trespass] R.V. their guiltiness; cp. xix. 10 (AV. and R.V.). 

19. he sent prophets] Cp. xxxvi. 15. 
to them] Rather, among them. 

20 — 22 (no parallel in 2 Kin.). The Martyrdom of Zechariah. 

This martyrdom is referred to by our Lord in Luke xi. 51, "from the 
blood of Abel unto the blood of Zachariah who perished between the 
altar and the house," i.e. "the temple" (cp. Matt, xxiii. 35). As 
Chronicles is reckoned last in the Jewish Canon, "From Abel to 
Zachariah " practically includes the whole Old Testament. In the 
text of Matt. Zachariah is called " son of Barachiah " by a confusion 
with Zechariah the contemporary of Haggai. 

20. came upon] Heb. " clothed itself with" ; cp. Judg. vi. 34 ; i Chr. 
xii. 18. 

vv. 21—24.] II CHRONICLES, XXIV. 235 

upon Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest, which stood 
above the people, and said unto them, Thus saith God, 
Why transgress ye the commandments of the Lord, that ye 
cannot prosper? because ye have forsaken the Lord, he 
hath also forsaken you. And they conspired against him, 21 
and stoned him with stones at the commandment of the 
king in the court of the house of the Lord. Thus Joash 22 
the king remembered not the kindness which Jehoiada his 
father had done to him, but slew his son. And when he 
died, he said, The Lord look upon />, and require it. 

And it came to pass at the end of the year, that the host 23 
of Syria came up against him: and they came to Judah 
and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes of the people 
from among the people, and sent all the spoil of them unto 
the king of Damascus. For the army of the Syrians came 24 
with a small company of men, and the Lord delivered a very 

stood above the people^ Cp. Jer. xxxvi. lo (Baruch reads Jeremiah's 
words from the window of an upper chamber to the people assembled 
in the court below) ; Neh. viii. 4 (Ezra reads the Law from a pulpit of 

they conspired against him] Perhaps the proceedings were the same 
as in the case of Naboth (i Kin. xxi. 9, lo), viz., a mock trial and a 
formal execution (" at the commandment of the king "). 

in the court] An aggravation of the murder; cp. xxiii. 14. The 
altar of burnt-offering stood in the court (cp. viii, 12) and the execution 
(Luke xi. 51) took place between this altar and the Temple itself. 

22. The Lord look upon it, atid require it] Cp. 2 Mace. xiv. 45, 
46, and contrast Acts vii. 60. 

23, 24 (cp. 2 Kin. xii. 17, 18). The Syrian Invasion. 

In 2 Kin. the invasion is not represented as a judgment on Joash, for 
no sin is mentioned for which this could be the punishment. 

As regards the campaign itself 2 Kin. simply says that the Syrians 
were bought off with a heavy bribe from attacking Jerusalem ; nothing 
is said of the amount of damage done during the invasion. The 
Chronicler on the contrary says nothing of the cause of the withdrawal 
of the Syrians, but simply says that a small force of them inflicted great 
loss and took much spoil. The two accounts supplement rather than 
contradict each other. 

23. at the end of the year] Rather, in the course of a year, i.e. 
when the same time of year had come round again. 

the host of Syria] R.V. the army of the S3n:lan8 (as in verse 24). 
the primes] Who had been leaders in the apostasy (ver. 17). 
from afuong the people] The reading of the Heb. is doubtful ; the 
words should perhaps be expunged. 

236 II. CHRONICLES, XXIV. XXV. [vv.2S— 27; i— 3. 

great host into their hand, because they had forsaken the 
Lord God of their fathers. So they executed judgment 

25 against Joash. And when they were departed from him, 
(for they left him in great diseases,) his own servants con- 
spired against him for the blood of the sons of Jehoiada the 
priest, and slew him on his bed, and he died: and they 
buried him in the city of David, but they buried him not in 

26 the sepulchres of the kings. And these are they that con- 
spired against him; Zabad the son of Shimeath an Am- 
monitess, and Jehozabad the son of Shimrith a Moabitess. 

27 Now concerning his sons, and the greatness of the burdens 
laid upon him, and the repairing of the house of God, 
behold they are written in the story of the book of the 
kings. And Amaziah his son reigned in his stead. 

25 Amaziah was twenty and five years old when he bega?i to 
reign, and he reigned twenty and nine years in Jerusalem. 

2 And his mother's name was Jehoaddan of Jerusalem. And 
he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, but 

3 not with a perfect heart. Now it came to pass, when the 
kingdom was established to him, that he slew his servants 

25 — 27 (2 Kin. xii. 19 — 21). The End of Joash. 

25. for the blood of the sons of yehoiadd\ No reason is alleged for 
the conspiracy in Kings. 

sons'\ LXX. and Vulg. "son"; cp. ver. 20. 

on his ded] In Kings it is simply "smote Joash at the house of Millo, 
on the way that goeth down to Silla" (R.V.). 

26. Zabad... a Moabitess'] In Kings "Jozacar the son of Shimeath, 
and Jehozabad the son of Shomer" (nothing being said of the nation- 
ality of the murderers). The Chronicler's object no doubt is to trace a 
connexion between the apostasy of Joash and its punishment, between 
the king's foreign worship and his murder by men of foreign descent. 

27. the burdens laid upon him] Render (with R.V. mg.), the 
burdens uttered against him. Cp. ver. 19. The Heb. text of the 
first half of the verse is uncertain. 

the repairing] R.V. the rebuilding". 

the story] R.V. the commentary (Heb. midrash). Cp. Introduction, 

Ch. XXV. 1 — 4 ( = 2 Kin. xiv. i — 6). Amaziah Succeeds. 

2. not with a perfect heart] In Kings, "yet not like David his 
father" (because "the high places were not taken away"). The 
Chronicler has something more serious in his mind ; cp. vv. 14 — 16. 

3. to him] R.V. unto him; LXX., iv x"/oi ai^roC; in Kings, "in his 

vv. 4— lo.] II. CHRONICLES, XXV. 237 

that had killed the king his father. But he slew not their 4 
children, but did as it is written in the law in the book of 
Moses, where the Lord commanded, saying. The fathers 
shall not die for the children, neither shall the children die 
for the fathers, but every man shall die for his own sin. 

Moreover Amaziah gathered Judah together, and made 5 
them captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, 
according to the houses of their fathers, throughout all 
Judah and Benjamin : and he numbered them from twenty 
years old and above, and found them three hundred thou- 
sand choice men^ able to go forth to war, that could handle 
spear and shield. He hired also an hundred thousand 6 
mighty men of valour out of Israel for an hundred talents of 
silver. But there came a man of God to him, saying, O 7 
king, let not the army of Israel go with thee; for the Lord 
is not with Israel, to wit^ with all the children of Ephraim. 
But if thou wilt go, do //, be strong for the battle : God 8 
shall make thee fall before the enemy : for God hath power 
to help, and to cast down. And Amaziah said to the man 9 
of God, But what shall we do for the hundred talents which 
I have given to the army of Israel? And the man of God 
answered. The Lord is able to give thee much more than 
this. Then Amaziah separated them, to wit, the army that 10 
was come to him out of Ephraim, to go home again: where- 
fore their anger was greatly kindled against Judah, and they 

4. he slew not their children^ R.V. he put not their children to 

as it is written] R.V. according to that which is written; i.e. in 
Deut. xxiv. 16 (cp. Ezek. xviii. 20). 
where the Lord] R.V. as the LORD. 

5 — 10 (not in Kings). Amaziah prepares for War. 

5. and Diade them. ..and Benjamin] RV. and ordered them accord- 
ing to their fathers' houses, under captains of thousands and 
captains of hundreds, even all Judah and Benjamin. 

three htuidred thousand] These were spearmen and correspond in 
number with Asa's spearmen (xiv. 8). 
choice men] R.V. chosen men. 

7. the Lord is not with Israel] Cp. xiii. 8 — 12. 

8. do it] R.V. do valiantly (spoken ironically). 
shall ?nake thee fall] K.\ . shall cast thee down. 

9. the armjy] R.V. mg. , the troop (so vv. 10, 13). The men in 
question were freebooters to judge from their conduct (ver. 13). 

238 II. CHRONICLES, XXV. [vv. 11— 14. 

11 returned home in great anger. And Amaziah strengthened 
himself, and led forth his people, and went to the valley of 

12 salt, and smote of the children of Seir ten thousand. And 
other ten thousand left alive did the children of Judah carry 
away captive, and brought them unto the top of the rock, 
and cast them down from the top of the rock, that they all 

13 were broken in pieces. But the soldiers of the army which 
Amaziah sent back, that they should not go with him to 
battle, fell upon the cities of Judah, from Samaria even unto 
Beth-horon, and smote three thousand of them, and took 
much spoil. 

14 Now it came to pass, after that Amaziah was come from 
the slaughter of the Edomites, that he brought the gods of 
the children of Seir, and set them up to be his gods, and 
bowed down himself before them, and burned incense unto 

10. in great auger] R.V. in fierce anger. 

11, 12 (cp. 2 Kin. xiv. 7). Victory over Edom. 

11. strengihejted himself] R.V. took courage ; cp. i. i (note). 

the valley of salt] The scene of one of David's victories (i Chr. 
xviii. 12; see note there). 

children of Seir] The Edomites M^ere so called because "Mount 
Seir" was part of their territory; Deut. ii. 5. 

12. left alive did the children of fudah carry away captive] R.V. 
did the children of Judah carry away alive. The "left alive" of the 
A.V. is misleading, for it suggests that they were prisoners captured in 
the same battle in which the first ten thousand were slain ; a com- 
parison of Kings however suggests that they were the whole (or part) of 
the garrison of Sela, which fortress was captured by Amaziah after his 
victory in the valley of salt. 

the rock] R.V. mg. Sela; cp. 1 Kin. xiv. 7 and Jer. xlix. 16. Sela is 
usually identified with Petra {Bddeker, p. 146 ff.), but the identification 
is by no means certain. 

13 (no parallel in Kings). Outrages of the Ephraimite 

13. the soldiers of the army] Heb., the sons of the troop. 

the cities of Jiidah^frotn Samaria even unto Beth-horon] This phrase 
is strange, for we expect the two names given to be names of cities 
belonging to the Southern Kingdom. Perhaps we should read for 
Samaria either Zemaraim (xiii. 4; Josh, xviii. 22) or Ephrain {Ephron; 
xiii. 19; cp. Josh. xv. 9). Both Zemaraim and Ephrain were border 

14 — 16 (not in Kings). Amaziah's Idolatry and the 
Prophet's Rehuke. 

14. bowed down... and burned] The tenses in the Heb. are im- 

vv. 15—19.] II. CHRONICLES, XXV. 239 

them. Wherefore the anger of the Lord was kindled 15 
against Amaziah, and he sent unto him a prophet, which 
said unto him, Why hast thou sought after the gods of the 
people, which could not deliver their own people out of 
thine hand? And it came to pass, as he talked with him, 16 
that the king said unto him, Art thou made of the king's 
counsel? forbear; why shouldest thou be smitten? Then 
the prophet forbare, and said, I know that God hath de- 
termined to destroy thee, because thou hast done this, and 
hast not hearkened unto my counsel. 

Then Amaziah king of Judah took advice, and sent to 17 
Joash, the son of Jehoahaz, the son of Jehu, king of Israel, 
saying. Come, let us see one another in the face. And 18 
Joash king of Israel sent to Amaziah king of Judah, saying, 
The thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that 
was in Lebanon, saying, Give thy daughter to my son to 
wife : and there passed by a wild beast that was in Lebanon, 
and trode down the thistle. Thou sayest, Lo, thou hast 19 
smitten the Edomites ; and thine heart lifteth thee up to 

perfect and imply that this became Amaziah's practice. The act was 
according to a policy frequently pursued in ancient times. Solomon 
affords an instance of it (i Kin. xi. 7), 

15. which could not deliver'] R, V. wliicli have not delivered. 

16. Art thou made\ R.V. Have we made thee. 

of the king' s counsel] Lit., "counsellor to the king." 
hath determined] Lit., "hath counselled" (with a play on the king's 

17 — 24 ( = 2 Kin. xiv. 8 — 14). Amaziah Conquered by Joash. 

17. took advice] Took counsel with a view to demanding satisfaction 
from Joash for the ravages of the Israelite mercenaries (ver. 13). The 
sequel suggests that Joash refused to give satisfaction. 

let us see one another in the face] R.V. let us look one another in the 
face. The proposal may be either to fight or (better) to discuss 
Amaziah's claims, the two kings meeting as equals. The latter is 
probably the right alternative, for the answer of Joash draws a scoffing 
parallel between Amaziah's proposition and a thorn's proposal of 
alliance with a cedar. Had Amaziah's words been a challenge to fight, 
Joash's answer would rather have taken the form in Judg. ix. 15, "The 
thorn said, Fire shall come out of the thorn and devour the cedars of 
Lebanon," etc. 

18. the thistle] R.V. mg., thorn; cp. Prov. xxvi. 9 (same Heb. 

19. Thou sayest] i.e. to thyself. 

240 II. CHRONICLES, XXV. [vv. 20—24. 

boast : abide now at home ; why shouldest thou meddle to 
thine hurt, that thou shouldest fall, even thou, and Judah 

20 with thee ? But Amaziah would not hear ; for it came of 
God, that he might deliver them into the hand of their 

21 enemies, because they sought after the gods of Edom. So 
Joash the king of Israel went up ; and they saw one another 
in the face, both he and Amaziah king of Judah, at Beth- 

22 shemesh, which belongeth to Judah. And Judah was put 
to the worse before Israel, and they fled every man to his 

23 tent. And Joash the king of Israel took iVmaziah king of 
Judah, the son of Joash, the son of Jehoahaz, at Beth- 
shemesh, and brought him to Jerusalem, and brake down 
the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the 

24 corner gate, four hundred cubits. And he took all the gold 
and the silver, and all the vessels that were found in the 
house of God with Obed-edom, and the treasures of the 
king's house, the hostages also, and returned to Samaria. 

meddle to thine huri\ R.V. mg., provoke calamity, i.e. by making 
claims which he could not enforce. 

20. for it was of God] Not in Kings. This turn is characteristic 
of the Chronicler; cp. x. 15; xxii. 7. 

21. they saw one another in the face, both he and Amaziah...'] R.V. 
he and Amaziah... looked one another in the face. The historian by a 
kind of irony takes up Amaziah's phrase (ver. 17) and gives it a fresh 
application. Cp. the double application (by a similar irony) of the 
phrase, "lift up the head " in Gen. xl. 13, 19. 

at Beth-shemesh] Cp. i Chr. vi. 59 [44 heb.] (note). 

22. to his tent] Cp. vii. 10 (note). 

23. the son of yehoahaz] i.e. the son of Ahaziah, Jehoahaz and 
Ahaziah being varying forms of the same name; cp. xxi. 17 (note). 

brake down the wall] Rather, made a breach (or breaches) in the 
wall. The same verb is used in Neh. i. 3 ("broken down") and ibid. 
iv, 7 ("the breaches"). 

the gate of Ephraim] This gate cannot be identified, but its name 
suggests that it was on the north. 

the corner gate] Heb. text doubtful, but LXX. ews Trj/Xiyj 'ywj/Zaj. 
Cp. xxvi. 9; Jer. xxxi. 38 ; Zech. xiv. 10. Most probably this gate also 
was on the north, but nothing certain is known of its position. 

four hundred cubits] About 600 feet according to the ancient cubit, 
and 700 according to the later standard; cp. iii. 3 (note). 

24. And he took] The verb is missing in Chron., and is supplied 
from Kings. 

with Obed-edom] i.e. with the family ^Obed-edom which (i Chr. 
xxvi. 4 — 8, 15) served as doorkeepers in the House of God. This 
detail is absent from Kin":s. 

VV.25— 28; 1,2.] II. CHRONICLES, XXV. XXVI. 241 

And Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah lived after 25 
the death of Joash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel fifteen 
years. Now the rest of the acts of Amaziah, first and last, 26 
behold, are they not written in the book of the kings of 
Judah and Israel ? Now after the time that Amaziah did 27 
turn away from following the Lord they made a conspiracy 
against him in Jerusalem ; and he fled to Lachish : but they 
sent to Lachish after him, and slew him there. And they 23 
brought him upon horses, and buried him with his fathers 
in the city of Judah. Then all the people of Judah took 26 
Uzziah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in 
the room of his father Amaziah. He built Eloth, and 2 
restored it to Judah, after that the king slept with his 

25 — 28 ( = 2 Kin. xiv. 17 — 20). The End of Amaziah. 

27. after the twie] R.V. from the time. The Chronicler charac- 
teristically connects the conspiracy with Amaziah's apostasy ; in Kings 
ihefact only of the conspiracy is stated. 

a conspiracyX Athaliah, Joash, Amaziah each fell one after the other 
before a conspiracy. Jehoiada's example had far-i-eaching results. 
to Lachish\ Perhaps he was trying to reach Egypt. 

28. Jipon Aorses] Render, upon the horses ; i.e. upon the horses of 
some of his pursuers. The conspirators thereby announced the complete 
success of their conspiracy. 

Ch. XXVI. 1 — 4 ( = 2 Kin. xiv. 21, 22, xv. 2, 3). Uzziah's Reign. 

1. all the people of J udaKX Cp. xxii. i. 

Uzziah'] Called "Azariah" in 1 Chr. iii. 12 and in 2 Kin. (eight 
times), but "Uzziah" in 2 Kin. xv. 13, 32, 34; Is. i. i, vi. i ; Hos. i. i ; 
Amos i. I ; Zech. xiv. 5. It has been supposed that this king is men- 
tioned under the name of Az-ri-ja-a-u (i.e. "Azariah") on an injured 
and obscure inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III. (reigned 745 — 727 B.C.) 
of Assyria, but the identification is doubtful. The two forms of the 
name when written in Heb. consonants closely resemble each other ; the 
meanings moreover of the two are similar, "Jah is my strength" and 
"Jah hath given help." Most likely the king bore both names; cp. 
"Abram" and "Al-raham" — "Eliakim and Jehoiakim" (xxxvi. 4). 

2. Eloth] So spelt in viii. 17 (=1 Kin. ix. 26), but " Elath" in 
Deut. ii. 8; 2 Kin. xiv. 22. In 2 Kin. xvi. 6 the two forms are found 
side by side in one verse. The word is probably of foreign origin, and 
such words are seldom of fixed form when adopted into common 
language; cp. the various forms of "Damascus" (i Chr. xviii. 5, note). 

after that the king, etc.] We conjecture that this phrase means that 
it was after king Amaziah slept with his fathers that Uzziah his son 
restored Elath to Judah. If this be right, we must suppose that Uzziah 

CHRON. 16 

242 II. CHRONICLES, XXVI. [vv. 3—7. 

3 Sixteen years old was Uzziah when he began to reign, 
and he reigned fifty and two years in Jerusalem. His 

4 mother's name also was Jecoliah of Jerusalem. And he 
did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, according 

5 to all that his father Amaziah did. And he sought God 
in the days of Zechariah, who had understanding in the 
visions of God : and as long as he sought the Lord, God 

6 made him to prosper. And he went forth and warred 
against the Philistines, and brake down the wall of Gath, 
and the wall of Jabneh, and the wall of Ashdod, and built 

7 cities about Ashdod, and among the Philistines. And God 
helped him against the Philistines, and against the Arabians 

reigned in Jerusalem for some time, while his father was in refuge at 
Lachish. Some years of history may be crowded into xxv. 27. The 
meaning of the present passage will be that Uzziah built Elath after 
he became sole and undisputed king. 

3. Jecoliah] R.V. Jechiliah (so Ct/iib\ A.V. follows the K'ri smd 
the parallel passage of Kings. 

4. his father AmaziuA] This verse suits its original context in 
Kings, for Kings records nothing against Amaziah ; it is however out of 
place in Chron. , for according to xxv. 14 Amaziah was an idolater. 

5 — 10 (not in Kings). The Prosperity of Uzziah. 

5. Zechariah] Nothing is known (apart from this passage) of this 
Zechariah. He is hardly to be identified with the author of Zech. 
xii. — xiv., though there is an allusion to Uzziah's reign in Zech. xiv. 5. 

who had understanding] R.V. mg., "who gave instruction"; Heb. 
mebtn, a word applied to a leader of song (i Chr. xv. 22, "skilful"; 
ib. xxv. 7, "cunning"; ib. ver. 8, *'teacher"). 

in the visions of God] Read, in the fear of God (so LXX., Targ. 
Pesh.), making a slight correction of the Heb. text. 

6. the Philistines] Cp. xxi. 16; xxviii. 18; 2 Kin. xviii. 8; i Mace. 
V. 66 — 68; xiv. 34. Wars against the Philistines continued almost 
down to Roman times. 

brake down the wall of Gath] See note on xxv. 23. 

yabneh] Mentioned here only in the O.T., but probably to be 
identified with "Jabneel" (Josh. xv. 11). At a later date it was called 
"Jamnia" (2 Mace. xii. 8). Its ruins are to be seen about 10 miles 
south of Jaffa (Joppa) on the coast. The modern Yebna is a few miles 
inland. Bddeker, p. 159. 

Ashdod] Cp. I Sam. v. iff.; Is. xx. i; Zeph. ii. 4; Neh. iv. 7; 
xiii. 23 ; Acts viii. 40 ("A^wros). Now Esdud. Bddeker, 159. 

about Ashdod] R.V. in the country* of Ashdod (lit. "in Ashdod"). 
Perhaps the name has been repeated through an early scribal error and 
we should read simply "and built cities among the Philistines." 



that dwelt in Gur-baal, and the Mehunims. And the Am- 8 
monites gave gifts to Uzziah : and his name spread abroad 
even to the entering in of Egypt: for he strengthened 
hvnself exceedingly. Moreover Uzziah built towers in Je- 9 
rusalem at the corner gate, and at the valley gate, and at 
the turning of the wall, and fortified them. Also he built 10 
towers in the desert, and digged many wells: for he had 
much cattle, both in the low country, and in the plains : 
husbandmen also, and vinedressers in the mountains, and 
in Carmel : for he loved husbandry. Moreover Uzziah had n 
a host of fighting men, that went out to war by bands, 
according to the number of their account by the hand of 
Jeiel the scribe and Maaseiah the ruler, under the hand 

7. Gur-baal^ An unidentified place; a "Gur" is mentioned in 
2 Kin. ix. 27. A slight correction of the Heb. would give, "in Gerar 
(cp. Gen. XX. i) and against the Meunim." 

Mehunims\ R.V. Meunim ; cp. xx. i (note). 

8. gave gifts\ Cp. i Chr. xviii, a (note). 

he strengthened himself exceedingly] R.V. lie waxed exceeding 

9. the corner gate] Cp. xxv. 23 (note). 

the valley gate] Neh. ii. 13; iii. 13. On the west of the city 
[Bddeker, p. 24). 

the turning of the wall] Mentioned Neh. iii, 19, 24. ^ 

10. the desert] R.V. the wilderness (where the pastures were : cp. 
Ps. Ixv. 12). 

digged ftiany wells] R.V. hewed out many cisterns. 

both in the low coufitry, and in the plains] R.V. in the lowland also, 
and in the plain (mg. table land). For the "lowland" (Heb. She- 
phelah) see i. 15 (note). "The table land" (Heb. Mishor) is the name 
of the high pasture lands east of Jordan ; apparently the part occupied 
by the Ammonites whom Uzziah had subdued is meant here. 

husbandmen also] R.V. and he had husbandmen. 

Carmel] R.V. the fruitful fields. "Carmel" is not always a proper 
name, nor does it always refer to the well-known mountain. In i Sam. 
xxv. 2 it designates a spot in the south of Judah near Maon ; in 2 Kin. 
xix. 23 "of his Carmel" (A.V.) should be "of his fruitful field" (R.V.). 

11 — 15 (no parallel in Kings). Uzziah 's Army. 

11. by bands] This expression indicates that this army was used 
not for some great war, offensive or defensive, but for marauding or 
"punitive" expeditions against neighbouring tribes. 

of their account by the hand of yeiel] R.V. of their reckoning made 
by Jeiel. 

the ruler] R.V. the ofiQcer. The same Heb. word {sho/er) is used 
Deut. xx. 5, 8, 9. 

16 — 2 

244 II. CHRONICLES, XXVI. [vv. 12—16. 

12 of Hananiah, one of the king's captains. The whole number 
of the chief of the fathers of the mighty men of valour were 

13 two thousand and six hundred. And under their hand was 
an army, three hundred thousand and seven thousand and 
five hundred, that made war with mighty power, to help 

14 the king against the enemy. And Uzziah prepared for 
them throughout all the host shields, and spears, and hel- 
mets, and habergeons, and bows, and slings to cast stones. 

15 And he made in Jerusalem engines, invented by cunning 
men^ to be on the towers and upon the bulwarks, to shoot 
arrows and great stones withal. And his name spread far 
abroad ; for he was marvellously helped, till he was strong. 

16 But when he was strong, his heart was lifted up to his 
destruction : for he transgressed against the Lord his God, 
and went into the temple of the Lord to burn incense 

12. the chief of the fathers of the mighty men] R.V. the heads of 
fathers' houses, even the mighty men. 

were two thousand] R.V. was two thousand. 

13. an army] R.V. a trained army. 

three hundred thousand and seven thousand and five hundred] This 
total corresponds roughly with the 300,000 men who formed Amaziah's 
army; xxv. 5. Cp. note on xiv. 8 (the forces of Asa and of Jehosha- 

14. throughout all the host] R.V. even for all the host. 
habergeons] R.V. coats of mail. Skeat {Cambridge Companion to the 

Bible, p. 549) explains habergeon as "a smaller kind of hauberk, a coat 
of mail covering the neck and breast." Cp. Neh. iv. 16 (with Ryle's 

slings to cast stones] R.V. stones for slinging. Such stones needed 
to be carefully chosen, for they had to be smooth and of a suitable size. 
A water-course was the most suitable place for finding them (i Sam. 

xvii. 40). 

16. engines] Cp. i Mace. vi. 51, 52 and article Engine in Hastings' 
Bible Dictionary. 

bulwarks'] R.V. battlements (lit. "corners"). 

helped] Cp. ver. 7. 

16 — 20 (not in Kings). Uzziah's Presumption. 

For a discussion of the historical probabilities of this account see the 
Introduction § 8. 

16. to his destruction] R.V. so that he did corruptly ; cp. xxvii. 2 
(the same Heb. word). 

he transgressed] R.V. trespassed; cp. xii. 2; Josh. vii. i; xxii. 16. 
The Heb. word implies presumptuous dealing with holy things. 

vv. 17—23.] 11. CHRONICLES, XXVI. 245 

upon the altar of incense. And Azariah the priest went 17 
in after him, and with him fourscore priests of the Lord, 
that were valiant men : and they withstood Uzziah the king, 18 
and said unto him, // pertaineth not unto thee, Uzziah, 
to burn incense unto the Lord, but to the priests the sons 
of Aaron, that are consecrated to burn incense : go out 
of the sanctuary ; for thou hast trespassed ; neither shall it 
be for thine honour from the Lord God. Then Uzziah 19 
was wroth, and had a censer in his hand to burn incense : 
and while he was wroth with the priests, the leprosy even 
rose up in his forehead before the priests in the house of 
the Lord, from beside the incense altar. And Azariah the 20 
chief priest, and all the priests, looked upon him, and 
behold, he was leprous in his forehead, and they thrust 
him out from thence ; yea, himself hasted also to go out, 
because the Lord had smitten him. And Uzziah the king 21 
was a leper unto the day of his death, and dwelt /// a 
several house, being a leper ; for he was cut off from the 
house of the Lord : and Jotham his son was over the 
king's house, judging the people of the land. Now the 22 
rest of the acts of Uzziah, first and last, did Isaiah the 
prophet, the son of Amoz, write. So Uzziah slept with 23 

the altar of incense] Cp. Ex. xxx. i — ^10. Not only the altar, but 
the incense itself was "most holy"; id. vv. ^4 — 38. 

17. Azariah the priest] i.e. the high-priest (ver. 20). He cannot be 
identified certainly with any priest in the list given i Chr. vi. 4 — 15 
(v. 30—41, Heb.). 

18. the priests the sons of Aaron\ Cp. xiii. 10, 11 and Num. xvi. 40. 
neither shall it be for thine honour] A euphemism, a threat of 

danger and disgrace. 

19. and had] R. V. and lie had. 
even rose up] R.V. brake forth. 

20. thrust him out] R.V. thrust him out quickly. 
the Lord had sjnitten hitn] So 1 Kin. xv. 5. 

21—23 ( = 2 Kin. xv. 5 — 7). The End of Uzziah. 

21. a several house] i.e. separate, special; cp. Num. xxviii. 13; 
Matt. XXV. 15. The same Heb. word is used in Ps. Ixxxviii. 5, ^^free 
(R.V. "cast off") among the dead." 

cut off] The same Heb, word is translated in the same way in 
Is. liii. 8. 

22. did Isaiah... zurite] This statement is not in Kings. Uzziah is 
mentioned in Is. vi. i. 

246 II. CHRONICLES, XXVII. [vv. 1—5. 

his fathers, and they buried him with his fathers in the 
field of the burial which belonged to the kings ; for they 
said, He is a leper : and Jotham his son reigned in his 
27 Jotham ivas twenty and five years old when he began to 
reign, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem. His 
mother's name also was Jerushah, the daughter of Zadok. 

2 And he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, 
according to all that his father Uzziah did : howbeit he 
entered not into the temple of the Lord. And the people 

3 did yet corruptly. He built the high gate of the house of 

4 the Lord, and on the wall of Ophel he built much. More- 
over he built cities in the mountains of Judah, and in the 

5 forests he built castles and towers. He fought also with 
the king of the Ammonites, and prevailed against them. 
And the children of Ammon gave him the same year an 
hundred talents of silver, and ten thousand measures of 
wheat, and ten thousand of barley. So much did the 
children of Ammon pay unto him, both the second year, 

23. the field of the burial\ R.V. the field of burial. In Kings, "in 
the city of David." 

Ch. XXVII. 1 — 6 (cp. -2 Kin. xv. 32 — 35). Jotham Succeeds. 

1. he reigned sixteen years] It is probable that the independent 
reign of Jotham was shorter than this, indeed if Azariah (Uzziah) be 
really mentioned (cp. xxvi. i, note) on an inscription of Tiglath- 
Pileser III. of B.C. 740, Jotham's sole reign lasted probably less than 
six years, for Ahaz his successor seems to have begun to reign about 
B.C. 736. 

2. howbeit he entered not into the temple of the Lord] Kings has a 
different limitation, viz., "howbeit the high places were not removed." 

did yet corruptly] In Kings, "sacrificed and burnt incense still in 
the high places." 

3. the high gate] R.V. the upper gate; cp. xxiii. 20. 

Ophel] Cp. xxxiii. 14; Neh. iii. 26, 27. It was a southern spur 
of the Temple Hill. Bddeker, p. 21. 

4. in the motmtains] R.V. in the hill country; cp. Luke i. 39 
(t] opLv-q). 

castles] Cp. xvii. 12 (note). 

5. the Am77ionites] Cp. xx. i ff. ; xxvi. 8. 

an hundred talents of silver] Cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. 33. 

meastires] Heb. corim. A cor ( = a homer, Ezek. xlv. 14, R.V.) 
was a dry measure holding 393 "9 litres. 

pay n7ito hitn, both the second year, and the third] R.V. render unto 
him, in the second year also, and in the third. 

V.6— 9; 1—3.] II. CHRONICLES, XXVII. XXVIII. 247 

and the third. So Jotham became mighty, because he 6 
prepared his ways before the Lord his God. Now the 7 
rest of the acts of Jotham, and all his wars, and his ways, 
lo they are written in the book of the kings of Israel and 
Judah. He was five and twenty years old when he bega7i 8 
to reign, and reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem. And 9 
Jotham slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the 
city of David : and Ahaz his son reigned in his stead. 

Ahaz was twenty years old when he began to reign, and 28 
he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem : but he did not that 
which was right in the sight of the Lord, like David his 
father : for he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, 2 
and made also molten images for Baalim. Moreover he 3 
burnt incense in the valley of the son of Hinnom, and 
burnt his children in the fire after the abominations of the 

6. became mighty] The same Heb. word as in i. i (see note). 
prepared], R.V. ordered. 

7—9 ( = 2 Kin. XV. 36 — 38). The Summary of Jotham's Reign. 

7. all his wars] Only a war with Amnion is mentioned above, but 
according to 2 Kin. xv. 37 the Syro-Ephraimite war also began in 
Jotham's reign. 

the book of the kings] Cp. xxv. 26, and see Introduction, § 5. 

Ch. XXVIII. 1 — 4 ( = 2 Kin. xvi. i — 4). Ahaz succeeds AND 
PRACTISES Idolatry. 

1. Ahaz] The full form of the name is Jehoahaz, the "Ja-u-ha-zi" 
of an inscription of Tiglath-pileser III. 

twenty years old] As he died sixteen years later leaving a son of 
twenty-five (xxix. i), the reading of Pesh. "twenty-five years old" is 
more suitable and may be right, but the coincidence would be strange 
if three kings in succession ascended the throne at twenty- five years of 
age (cp. xxvii. i and xxix. i). 

he did not that which was right] It is not said of Ahaz as of 
Manasseh, "he did that which was evil" (xxxiii. 2). 

2. for Baalini] R.V. for the Baalim. 

3. the valley of the son of Hinnom] This name was of harmless 
signification at first (Jer. vii. 31, 32), but its Heb. form Ge-hinuom was 
afterwards corrupted into "Gehenna" (Matt. v. 22, R.V. mg.) and it 
gained an evil reputation from its connexion with the worship of Molech. 
It was S. and S.W. of Jerusalem. 

burnt. the fire] In Kings "made. pass through the fire." The 
latter phrase lends support to the theory that at least in later times 
children were "passed through the fire" in order to signify their 
dedication to Molech, yet in such a way as to escape permanent 

248 II. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. [w. 4— 6. 

heathen whom the Lord had cast out before the children 

4 of Israel. He sacrificed also and burnt incense in the 
high places, and on the hills, and under every green tree. 

5 Wherefore the Lord his God delivered him into the hand 
of the king of Syria ; and they smote him, and carried 
away a great multitude of them captives, and brought them 
to Damascus. And he was also delivered into the hand 
of the king of Israel, who smote him with a great slaughter. 

6 For Pekah the son of Remaliah slew in Judah an hundred 
and twenty thousand in one day, which were all valiant 

injury. It is probable however that the original significance of the 
custom is preserved in the phrase used by the Chronicler, and that 
children offered to Molech were really burnt. Of course such a sacrifice 
would be resorted to only in extremities; cp. 2 Kin. iii. 27. 

his childre}i\ In Kings, "his son" (sing.), a better reading. It is 
possible that the sacrifice was intended to avert the danger threatened 
by the Syro-Ephraimite alliance. 

after] R.V. according to (cp. xxxiv. 21). 

4. He sacrificed also\ R. V. And lie sacrificed. 

under eve7y green tree] The Heb. word here used for "green" 
{ra^nnd7i) means rather "flourishing," the reference being not so much 
to colour as to condition and size. Large fine trees (which are rarer in 
the East than in the West) are important landmarks; cp. i Chr. x. 12; 
Gen. xii. 6 ; xxxv. 4. In different ways such trees acquired a sacred or 
semi-sacred character (Gen. xviii. i; xxi. 33; Judg. vi. 11); in some 
cases because they were associated with theophanies, in others perhaps 
because the flourishing state of the tree was regarded as the sign of the 
presence of some local deity. 

5 — 7 (cp. 1 Kin. xvi. 5 — 9; Is. vii. i — 9). The Syro- 
Ephraimite War. 

The Chronicler describes the war from a different point of view from 
that taken in 2 Kin. In the latter the failure of the allies to take 
Jerusalem is the chief feature in the account, while in Chron. the 
damage and loss inflicted on Judah takes the first place. Thus far the 
two accounts supplement each other. 

5. smote hint] From 2 Kin. it appears that the Syrian king, ([) 
helped to shut up Ahaz in Jerusalem, (2) seized the port of Elath 
(Eloth) on the Red Sea which had belonged to Judah. Some of the 
"captives" taken to Damascus were no doubt brought from Elath. 

carried away a great multitude of them captives] R.V. carried away 
of his a great multitude of captives. 

6. an hinidred and twenty thousattd] i.e. more than a third of the 
host as reckoned in xxvi. 13. 

which were all] R V. all of them. 

vv. 7— lo.] II. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. 249 

men ; because they had forsaken the Lord God of their 
fathers. And Zichri, a mighty 7na7i of Ephraim, slew Maa- ^ 
seiah the king's son, and Azrikam the governor of the 
house, and Elkanah that was next to the king. And the 8 
children of Israel carried away captive of their brethren 
two hundred thousand, women, sons, and daughters, and 
took also away much spoil from them, and brought the 
spoil to Samaria. But a prophet of the Lord was there, 9 
whose name was Oded : and he went out before the host 
that came to Samaria, and said unto them. Behold, be- 
cause the Lord God of your fathers was wroth with Judah, 
he hath delivered them into your hand, and ye have slain 
them in a rage that reacheth up unto heaven. And now 10 
ye purpose to keep under the children of Judah and Je- 
rusalem for bondmen and bondwomen unto you : but are 
there not with you, eve7i with you, sins against the Lord 

the Lord God] R.V. the LORD, the God. "The Lord" stands 
here for the proper name "Jehovah"; cp. xxi. 10, xxiv. 18, 24. 

7. t/ie governor of the house] R.V. the ruler (ndgtd, Heb.) of the 
house. Probably the head of the king's household is meant, his 
"chancellor"; but cp. Neh. xi. 11, "the ruler {ndgJd) of the house of 

next to the king] Cp. r Sam. xxiii. 17. 

8 — 15 (not in Kings; but cp. 2 Kin. vi. 21 — 23, a similar incident). 
Israel sends back the Jewish Captives. 

8. of their brethren] Cp. xi. 4, "ye shall not... fight agaiftst your 

9. a prophet of the Lord was there] Nothing further is known of 
Oded, but this may have been the only occasion on which he appeared 
as a prophet. 

he went out before] R.V. he went out to meet. 

that reacheth up] R.V. which hath reached up. Cp. Gen. iv. ro. 

heaven] There is a tendency in some later books of the Bible to 
write "heaven" for "God"; cp. xxxii. 20, "prayed and cried to 
heaven." From a similar feeling of reverence the Chronicler is sparing 
in his use of the name "Jehovah"; cp. xvii. 4 (note). 

10. keep under] In Neh. v. 5, the same Heb. word is translated, 
"bring into bondage"; cp. Kyle's note on Hebrew slavery in loco. 
One Hebrew might hold another Hebrew as a slave for a limited 
period, but in the present passage the case is of one part of the people 
taking advantage of the fortune of war to reduce to slavery thousands 
of their fellow-countrymen. 

with you^ even 7vith you, sins] R.V. even with you trespasses 
("guiltinesses" Heb., cp. xxiv. iS) of your own. 

250 11. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. [vv. ii— 15. 

11 your God ? Now hear me therefore, and deliver the cap- 
tives again, which ye have taken captive of your brethren : 

1 2 for the fierce wrath of the Lord is upon you. Then certain 
of the heads of the children of Ephraim, Azariah the son 
of Johanan, Berechiah the son of Meshillemoth, and Jehiz- 
kiah the son of Shallum, and Amasa the son of Hadlai, 

13 stood up against them that came from the war, and said 
unto them. Ye shall not bring in the captives hither : for 
whereas we have offended against the Lord already, ye 
intend to add more to our sins and to our trespass : for 
our trespass is great, and there is fierce wrath against Israel. 

14 So the armed men left the captives and the spoil before 

15 the princes and all the congregation. And the men which 
were expressed by name rose up, and took the captives, and 
with the spoil clothed all that were naked among them, 
and arrayed them, and shod them, and gave them to eat 
and to drink, and anointed them, and carried all the feeble 
of them upon asses, and brought them to Jericho, the city 
of palm trees, to their brethren : then they returned to 

11. deliver the captives again] R.V. send back the captives. 

the fierce wrath ef the Lord is upon you^ Cp. Zech. i. 15. 

13. for whereas we have offended against the LORD already, ye intend 
to add more to our sins] R.V. for ye purpose that which will bring 
upon us a trespass {mg. "guilt") against the LORD, to add unto 
our sins. 

trespass] R.V. mg. "guilt." 

15. were expressed] R.V. have been expressed. The phrase is 
characteristic of the Chronicler; cp. xxxi. 19; i Chr. xii. 31; xvi. 41; 
Ezra viii. 20. 

took the captives] Render, took hold of the captives ; i.e. succoured 
them; cp. Heb. ii. 16 (eTrtXa/i/Sai/erat = " he taketh hold of"). 

to eat and to drink] Cp. 2 Kin. vi. 23. 

anointed them] Part of the host's duty; cp. Luke vii. 44 — 46. 

\o fericho] Jericho perhaps belonged to the northern kingdom; cp. 
I Kin. xvi. 34 ; 2 Kin. ii. 4. A road led to it from Mount Ephraim 
past 'Ain ed-Duk. G. A. Smith, Hist. Geography, pp. 266 ff. 

the city of palm trees] Cp. Deut. xxxiv. 3. The phrase is an 
alternative name of Jericho; cp. Judg. i. 16; iii. 13. Date palms were 
common in Jericho down to the seventh century of the Christian Era. 
Bddeker, p. 164. 

to their brethren] Lit. "to the side of their brethren." Jericho 
probably belonged to the northern kingdom; see above. 

vv. 16—21.] II. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. 251 

At that time did king Ahaz send unto the kings of 16 
Assyria to help him. For again the Edomites had come 17 
and smitten Judah, and carried away captives. The Philis- is 
tines also had invaded the cities of the low country, and 
of the south of Judah, and had taken Beth-shemesh, and 
Ajalon, and Gederoth, and Shocho with the villages thereof, 
and Timnah with the villages thereof, Gimzo also and the 
villages thereof: and they dwelt there. For the Lord 19 
brought Judah low because of Ahaz king of Israel ; for 
he made Judah naked, and transgressed sore against the 
Lord. And Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria came unto 20 
him, and distressed him, but strengthened him not. For 21 
Ahaz took away a portion out of the house of the Lord, 
and out of the house of the king, and of the princes, 
and gave it unto the king of Assyria : but he helped 
him not. 

16 — 21 ( = 2 Kin. xvi. 7 — 9). Ahaz invokes Assyrian aid. 

There is a variation here between Chron. and Kings. According to 
the former (ver. 21) Ahaz gained nothing by his tribute to the king 
of Assyria; according to Kings the Assyrian accepted the offering and 
marched against Syria, capturing Damascus and slaying Rezin. 

16. the kings\ LXX. "king" (sing.). This monarch was Tiglath- 
pileser III.; cp. 1 Kin. xvi. 7. 

18. had invaded'] Rather, raided. 

the low country] R.V. the lowland (Heb. Shephelah). Cp. i. 
15 (note). 

Beth-shemesh] Cp. i Chr. vi. 59 [44, Heb.\ note. 

Ajalon] R.V. Aijalon; cp. xi. 10. 

Gederoth] Jos. xv. 41. Shocho] R.V. Soco; cp. xi. 7. 

Timnah] Jos. xv. 10; Judg. xiv. i ff. « 

Gimzo] The modem yiitizu S.E. of Lydda, Bddcker, p. 18. The 
place is not mentioned elsewhere in the Old Testament. 

19. king of Israel] Cp. xi. 3 (note). 

he made Judah naked] R.V. he had dealt wantonly in Judah (mg. 
''cast away restraint"). Cp. Ex. xxxii. 25 (A.V. and R.V.) where the 
same Heb. verb is twice used. 

20. Tilgath-pilneser] i.e. Tiglath-pileser III. Cp. i Chr. v. 6 

came... him not] Some error in the text is probable here. The 
Hebrew cannot be rendered as in the A.V., but no satisfactory emenda- 
tion has been proposed. 

21. took azvay a portion out of the house of the LORD, and out of the 
house] Render, plundered the house of the LORD and the house, etc. 

but he helped] R.V. but it helped. 

252 II. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. [vv. 22— 24. 

22 And in the time of his distress did he trespass yet more 

23 against the Lord : this is that king Ahaz. For he sacri- 
ficed unto the gods of Damascus, which smote him : and 
he said, Because the gods of the kings of Syria help them, 
therefore will I sacrifice to them, that they may help me. 

24 But they were the ruin of him, and of all Israel. And 
Ahaz gathered together the vessels of the house of God, 
and cut in pieces the vessels of the house of God, and 
shut up the doors of the house of the Lord, and he made 

22 — 25 (cp, 2 Kin. xvi, 10—18). Apostasy of Ahaz. 

22. did he trespass... against the Lord: this is tha.t king Ahaz] R.V. 
did he trespass... against tlie LORD, this same king Ahaz. For the 
phrase "this same" cp. xxxii. 30; xxxiii. 23 (R.V.). 

23. the gods of Damascus] In 2 Kin. the statement is that Ahaz 
made a copy of an altar which he saw at Damascus and sacrificed upon 
it. The altar at Damascus was probably the one used by Tiglath- 
pileser and therefore an Assyrian rather than a Damascene altar. The 
use of such an altar was an act of apostasy from Jehovah for a foreign 
altar implied a foreign god; cp. 2 Kin. v. 17. 

the gods of the kings of Syria help theni] At this time the Syrians 
of Damascus had been conquered by the Assyrians under I'iglath- 
pileser (2 Kin. xvi. 9), so that the statement needs to be corrected by 
reading "kings of Assyria (Asshur)" for "kings of Syria (Aram).' 
The confusion is due to some writer or scribe, who lived at a time 
when one Empire extended from Babylon to the Mediterranean and 
included both Syria and Assyria. Such was the case under the Persians 
and under the successors of Alexander down to the time of the 
Maccabees. The Romans similarly failed at first to distinguish the 
ancient empire east of the Euphrates, i.e. Assyria ( = Asshur) from the 
peoples west of the Euphrates, the Aramaeans, whom they mis- 
takenly called "Syrians" (a shortened form of "Assyrians"), whose 
chief cities were Antioch, Hamath, and Damascus. This use of 
"Syrian" has passed over into English, but the more accurate designa- 
tion is "Aramaean"; cp. Gen. xxviii. 5 (R.V.). 

help them] The R.V. "helped them" is wrong. 

24. cut in pieces the vessels] Presumably in order to smelt them 
and put the metal to other uses; cp. 2 Kin. xxiv. 13. According to 
2 Kin. xvi. 17 Ahaz merely "cut off the boi-ders ('panels' R.V. mg.) 
of the bases and removed the laver from off them, and took down the 
sea from off the brasen oxen that were under it, and put it upon a 
pavement of stone." In Chron. something more than this is suggested, 
for "the vessels" would naturally mean such vessels as are mentioned 
in 2 Kin. xxiv. 13. 

shut up the doors] The Chronicler perhaps misunderstands the 
difficult passage 2 Kin. xvi. 18 {vide A.V. and R.V.). That passage 
speaks of an alteration carried out by Ahaz on one of the entrances 

VV.25— 27; I— 4-] II. CHRONICLES, XXVIII. XXIX. 253 

him altars in every corner of Jerusalem. And in every 25 
several city of Judah he made high places to burn incense 
unto other gods, and provoked to anger the Lord God of 
his fathers. Now the rest of his acts and of all his ways, 26 
first and last, behold, they are written in the book of the 
kings of Judah and Israel. And Ahaz slept with his fathers, 27 
and they buried him in the city, even in Jerusalem : but 
they brought him not into the sepulchres of the kings of 
Israel : and Hezekiah his son reigned in his stead. 

Hezekiah began to reign when he was five and twenty 29 
years old, and he reigned nine and twenty years in Jeru- 
salem. And his mother's name was Abijah, the daughter 
of Zechariah. And he did that which was right in the 2 
sight of the Lord, according to all that David his father 
had done. He in the first year of his reign, in the first 3 
month, opened the doors of the house of the Lord, and 
repaired them. And he brought in the priests and the 4 
Levites, and gathered them together into the east street, 

to the Temple, but says nothing of a complete closing of the Temple ; 
indeed it may be gathered from 2 Kin. xvi. 14 — 16 that the daily 
service went on with one great change, viz. that the king's new altar 
was used instead of the brazen altar. 

25. in every several city\ Cp. Jer. ii. 28. 

26, 27 ( = 2 Kin. xvi. 19, 20). The End of Ahaz. 

27. they brought him not into the sepulchres of the kings of Israel^ 
According to 2 Kin. Ahaz "was buried with his fathers." It is not 
clear what distinction the Chronicler wishes to draw here, but cp. xvi. 
14; xxi. 20; xxiv. 25; xxvi. 23. A wicked king is buried as a king 
"with his fathers," yet as a ivicked man he sleeps in some separate 
place of his own. 

Ch. XXIX. 1, 2 ( = 2 Kin. xviii. i — 3). The Reign of Hezekiah. 

1. Hezekiali\ Heb. "Yehizkiah" (so usually in the Heb. text of 
Chron.). The form "Hezekiah" (Heb. "Hizkiah") has been introduced 
from Kings. 

Abijah] In 2 Kin. " Abi" which is probably only a shortened form 
of the name. 

3 — 11 (not in 2 Kin.). Hezekiah commands to cleanse 
THE Temple. 

3. in the first month] i.e. in Nisan; cp. xxx. 2, 3. 

4. into the east street] R.V. into the broad place on the east. 
The place meant was part of the Temple area; cp. Ezra x. 9, "the 
broad place before the house of God" (R.V.). 

254 II. CHRONICLES, XXIX. [w. 5—12. 

5 and said unto them, Hear me, ye Levites, sanctify now 
yourselves, and sanctify the house of the Lord God of 
your fathers, and carry forth the filthiness out of the holy 

6 place. For our fathers have trespassed, and done that which 
was evil in the eyes of the Lord our God, and have for- 
saken him, and have turned away their faces from the 

7 habitation of the Lord, and turned their backs. Also they 
have shut up the doors of the porch, and put out the lamps, 
and have not burnt incense nor offered burnt offerings in 

8 the holy place unto the God of Israel. Wherefore the 
wrath of the Lord was upon Judah and Jerusalem, and 
he hath delivered them to trouble, to astonishment, and 

9 to hissing, as ye see with your eyes. For lo, our fathers 
have fallen by the sword, and our sons and our daughters 

10 and our wives are in captivity for this. Now it is in mine 
heart to make a covenant with the Lord God of Israel, 

11 that his fierce wrath may turn away from us. My sons, 
be not now negligent: for the Lord hath chosen you to 
stand before him, to serve him, and that you should minister 
unto him, and burn incense. 

12 Then the Levites arose, Mahath the son of Amasai, and 

6. sanctify now yonrselves\ Cp. Ex. xix. ro — 15. 

6. from the habitation of the LORD] Cp. xxiv. 18 "they left the 
house of the Lord" (see note). 

habitation] Heb. "tabernacle," as in Ex. xxv. 9, al. 

7. the lamps] Cp. xiii. 11; Ex. xxv. 31 ff. 

8. to trouble, to astonishment, and to hissing] R.V. to be tossed to 
and fro, to be an astonisbment, and an hissing'. 

to trouble] Better as R.V. mg., to be a terror (or "cause of trem- 
bling"). The judgement on Israel fills the surrounding nations with 
trembling for themselves. The rendering of R.V. text "tossed to and 
fro" is inferior because the Heb. word describes "trembling" and not 
*'motion from place to place." 

10. a covefiajit] Cp. xv. 12. 

his fierce wrath] R.V. his fierce anger. 

11. to stand before him] Deut. x. 8. 

tosei've him, and that you should minister tmto him] R.V. to minister 
unto him, and that ye should be his ministers. 

12 — 19 (not in 2 Kin.). The Cleansing of the Temple. 
"With this passage cp. i Mace. iv. 36 — 51 (the cleansing of the 
Temple by Judas Maccabaeus). 

12. the Levites] The fourteen persons mentioned in these three 
verses comprise {a) two representatives each of the three great branches 

vv. 13—18.] II. CHRONICLES, XXIX. 255 

Joel the son of Azariah, of the sons of the Kohathites : and 
of the sons of Merari, Kish the son of Abdi, and Azariah 
the son of Jehalelel : and of the Gershonites ; Joah the 
son of Zimmah, and Eden the son of Joah : and of the 13 
sons of EHzaphan ; Shimri, and Jeiel : and of the sons of 
Asaph ; Zechariah, and Mattaniah : and of the sons of 14 
Heman ; Jehiel, and vShimei : and of the sons of Jeduthun ; 
Shemaiah, and Uzziel. And they gathered their brethren, 15 
and sanctified themselves, and came, according to the com- 
mandment of the king, by the words of the Lord, to cleanse 
the house of the Lord. And the priests went into the 16 
inner part of the house of the Lord, to cleanse //, and 
brought out all the uncleanness that they found in the 
temple of the Lord into the court of the house of the 
Lord. And the Levites took //, to carry it out abroad 
into the brook Kidron. Now they began on the first day ,7 
of the first month to sanctify, and on the eighth day of the 
month came they to the porch of the Lord : so they 
sanctified the house of the Lord in eight days ; and in 
the sixteenth day of the first month they made an end. 

of Levi, namely, Kohath, Merari, and Gershon, [b) two representatives 
of the great Kohathite family of Elizaphan (cp. Num. iii. 30 and i Chr. 
XV. 8), [c) two representatives each of the three divisions of the singers, 
Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun (i Chr. xxv. i). 

15. and cavie\ R.V. and went in. 

by the words of the Lord] The phrase suggests that Hezekiah had 
been moved to issue his command by the utterances of a prophet, but 
this is nowhere actually stated. 

16. the priests] The work was so divided between priests and 
l.<evites that only the priests went into the house. 

into the inner part of the house] Render, within the house. The 
reference is not to the Holy of Holies specially, but to the whole 
interior of the house. 

uncleanness] Cp. ver. 5; Is. xxx. T.r. 

into the brook] R.V. to the brook. The brook Kidron is the deep 
valley on the east of Jerusalem separating it from the Mount of Olives ; 
2 Sam. XV. 23; John xviii. i. 

17. to sanctify... so they sanctified] Two periods of eight days each 
were spent in "sanctifying," the courts apparently occupying eight days 
and the house itself eight days. 

in the sixteenth day] The LXX. translators read t^ Vl^^pg. rrj rpia- 
KaideKarr}, i.e. on the thirteenth day, perhaps because the foiir/eenth day 
of the first month was the Day of the Passover, a day on which no 
work could be done. 

256 II. CHRONICLES, XXIX. [vv. 18—22. 

18 Then they went in to Hezekiah the king, and said, We 
have cleansed all the house of the Lord, and the altar of 
burnt offering, with all the vessels thereof, and the shew- 

19 bread table, with all the vessels thereof. Moreover all the 
vessels, which king Ahaz in his reign did cast away in his 
transgression, have we prepared and sanctified, and behold, 

20 they are before the altar of the Lord. Then Hezekiah 
the king rose early, and gathered the rulers of the city, and 

21 went up to the house of the Lord. And they brought 
seven bullocks, and seven rams, and seven lambs, and seven 
he goats, for a sin offering for the kingdom, and for the 
sanctuary, and for Judah. And he commanded the priests 
the sons of Aaron to offer thefn on the altar of the Lord. 

22 So they killed the bullocks, and the priests received the 
blood, and sprinkled it on the altar : likewise, when they 
had killed the rams, they sprinkled the blood upon the 
altar : they killed also the lambs, and they sprinkled the 

18. the king] R. V. the king within the palace. 
the shewbread table'] R.V. the table of shewbread. 

19. cast away] According to xxviii. 24, "cut in pieces"; cp. 
2 Kin. xvi. 17. The reference is probably to the "bases" and the 

in his transgression] R.V. when he trespassed. 
have we prepared] Render, have we set up. Ahaz had taken away 
the supports both of the laver and of the sea (2 Kin. xvi. 17). 

20—30 (not in 2 Kin.). The Sevenfold Sacrifice for 
THE Reconciliation of the People. 

The ritual of the sin offering is fully given in Lev. iv. Ahaz had 
broken the covenant and Hezekiah's sin offering was intended to atone 
for the breach. 

20. the rulers of the city] R.V. the princes of the city. 

21. they brought] Ace to Lev. iv. 3, 23, 32 the sin offering might 
be a bullock or a he goat or a lamb. As the sacrifice was not for an 
individual but for a whole people the sin olTerirg on this occasion 
consisted of seven of each of four different sacrificial animals. 

for the kingdom] i.e. for the kingly house. 

for the safictuary] i.e. for the Temple (cp. Lev. xvi. 16), but probably 
inclusive of the personnel of the Temple, i.e. the priests and Levites, since 
otherwise they would have been passed over in the great sin offering. 

on the altar of the Lord] Not on the altar of Ahaz (2 Kin. xvi. 11). 

22. received the blood] In basins with which they dashed (not 
"sprinkled") the blood against the altar. This dashing was different 
from the sprinkling with the finger. 

vv. 23—30.] II. CHRONICLES, XXIX. 257 

blood upon the altar. And they brought forth the he goats 23 
for the sin offering before the king and the congregation ; 
and laid their hands upon them : and the priests killed 24 
them, and they made reconciliation with their blood upon 
the altar, to make an atonement for all Israel : for the king 
commanded that the burnt offering and the sin offering 
should be made for all Israel. And he set the Levites in 25 
the house of the Lord with cymbals, with psalteries, and 
with harps, according to the commandment of David, and 
of Gad the king's seer, and Nathan the prophet : for so was 
the commandment of the Lord by his prophets. And the 26 
Levites stood with the instruments of David, and the priests 
with the trumpets. And Hezekiah commanded to offer the 27 
burnt offering upon the altar. And when the burnt offering 
began, the song of the Lord began also with the trumpets, 
and with the instruments ordained by David king of Israel. 
And all the congregation worshipped, and the singers sang, 23 
and the trumpeters sounded : a7id all this coritifiued until 
the burnt offering was finished. And when they had made -9 
an end of offering, the king and all that were present with 
him bowed themselves, and worshipped. Moreover Heze- 30 
kiah the king and the princes commanded the Levites to 
sing praise unto the Lord with the words of David, and 

23. brought forth'] R.V. brought near, i.e. to the king and the 

and they laid their hands'] *' they " = the representatives of the 
people; cp. Lev. iv. 15. 

24. made reconciliation] R.V. made a sin oflFering. 

25. so was the commandment of the LORD by his prophets] Render, 
ihe commandment was by (through) the LORD, even by (through) his 
prophets. The Chronicler urges the point that David's arrangements 
for Temple song were by inspiration ; cp. i Chr. xxviii. 19. 

26. with the instruments] LXX. Iv opyduoLs. Cp. 1 Chr. xxiii. 5. 

27. with the trumpets] R.V. and the trumpets. Cp. i Chr. xv. 24 

and with the instruments ordained by David] Render, even according 
to the guidance of the instruments of David, i.e. led (or "accom- 
panied") by them. 

28. and all this] R.V. all this. 

29. bowed themselves, and worshipped] i.e. first bowed down (on their 
knees) and then completely prostrated themselves. 

30. to ^\ng praise] R.V. to sing praises. Since (i) the lleb. word 
for "Psalms" moans "Praises," and (2) the words of David a.nd Asaph 

CIIRON. 1 7 

258 II. CHRONICLES, XXIX. [vv. 31—35. 

of Asaph the seer. And they sang praises with gladness, 

31 and they bowed their heads and worshipped. Then Heze- 
kiah answered and said, Now ye have consecrated yourselves 
unto the Lord, come near and bring sacrifices and thank 
offerings into the house of the Lord. And the congre- 
gation brought in sacrifices and thank offerings ; and as 

32 many as were of a free heart burnt offerings. And the 
number of the burnt offerings, which the congregation 
brought, was threescore and ten bullocks, an hundred rams, 
and two hundred lambs : all these were for a burnt offering 

33 to the Lord. And the consecrated things were six hundred 

34 oxen and three thousand sheep. But the priests were too 
few, so that they could not flay all the burnt offerings : 
wherefore their brethren the Levites did help them, till 
the work was ended, and until the other priests had sanc- 
tified themselves : for the Levites were more upright in 

35 heart to sanctify themselves than the priests. And also 
the burnt offerings ivere in abundance, with the fat of the 
peace offerings, and the drink offerings for every burnt 
offering. So the service of the house of the Lord was set 

are specially mentioned in this verse, it is clear that the Chronicler by 
this phrase means "to sing Psalms.'''' 

31 — 36 (not in Kings). A Great Sacrifice of Burnt 
Offerings and Thank Offerings. 

31. answered and said] i.e. answered the thoughts or expectation of 
the people, for no question had been asked ; cp. Job iii. 2 (R.V.). 

ye have consecrated yourselves'] Heb. "filled your hand"; cp. xiii. 9; 
Ex. xxviii. 41. 

were of a free heart btirnt offerings] R.V. were of a willing heart 
brought burnt offerings. 

32. for a burnt offering] Lev. i. i — 13. 

33. the consecrated things] The term was applied (i) to gold and 
other valuables offered in the Temple; cp. xv. 18; i Chr. xviii. 8 — 11; 
(2) to those parts of the various sacrifices which were assigned to be 
eaten by the priests; Lev. xxi. 22 ("the holy [bread]"); xxii. 2, 3, 15 
("the holy things"). Here the reference is more general, i.e. to the 
thankofferings (ver. 35) themselves. 

34. the other priests] R.V. the priests. 

35. with the fat] Cp. vii. 7; Lev. iii. 3, 17. 

drink offerings] Cp. Num. xv. 5, 7, 10. The offering was to be of 
wine, and the quantity used was to correspond with the size of the 
animal sacrificed. 

was set in order] i.e. was re-established. 

vv. 36; 1—6.] II. CHRONICLES, XXIX. XXX. 259 

in order. And Hezekiah rejoiced, and all the people, that 36 
God had prepared the people : for the thing was do?ie 

And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote 30 
letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should 
come to the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, to keep the 
passover unto the Lord God of Israel. For the king had 2 
taken counsel, and his princes, and all the congregation in 
Jerusalem, to keep the passover in the second month. For 3 
they could not keep it at that time, because the priests had 
not sanctified themselves sufficiently, neither had the people 
gathered themselves together to Jerusalem. And the thing 4 
pleased the king and all the congregation. So they estab- 5 
lished a decree to make proclamation throughout all Israel, 
from Beer-sheba even to Dan, that they should come to 
keep the passover unto the Lord God of Israel at Jeru- 
salem : for they had not done // of a long time ifi such sort 
as it was written. So the posts went with the letters from 6 

36. that God had prepared the people^ R.V. because of that which 
God had prepared for the people. It was God, not Hezekiah, who 
had done it all. 

suddenly] In the very first year of Hezekiah's reign (ver. 3). 

Ch. XXX. 1 — 12 (not in 2 Kin.). Hezekiah Invites all Israel 


This Passover took place in the first year of Hezekiah while the 
Northern Kingdom was still standing. The Chronicler, however, takes 
no note of merely political conditions, and it is not improbable that 
Hezekiah ventured to do in the fallen state of Israel that which earlier 
kings would not have dared to do. 

2. in the second month] The Law allowed such a postponement; 
cp. Num. ix. 10, II. 

3. at that time] In the first month. 
sufficiently] R.V. in sufficient number. 

4. pleased the king] R.V. was right in the eyes of the king. 

5. to make proclamation] A phrase characteristic of the Chronicler. 
they had not done it of a lo?zgUme in such sort as it was tuntten] R.V. 

they had not kept it in great numbers in such sort as it is written. 
The statement applies to Israel, not to Judah ; for the first time an 
attempt is made to draw Israel en masse to a regular Passover at Jeru- 
salem. R.V. mg. however agrees with A.V. in reading "of a long 
time" for "in great num]:)ers. " 

6. the posts] Lit. "the runners." 

17 — 2 

26o II. CHRONICLES, XXX. [w. 7— 13. 

the king and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah, 
and according to the commandment of the king, saying, Ye 
children of Israel, turn again unto the Lord God of Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Israel, and he will return to the remnant of 
you, that are escaped out of the hand of the kings of 

7 Assyria. And be not ye like your fathers, and like your 
brethren, which trespassed against the Lord God of their 
fathers, ivho therefore gave them up to desolation, as ye see. 

8 Now be ye not stiffnecked, as your fathers ivere, but yield 
yourselves unto the Lord, and enter into his sanctuary, 
which he hath sanctified for ever : and serve the Lord your 
God, that the fierceness of his wrath may turn away from 

9 you. For if ye turn again unto the Lord, your brethren 
and your children shall find compassion before them that 
lead them captive, so that they shall come again into this 
land : for the Lord your God is gracious and merciful, and 
will not turn away his face from you, if ye return unto him. 

10 So the posts passed from city to city through the country of 
Ephraim and Manasseh even unto Zebulun : but they 

11 laughed them to scorn, and mocked them. Nevertheless 
divers of Asher and Manasseh and of Zebulun humbled 

12 themselves, and came to Jerusalem. Also in Judah the 
hand of God was to give them one heart to do the com- 
mandment of the king and of the princes, by the word of 
the Lord. 

13 And there assembled at Jerusalem much people to keep 

7. who therefore gave them up to desolation^ Render, so that he 
gave them up to he an astonishment (so R.V. mg.) ; cp. xxix. 8 (same 
Heb. word). 

8. yield yourselves] Lit. "give the hand"; cp. i Chr. xxix. 24 
("submitted themselves"). 

sanctified for ever] Cp. vii. 16. 

the fierceness of his wrath] R.V. his fierce anger; cp. xxix. 10 (R.V.). 

9. shall find compassion] Cp. Ps. cvi. 46 (a similar phrase in Heb.). 
so that they shall come again] R.V. and shall come again. 

10. passed] LXX. rjcxav . . .dtairopevoixevoL (more literal). 

11. humbled themselves] So xxxiii. 12. 

12. Also in Judah the hand of God zvas] R.V. Also in Judah was 
the hand of God, i.e. the mighty working of God which brought some 
penitents from far parts of Israel manifested itself in Judah also. 

the commandfnent of the king... by the word of the Lord] The king's 
command was according to God's command in the Law. 

vv. 14— i8.j II. CHRONICLES, XXX. 261 

the feast of unleavened bread in the second month, a very 
great congregation. And they arose and took away the 14 
altars that 7V(^re in Jerusalem, and all the altars for incense 
took they away, and cast f/iem into the brook Kidron. 
Then they killed the passover on the fourteenth day of the 15 
second month : and the priests and the Levites were 
ashamed, and sanctified themselves, and brought in the 
burnt offerings info the house of the Lord. And they 16 
stood in their place after their manner, according to the law 
of Moses the man of God : the priests sprinkled the blood, 
7i>/ii'c/i they received of the hand of the Levites. For there 17 
were many in the congregation that were not sanctified : 
therefore the Levites had the charge of the killing of the 
passovers for every one that was not clean, to sanctify them 
unto the Lord. For a multitude of the people, even many is 
of Ephraim, and Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not 
cleansed themselves, yet did they eat the passover otherwise 
than it was written. But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, 
13 — 27 (not in 2 Kin.). Hezekiah's Great Passover. 

13. the feast of wdeavened breads In the "Passover" were united 
two separate "feasts," (i) the eating of the lamb on the fourteenth of 
Nisan, (2) the eating of unleavened bread from the fourteenth to the 
twenty-first of Nisan. The combined Feast was sometimes called "the 
Passover" and sometimes (as here) "the feast of unleavened bread"; cp. 
Ex. xii. I — 14 and 17 — 20, and note that the intervening verses, 15, 16, 
bind the two feasts into one celebration. 

14. the altars\ Cp. xxviii. 24. 

altars for incense'] R.V, mg. vessels for incense. 

15. the second montJi] Cp. vv. 2, 3. 

were ashamed] Of their former backwardness; cp. ver. 3, xxix. 34. 
b7-ought m the burnt offerings] R.V. brought burnt oflFerings, i.e. as 
an atonement for themselves. 

16. after their manner] R. V. after their order. 

17. were not sanctified] R.V. had not sanctified themselves. 

of the killing of the passovers] R.V. of killing the passovers. 
"Passovers" (plur. rare) = " Paschal victims"; cp. ver. 15, xxxv. 8 
("passover offerings" A.V. & R.V.). 

18. of Ephraifn etc.] The list of tribes given here does not agree 
with the list in ver. 11, but in both cases it is probable that the 
Chronicler merely wishes by his list to designate fnen of the Northern 
Kingdofu as opposed to those of the Southern. He could not make the 
distinction by using the term "Israel" here, for in Chron. " Israel" as a 
rule is not used in opposition to "Judah"; cp. xi. 3 (note). 

it was written] R.V. it is written i.e. in the Mosaic Law. 
But Hezekiah prayed] R.V. For Hezekiah had prayed. 

262 II. CHRONICLES, XXX. [w. 19—24. 

19 The good Lord pardon every one that prepareth his heart 
to seek God, the Lord God of his fathers, though he be not 

20 cleansed according to the purification of the sanctuary. And 
the Lord hearkened to Hezekiah, and healed the people. 

21 And the children of Israel that were present at Jerusalem 
kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days with great 
gladness : and the Levites and the priests praised the Lord 
day by day, singing with loud instruments unto the Lord. 

22 And Hezekiah spake comfortably unto all the Levites that 
taught the good knowledge of the Lord : and they did eat 
throughout the feast seven days, offering peace offerings, 
and making confession to the Lord God of their fathers. 

23 And the whole assembly took counsel to keep other seven 

24 days : and they kept other seven days with gladness. For 
Hezekiah king of Judah did give to the congregation a 
thousand bullocks and seven thousand sheep; and the 

The good Lord pardofi] According to the Heb. division ver. 18 ends 
with the word "pardon," in the middle of the clause, as the A.V. (and 
R.V.) translate it. It is probable, however, that this Heb. division is 
right, and that it is the order of the words which needs correction. The 
phrase "the good Lord" (i.e. Jehovah "the good") has no parallel in 
Heb. and is open to suspicion, but by a simple transposition we get, 
The LORD pardon the good. For "the good" cp. xix. 11. 

18, 19. evety one that prepareth his hearty Render, even him that 
setteth his whole heart (cp. R.V. mg.). This clause defines the pre- 
ceding phrase ("The good"); see last note. 

20. healed the people\ By prevention-, no plague was allowed to 
break out among them, although uncleanness in the sanctuary had been 
threatened with death; Lev. xv. 31. 

21. with lotid instruf/ients] Lit. "with instruments of strength." It 
has been proposed to read "with all their might" (as i Chr. xiii. 8). 
The change in Heb. amounts only to the dropping of the smallest letter 

22. that taught the good knowledge of the Lord] R.V. that were well 
skilled in the service of the LORD. 

and they did eat... seven days] R.V. So they did eat... for the seven 
days, i.e. the usual seven days of unleavened bread. 

peace offerings] R.V. sacrifices of peace offerings; cp. i Chr. xvi. i. 

making confession] Or "giving thanks" R.V. mg. LXX. i^o!xo\o'yo{>- 

23. assemdly] R.V. congregation, as in vv. 13, 17. LXX. i] 

other seven days] Cp. vii. 9 (Solomon's Dedication Feast). 

24. did give to the congregation] R.V. did give to the congregation 
for offerings. 

VV.25— 27;i,2.] II. CHRONICLES, XXX. XXXI. 263 

princes gave to the congregation a thousand bullocks and 
ten thousand sheep : and a great number of priests sancti- 
fied themselves. And all the congregation of Judah, with 25 
the priests and the Levites, and all the congregation that 
came out of Israel, and the strangers that came out of the 
land of Israel, and that dwelt in Judah, rejoiced. So there 26 
was great joy in Jerusalem : for since the time of Solomon 
the son of David king of Israel there was not the like in 
Jerusalem. Then the priests the Levites arose and blessed 27 
the people : and their voice was heard, and their prayer 
came up to his holy dwelling place, eveJi unto heaven. 

Now when all this was finished, all Israel that were 31 
present went out to the cities of Judah, and brake the 
images in pieces^ and cut down the groves, and threw down 
the high places and the altars out of all Judah and Ben- 
jamin, in Ephraim also and Manasseh, until they had utterly 
destroyed them all. Then all the children of Israel returned, 
every man to his possession, into their own cities. And 2 
Hezekiah appointed the courses of the priests and the 

sanctified themselves^ Cp. xxix. 34. 

25. the strangers'] i.e. men of alien descent dwelling in Israel with 
certain conceded, not inherited, rights, and with most of the obligations 
of the native Israelite. LXX. ol irpoarjXvTOL. Cp. ii. 17; 1 Chr. xxii. 2 
for the unfavourable side of a "stranger's" position. 

26. there was not the like] Cp. what is said of Josiah's Passover; 

XXXV. 18. 

27. the priests the Levites] So in xxiii. 18, but only in these two 
places in Chron. The phrase is Deuteronomic, and has been taken to 
imply that all Levites were potentially priests. Such was not in any case 
the view of the Chronicler, and perhaps we ought to read "the priests 
and the Levites" both here and in xxiii. 18. 

his holy dwelling place] R.V. Ms holy habitation; so Deut. xxvi. 15. 

Ch. XXXI. 1 (cp. 1 Kin. xviii. 4). Destruction of 
Idolatrous Symbols. 

1. Israel] Cp. xi. 3 (note). 

brake the images in pieces, and ctit down the groves] R.V. brake 
in pieces the pillars, and hewed down the Asherim. Cp. xiv. 3 (note). 

threiv down] R.V. brake down. 

in Ephraim also] Apparently the Northern Kingdom had come to 
an end ; cp. xxx. 6, g. 

utterly destroyed them all] R.V. destroyed them aU. 

2—21 (not in 3 Kin.). Organisation of the Priests. Tithf.. 

2. the courses] Cp. i Chr. xxiv. i ff. 

264 n. CHRONICLES, XXXI. [vv. 3—9. 

Levites after their courses, every man according to his 
service, the priests and Levites for burnt offerings and for 
peace offerings, to minister, and to give thanks, and to 

3 praise in the gates of the tents of the Lord. He appointed 
also the king's portion of his substance for the burnt offer- 
ings, to 7iiit, for the morning and evening burnt offerings, 
and the burnt offerings for the sabbaths, and for the new 
moons, and for the set feasts, as it is written in the law of 

4 the Lord. Moreover he commanded the people that dwelt 
in Jerusalem to give the portion of the priests and the 
Levites, that they might be encouraged in the law of the 

5 Lord. And as soon as the commandment came abroad, 
the children of Israel brought in abundance the firstfruits of 
corn, wine, and oil, and honey, and of all the increase of the 
field; and the tithe of all things brought they in abundantly. 

6 And concerni?ig the children of Israel and Judah, that dwelt 
in the cities of Judah, they also brought in the tithe of oxen 
and sheep, and the tithe of holy things which were conse- 
crated unto the Lord their God, and laid the7n by heaps. 

7 In the third month they began to lay the foundation of the 

8 heaps, and finished them in the seventh month. And when 
Hezekiah and the princes came and saw the heaps, they 

9 blessed the Lord, and his people Israel. Then Hezekiah 
questioned with the priests and the Levites concerning the 

the priests and Levites'] R.V. both the priests and the Levites. 

in the gates] Cp. Deut. xvi. 5. 

the tents of the Lord] R.V. the camp of the LORD, i.e. (in the 
language of Deut.) "the place which the Lord chose," Jerusalem or, 
more exactly, the Temple area. Cp. i Chr. ix. 18, note. 

3. the burnt offerings] Cp. viii. 12, 13. 

4. be encouraged in] R.V. give themselves to. Cp. Neh. xiii. 

5. brought in abundance] R.V. gave in abundance. 

and honey] Honey (?Ieb. debash) is not elsewhere mentioned as 
subject to tithe; perhaps grape syrup (modern Arabic dibs) is meant 
here, as in Gen. xliii. 11 and Ezek. xxvii. 17 (according to some com- 
mentators). Honey (like leaven) was forbidden for sacrificial use 
(Lev. ii. 11). 

6. -^«^ concerning the children] R.V. And the children. Cp. xi. 16. 
holy things] R.V. dedicated things (as ver. 12). 

7. the third month'] The Feast of Harvest took place at the 
beginning of this month and seven weeks later the Feast of Ingathering 

vv. 10—14.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXI. 265 

heaps. And Azariah the chief priest of the house of Zadok 10 
answered him, and said. Since the people began to bring the 
offerings into the house of the Lord, ive have had enough 
to eat, and have left plenty : for the Lord hath blessed his 
people; and that which is left is this great store. Then .1 
Hezekiah commanded to prepare chambers in the house of 
the Lord ; and they prepared thern^ and brought in the 12 
offerings and the tithes and the dedicate things faithfully : 
over which Cononiah the Levite was ruler, and Shimei his 
brother was the next. And Jehiel, and Azaziah, and Na- 13 
hath, and Asahel, and Jerimoth, and Jozabad, and Eliel, 
and Ismachiah, and Mahath, and Benaiah, were overseers 
under the hand of Cononiah and Shimei his brother, at the 
commandment of Hezekiah the king, and Azariah the ruler 
of the house of God. And Kore the son of Imnah the 14 
Levite, the porter toward the east, was over the freewill 
offerings of God, to distribute the oblations of the Lord, 

10. Azariah the chief priest\ Not mentioned in connexion with 
Hezekiah's previous arrangements: he may have been only just 

of the house of Zadok^ Cp. i Chr. xxiv. i — 4. There were two main 
families of priests, (i) the descendants of Eleazar the third son of Aaron, 
whose chief representative in David's day was Zadok (hence they are 
here called "the house of Zadok"), (2) the descendants of Ithamar the 
fourth son of Aaron, represented in David's time by Ahimelech (Saul's 
victim) or by Abiathar (David's protege). The Chronicler prefers to 
name the descendants of Ithamar after Ahimelech (i Chr. xxiv. 3). 

the offerings^ R.V. the Oblations (so also ver. 12). The Heb. word 
terumdh denotes the heave offering (Lev. vii. 32), which the priest 
heaved ("lifted on high") and was allowed to keep for himself. 

we have had enough to eat] R.V. we have eaten and had enough. 

hath blessed his people] Cp. Mai. iii. 10. 

and that which is left is this great store] LXX., koX KaTeK'nroixev iwl 
TO TrX^dos TovTO, "we leave ('have left') this great store and more." 
An apparently superfluous particle [eth] in the Heb. has troubled the 
translators and commentators. 

11. chambers] Cp. i Chr. ix. 26, note. 

12. the dedicate things] Cp. xxix. 33 (note on the consecrated 

was the next] R.V. was second. Cp. xxviii. 7 "Elkanah that was 
next to the king." 

13. at the commandjnent] R.V. by the appointment. 
the ruler of the house of God] Cp. i Chr. ix. 11, note. 

14. toward the east] R.V. at the east gate. 

266 II. CHRONICLES, XXXI. [vv. 15—19. 

15 and the most holy things. And next him were Eden, and 
Miniamin, and Jeshua, and Shemaiah, Amariah, and Sheca- 
niah, in the cities of the priests, in their set office, to give to 
their brethren by courses, as well to the great as to the 

16 small : beside their genealogy of males, from three years old 
and upward, even unto every one that entereth into the 
house of the Lord, his daily portion for their service in 

17 their charges according to their courses ; both to the 
genealogy of the priests by the house of their fathers, and 
the Levites from twenty years old and upward, in their 

18 charges by their courses ; and to the genealogy of all their 
little ones, their wives, and their sons, and their daughters, 
through all the congregation : for in their set office they 

19 sanctified themselves in holiness : also of the sons of Aaron 

the most holy things] To this class belonged the sheivbread (Lev. 
xxiv. 9), the meal offering (Lev. ii. -2, 3; vi. 14 — 18 [7 — 11, Heb.]), 
the sin offering (Lev. vi. 25 — 30), and the trespass offering (Lev. vii. 
I — 7). These could be eaten by the priests only, and in the holy place 

15. next hint] R.V. under him. 

in the cities'\ The persons mentioned in vv. 12 — 14 were in Jerusalem 
itself. The priestly cities are given i Chr. vi. 54 — 60. 
in their set office] R. V. mg. in their trust. 

16. beside their genealogy of males'] R.V. beside them that were 
reckoned by genealogy of males. 

even tinto every one that entereth] R.V. even every one that entered. 
his daily portion] R.V. as the duty of every day required. 

17. both to the genealogy of the priests by the house of their fathers] 
R.V. and them that were reckoned by genealogy of the priests by 
their fathers' houses. 

18. and to the genealogy of all their little ones] Render with R.V. 
mg. even to give to them that were reckoned by genealogy of all 
their little ones. 

The connexion of vv. 15 — 18 is difficult to trace and the text is 
perhaps faulty. Assuming however the general correctness of the text, 
we may regard vv. 16, 17 as a parenthesis stating that the ministration 
of Eden and his colleagues did not extend to those priests and Levites 
and male children of the priests who presented themselves in person at 
the Temple. 

in their set office] R.V. mg. in their trust. 

they sanctified themselves in holiness] Or, they busied themselves with 
the distribution oi the sanctified things. 

19. also of the sons] R.V. also for the sons. The Chronicler now 
passes to a third class of priests, viz. those in the country; cp. ver. 15 

vv. 20, 21 ; I.J II. CHRONICLES, XXXI. XXXII. 267 

the priests, ivhich ivere in the fields of the suburbs of their 
cities, in every several city, the men that were expressed by 
name, to give portions to all the males among the priests, 
and to all that were reckoned by genealogies among the 
Levites. And thus did Hezekiah throughout all Judah, ?o 
and wrought that which was good and right and truth 
before the Lord his God. And in every work that he 21 
began in the service of the house of God, and in the law, 
and in the commandments, to seek his God, he did // with 
all his heart, and prospered. 

After these things, and the establishment thereof. Sen- 32 
nacherib king of Assyria came, and entered into Judah, and 

the suburbs] Cp. i Chr. v. 16 (R.V. mg. "pasture-lands"); vi. 

55> 57 [40* 42, Heb.]. 
the men] R.V. there were men. 
by genealogies] R.V. by genealogy. 
20. and ti'iUh] R.V. and faithful. 

Ch. XXXII. 1 — 8 (cp. 2 Kin. xviii. 13 — 16). Sennacherib's 


The Chronicler introduces us somewhat abruptly to the Assyrian 
crisis. From 2 Kin. we learn first that Hezekiah renounced the 
suzerainty of Assyria (xviii. 7), which his father Ahaz had acknowlerfged 
{ibid. xvi. 7). Thereupon Sennacherib invaded Judah, and Hezekiah 
was obliged to acknowledge with a heavy payment of tribute his 
dependence on the Assyrian king {ibid, xviii. 13 — 16), Sennacherib 
having discovered the weakness of Judah, next demanded an uncon- 
ditional surrender, intending to transport the Jews to another country 
{ibid. 31, 32). This demand Hezekiah resisted, being strengthened 
thereto by Isaiah. 

1. After these things, and the establishment thereof] R.V. After 
these things, and this faithfulness. The phrase is a Hendiadys and 
stands for, "After these faithful dealings." 

Sen7tacherib] This king {Sanherib in Hebrew, Sin-ahi-irib [-irba] in 
Assyrian, the liavaxapt^os of Herod, ii. 141) reigned 705 — 681 B.C. 
He was the son of Sargon (Is. xx. i), father of Esar-haddon (2 Kin. 
xix. 37 ; Ezra iv. 2), and grandfather of Asnapper [Osnappar, R.V.] 
(Ezra iv. 10), the well-known 'Zapoai'dTraXXos of Herod, ii. 150, the 
Asshur-bani-pal of the Assyrian inscriptions. Under this dynasty 
Assyria reached the height of its power. The empire included 
Babylonia (which however was frequently in revolt), Assyria proper, 
Syria as far north as Cilicia (inclusive), and (under Esar-haddon and 
Osnappar) Egypt. After Osnappar's death (about 626 B.C.) the Assyrian 
power was speedily destroyed. 

268 11. CHRONICLES, XXXII. [vv. 2—5. 

encamped against the fenced cities, and thought to win 

2 them for himself. And when Hezekiah saw that Sen- 
nacherib was come, and that he was purposed to fight 

3 against Jerusalem, he took counsel with his princes and his 
mighty men to stop the waters of the fountains which were 

4 without the city : and they did help him. So there was 
gathered much people together, who stopt all the fountains, 
and the brook that ran through the midst of the land, 
saying. Why should the kings of Assyria come, and find 

5 much water ? Also he strengthened himself, and built up 
all the wall that was broken, and raised // up to the towers, 

to win theffi] Lit. to juake h-eaches m t/iem. According to 2 Kin. 
xviii. 13 Sennacherib took these cities; according to the Assyrian 
account {Prism Inscr. of Sennacherib) in Schrader's Keilinschriflliche 
Bibliothek) they were forty-two in number. 

3. to stop the waters'l Cp. 2 Kin. xx. 20 ("[Hezekiah] made the 
pool and the conduit and brought water into the city") and Is. xxii. 
9, II. 

At the present day there is an underground tunnel cut through the 
rock leading from St Mary's Well down to the Lower Pool of Siloam. 
It is rudely constructed and owing to its windings is 586 yards long, 
though the distance in a straight line is only 368 yards. As therefore 
the Lower Pool was probably within the ancient walls, while St Mary's 
Well was outside, this tunnel may be Hezekiah's conduit. If the 
well were stopped, the besiegers would lose the water, which would 
collect in the Pool for the use of the besieged. An inscription in 
ancient Hebrew characters ("The Siloam Inscription") discovered in 
situ describes briefly the digging of the tunnel, but does not enable us 
to fix the date of it for certain. See for the original text Lidzbarski, 
Nordsemitzsche Epigraphik, Tafel xxi. i, and for an English translation, 
Sayce, Fresh Light from the Ancient Monuments^ p. 87. 

4. who stopt] R.V. and they stopped. 

the brook that ran] R.V. the torook that flowed. The Heb. verb 
means "flow with strong stream" (as a flood). We naturally look for 
such a brook either east of Jerusalem in the valley of Kidron or south 
in the valley of the son of Hinnom, but no perennial stream runs in 
either valley now. Possibly the waters which fed such a brook in the 
Chronicler's day now lose themselves (owing to physical changes in the 
configuration of the country) in the soil. 

5. Also he strengthened himself] R.V. And he took courage. Cp. 
i. I (note). 

broken] R.V. broken down; cp. xxv. 23 (note). 

raised it up to the towers] Render, repaired the towers, lit. "brought 
up [healing, restoration] upon the towers; cp. xxiv. 13 (Heb.); Neh. 
iv. I (Heb.). The ellipse is harsh, but not too harsh for the Chronicler. 
Vulg. reads, "built towers upon it." 

vv. 6— 9.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXlI. 269 

and another wall without, and repaired Millo in the city of 
David, and made darts and shields in abundance. And he 6 
set captains of war over the people, and gathered them 
together to him in the street of the gate of the city, and 
spake comfortably to them, saying, Be strong and courageous, 7 
be not afraid nor dismayed for the king of Assyria, nor foi 
all the multitude that is with him : for there be moe with us 
than with him : with him is an arm of flesh ; but with us is 8 
the Lord our God to help us, and to fight our battles. 
And the people rested themselves upon the words of 
Hezekiah king of Judah. 

After this did Sennacherib king of Assyria send his 9 

another waW] R.V. the other wall. In Is. xxii. 9 — 11 the prepara- 
tions to meet the Assyrian attack are described by the prophet who 
speaks of a "ditch" (R.V. "reservoir") made at this time between 
"the two walls." In Excavations at Jertisaleni, 1S94 — 1897, Dr Bliss 
describes a buttressed wall (pp. 96 ff.) built without lime (see his frontis- 
piece for an illustration of it) and enclosing the pool of Siloam 
on the S.E, which, he says, "may date back as far as Hezekiah" (pp. 
325 f.). Dr Bliss also, following up a clue given by earlier explorers 
found a second wall (running at an angle to the first) enclosing the pool 
on the west. This second wall was probably due to Herod, but 
Dr Bliss suggests that the line it follows may have been defended by a 
wall as early as Hezekiah's day (p. 326). Thus it is not hard to infer 
the general course of Hezekiah's two walls. 

Millo'] Cp. I Chr. xi. 8, note. 

darts and shields'] These were meant, not for such trained soldiers as 
Hezekiah could collect, but for the levy eft masse with which the king 
proposed to man the walls. A dart to throw and a shield to protect the 
thrower as he threw were all that the citizen-soldier needed. The Heb. 
word [shelah) means "dart, missile"; the more general rendering of 
the R.V. "weapons" obscures the meaning of Hezekiah's preparations. 

6. in the street of the gate] R.V. in the broad place at the gate ; 
cp. xxix. 4; Neh. viii. 16. There is nothing here to shew which of the 
two broad places mentioned in Nehemiah is meant, or whether some 
third place is intended. 

7. and courageous] R.V. and of a good courage. 
there be moe] R.V. there is a greater. 

8. an arm of Jlesh] Cp. Jer. xvii. 5. Contrast the frequent phrase 
"a mighty hand and a stretched out arm" (of Jehovah). An "arm" is 
an ally or helper. 

with us is the Lord] Cp. xv. 2; xx. 17; Is. viii. 10. 

9 — 19 (cp. 1 Kin. xviii. 17 — 35). Sennacherib's Threatening 

In this section Chron. briefly summarizes 2 Kin. 

270 II. CHRONICLES, XXXII. [vv. 10—14. 

servants to Jerusalem, (but he himself laid siege against 
Lachish, and all his power with him,) unto Hezekiah king 
of Judah, and unto all Judah that were at Jerusalem, saying, 
10 Thus saith Sennacherib king of Assyria, Whereon do ye 
" trust, that ye abide in the siege in Jerusalem ? Doth not 
Hezekiah persuade you to give over yourselves to die by 
famine and by thirst, saying, The Lord our God shall 

12 deliver us out of the hand of the king of Assyria ? Hath 
not the same Hezekiah taken away his high places and his 
altars, and commanded Judah and Jerusalem, saying. Ye 
shall worship before one altar, and burn incense upon it? 

13 Know ye not what I and my fathers have done unto all the 
people of other lands ? were the gods of the nations of those 
lands any ways able to deliver their lands out of mine hand? 

14 Who was there among all the gods of those nations that my 

9. his servants\ Three of these are specified in ^ Kin. by their 
titles, viz. the Tartan ("Commander-in-chief"), the Rab-saris ("Chief 
of the Heads"), and the Rab-shakeh ("Chief of the officers"). 

but he himself laid siege as^ainst Lachish"] R.V. now he was before 
LacMsh. The capture of Lachish by Sennacherib and its spoliation are 
shewn on an Assyrian relief now in the British Museum. The king 
himself besieged Lachish because it was of more importance for the 
main object of the campaign than Jerusalem. Sennacherib's objective 
was Egypt (Herod, ii. 141), and Lachish {Tell-el-Hesy, Bddeker, p. 154), 
lay directly in his path. 

10. abide in the siege] R.V. abide the siege. 

in Jerusalem] Isaiah promised deliverance in Jerusalem ; e.g. in Is. 
^£xix. 8; XXX. 19. 

11. persuade] Or "entice"; cp. i Chr. xxi. i ("provoked" for the 
same Heb. word). 

to give over yourselves] R.V. to give you over. 

12. his high places] Cp. 2 Kin. xviii. 4, R.V. The "high places" 
{bdf?idth) were properly sanctuaries of Jehovah, and not necessarily 
idolatrous in themselves. Yet in practice the bafuoth were found to 
give shelter to heathen worship, and idolatrous symbols, e.g. the 
asherah, the relics of Canaanite worship, were often placed beside them. 
It was found in fact that the purity of sacrificial worship could be best 
preserved by separating it from all places having heathen associations 
and restricting it to Jerusalem. Hezekiah acted vigorously in accord- 
ance with this experience and removed the bdmoth throughout the 

burn incense upon it] R.V. upon it shall ye burn incense. 

13. the people of other tabids] R.V. the peoples of the lands. 
In 2 Kin. xviii. 34 the lands are specified and include Samaria. 

(?/■ those lands .. .their lands] R.V. of the lands... their land. 

vv. 15—20.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXII. 271 

fathers utterly destroyed, that could deliver his people out 
of mine hand, that your God should be able to deliver you 
out of mine hand ? Now therefore let not Hezekiah deceive 15 
you, nor persuade you on this manner, neither yet believe 
him : for no god of any nation or kingdom was able to 
deliver his people out of mine hand, and out of the hand of 
my fathers : how much less shall your God deliver you out 
of mine hand ? And his servants spake yet more against 16 
the Lord God, and against his servant Hezekiah. He 17 
wrote also letters to rail on the Lord God of Israel, and to 
speak against him, saying. As the gods of the nations of 
of/ier lands have not delivered their people out of mine 
hand, so shall not the God of Hezekiah deliver his people 
out of mine hand. Then they cried with a loud voice in 18 
the Jews' speech unto the people of Jerusalem that were on 
the wall, to affright them, and to trouble them ; that they 
might take the city. And they spake against the God of 19 
Jerusalem, as against the gods of the people of the earth, 
which were the work of the hands of man. And for this 20 
cause Hezekiah the king, and the prophet Isaiah the son of 

15. neither yet believe hint] R.V. neither believe ye him. 

17. to rail on] Or, to defy (the same Heb. word as in 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 9). 

of other lands have not delivered] R.V. of the lands, which have 
not delivered. 

18. in the Jews' speech] R.V. in the Jews' language. Cp. 2 Kin. 
xviii. 28 ff. The Rab-shakeh shewed clearly that his object was not to 
treat with Hezekiah, but to excite a revolt among the Jews against 
Hezekiah and so gain possession of the city. 

19. against the God of Jertisaletn] R.V. of the God of Jerusalem. 
For this designation cp. Ps. cxxxv. 21. 

as againsithe gods of the people] R.V. as of the gods of the peoples. 
which were the work of the hands of man] R.V. which are the work 
of men's hands. Cp. Ps. cxxxv. 15 — 18. 

20 — 23 (cp. 2 Kin. xix. i — 4, 14 — 19, 35 — 37). Hezkkiah AND 
Isaiah pray. The Deliverance. 

This section is a very brief epitome of 2 Kin. xix. The Chronicler 
assumes here as elsewhere that his readers have access to the fuller 
sources of information. 

20. And for this cause Hezekiah... prayed] R.V. And Hezekiah... 
prayed because of this. 

272 II. CHRONICLES, XXXII. [vv. 21— 24. 

21 Amoz, prayed and cried to heaven. And the Lord sent an 
angel, which cut off all the mighty me)i of valour, and the 
leaders and captains in the camp of the king of Assyria. 
So he returned with shame of face to his own land. And 
when he was come into the house of his god, they that 
came forth of his own bowels slew him there with the 

22 sword. Thus the Lord saved Hezekiah and the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem from the hand of Sennacherib the king of 
Assyria, and from the hand of all other ^ and guided them 

23 on every side. And many brought gifts unto the Lord to 
Jerusalem, and presents to Hezekiah king of Judah : so 
that he was magnified in the sight of all nations from 

24 In those days Hezekiah was sick to the death, and prayed 

heaven] Here used reverently for "God"; cp. xxviii. 9; Dan. iv. 
26 ; Luke xv. 21. 

21. alt the mighty men] In number 185,000 according to 2 Kin. 
xix. 35 and Is. xxxvii. 36. The agency was probably the plague, which 
is pictured as a destroying angel in 2 Sam. xxiv. 16. 

And when he %vas co/?ie\ The murder of Sennacherib did not occur 
till some 20 years after his Judaean expedition (circ. 701 B.C.), i.e. not 
till 681 B.C. 

they that cavie forth] Render, some (or one) that came forth. The 
Chronicler no doubt follows Is. xxxvii. 38, "Adrammelech and Sharezer 
his sons smote him"; but the accuracy of the present text of this 
passage of Isaiah is doubtful, for in the parallel passage (2 Kin. xix. 37, 
Cthib) the words his sons are missing. The only notice of Sennacherib's 
death known to us at present from the Inscriptions is simply 
"Sennacherib king of Assyria his son (sing.) slew him in a revolt." 
No name is given to this son. (Schrader, Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek, 
vol. II., p. 281). 

22. guided them on every side] The verb in Heb. is the same as in 
Ps. xxiii. 2 ("he leadeth me"). The LXX. read the Heb. differently, 
"Gave them rest on every side"; cp. xx. 30. 

23. brought gifts] Cp. Ps. Ixviii. 29; Is. xviii. 7; Hag. ii. 7, 
8 (R.V.). 

presents] R.V. precious things. 

24—33 (cp. 2 Kin. xx. ; Is. xxxviii., xxxix)). Hezekiah's Sickness. 
The Ambassadors from Babylon. Hezekiah's Death. 

24. In those days] The phrase is taken over from 2 Kin. xx. i, and 
it cannot be determined what date is intended, though we might 
conclude from 2 Kin. xx. 6 that it was a time at which the Assyrian 
danger was not yet past, and that it was about the fourteenth year of 
Hezekiah (reigned 14+15 = 29 years). 

vv. 25—30.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXIL 273 

unto the Lord : and he spake unto him, and he gave him a 
sign. But Hezekiah rendered not again according to the 25 
benefit done unto him; for his heart was lifted up : therefore 
there was wrath upon him, and upon Judah and Jerusalem. 
Notwithstanding Hezekiah humbled himself for the pride 26 
of his heart, both he and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so 
that the wrath of the Lord came not upon them in the 
days of Hezekiah. And Hezekiah had exceeding much 27 
riches and honour : and he made himself treasuries for 
silver, and for gold, and for precious stones, and for spices, 
and for shields, and for all ma?iner of pleasant jewels ; 
storehouses also for the increase of corn, and wine, and oil ; 28 
and stalls for all manner of beasts, and cotes for flocks. 
Moreover he provided him cities, and possessions of flocks 29 
and herds in abundance : for God had given him substance 
very much. This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper 30 
watercourse of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the 

he spake] The Heb. word means in certain connexions, "to promise," 
and the idea of "promise" is present here, the sense being "God made 
him a promise and confirmed it by a wonder"; cp. 2 Kin. xx. 5, 6; 
8— II. 

a sign\ Rather, a wonder (R.V. mg.), as in ver. 31. 

26. his heart was lifted up] Cp- ver. 31 ; 2 Kin. xx. 12 — 15. 

wrath] Heb. qe^eph, a visitation of divine wrath; cp. xix. 2, 10; 
xxiv. 18, xxix. 8. 

26. humbled himself] Cp. 2 Kin. xx. 19. 

27. riches a7td honour] Cp. 2 Kin. xx. 13 ( = Is. xxxix. 2). 
shields] If the text be correct we must think of silver and gold in the 

form of shields; cp. ix. 15, 16; but perhaps we should read migddiioth, 
"precious things," (as in ver. 23), for mdginnoth, "shields." LXX. 
oirXod-qKas, i.e. "armouries"; Pesh. (text bemg doubtful here) "shields" 
or "pearls" or "precious gifts." 
pleasant Jewels] R.V. goodly vessels. 

28. cotes for flocks] A.V. here follows LXX. Vulg. and R. V. (follow- 
ing the Massoretic text) flocks in folds. The "cotes" or "folds " were 
enclosures with high stone walls as a defence against robbers and wild 
beasts. The text is probably faulty; Pesh. omits the clause. 

29. cities] The context suggests that these cities were meant chiefly 
as places of refuge for the flocks and herds in time of war. 

substance very much] R.V. very much substance. 

30. stopped] Cp. verses 3, 4. 

the upper watercourse] R.V. the upper spring of the waters. 
Gihon] The upper spring of Gihon is perhaps represented to-day by 
St Mary's Well; cp. Bddeker, p. 99, and note on ver. 3 above. 

CHRON. 18 

274 II. CHRONICLES, XXXII. XXXIII. [vv. 31— 33; 1—3. 

west side of the city of David. And Hezekiah prospered in 

31 all his works. Howbeit in the bicsiness of the ambassadors 
of the princes of Babylon, who sent unto him to inquire of 
the wonder that was do?ie in the land, God left him, to try 

32 him, that he might know all that was in his heart. Now 
the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and his goodness, behold, 
they are written in the vision of Isaiah the prophet, the son 
of Amoz, and in the book of the kings of Judah and Israel. 

33 And Hezekiah slept with his fathers, and they buried him 
in the chiefest of the sepulchres of the sons of David : and 
all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did him honour 
at his death. And Manasseh his son reigned in his stead. 

33 Manasseh ivas twelve years old when he began to reign, 

2 and he reigned fifty and five years in Jerusalem : but did 
that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, like unto the 
abominations of the heathen, whom the Lord had cast out 

3 before the children of Israel. For he built again the high 
places which Hezekiah his father had broken down, and he 

to the west side] R.V. on the west side. The present Loiver Pool of 
Siloam is rather to the S.E. of the present Jerusalem but it may have 
been S. W. of the ancient City of David. The Ambrosian MS. of Pesh. 
reads, 07t the east side., and this may be right. 

31. ambassadors'\ Lit. "interpreters." 

to inquire of the wonder] According to 2 Kin. xx. 12 ; Is. xxxix. i, 
the ostensible reason of the embassy was to congratulate Hezekiah on 
his recovery. The real object was to gain over Judah to an alliance 
against Assyria, against which Babylon was in a chronic state of 

to try him, that he viight know, etc.] The phrase is based on Deut. 
viii. 2. 

32. his goodness] R.V. Ms good deeds. Cp. xxxv. 26 (of Josiah); 
Neh. xiii. 14 (of Nehemiah). 

and in the book] R.V. omits and, the meaning of the Chronicler 
being that the vision of Isaiah is contained in the Book of Kings. 

33. in the chiefest] R.V. in the ascent, LXX. iv dva^daei. 
did him honour] Cp. xvi. 14; xxi. 19. 

Ch. XXXIH. 1—10 (Cp. 2 Kin. xxi. i — 16). Manasseh's Reign. 

His Apostasy. 

1. in yerusalem] The Chronicler omits here the name of Ma- 
nasseh's mother, Hephzi-bah. 

2. But did... like unto] R.V. And lie did... after (so 2 Kin.). 

had cast out] R.V. cast out (so 2 Kin.). The Hebrew of ver. 2 
exactly corresponds in Chron. and 2 Kin. 

vv. 4— 8.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXIII. 275 

reared up altars for Baalim, and made groves, and wor- 
shipped all the host of heaven, and served them. Also he 4 
built altars in the house of the Lord, whereof the Lord had 
said, In Jerusalem shall my name be for ever. And he 5 
built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of 
the house of the Lord. And he caused his children to 6 
pass through the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom : 
also he observed times, and used enchantments, and used 
witchcraft, and dealt with a familiar spirit, and with wizards : 
he wrought much evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke 
him to anger. And he set a carved image, the idol which 7 
he had made, in the house of God, of which God had said 
to David and to Solomon his son, In this house, and in 
Jerusalem, which I have chosen before all the tribes of 
Israel, will I put my name for ever : neither will I any more 8 
remove the foot of Israel from out of the land which I have 

3. Baalim'\ R.V. the Baalim. Baal was the title of the supreme 
God of the Canaanites, who was worshipped in different places under 
somewhat different aspects; hence the plural ("Baalim") here. The 
altars would be distributed through the country to suit the convenience 
of the people. 

groves\ R.V. Asheroth; cp. xiv. 3 (note). 

the host of heaven] Cp 2 Kin. xvii. 16; Jer. viii. 2. 

4. shall my navie be for ever] Cp. vii. 16. 
6. the two courts] Cp. iv. 9, (note). 

6. And he caused] R.V. He also made. There is stress on the 
pronoun " He" (that wicked one!). 

to pass through the fire] Cp. xxviii. 3, note. 

in the valley of the son of Hinnom] Cp. Jer. vii. 31, 32. 

observed times] R.V. practised aug^ury. The precise meaning of the 
Heb. word {^onen) is quite uncertain. "Augury" among the Romans 
consisted chiefly in observing birds and interpreting the observations 
made, but augurs observed also various natural phenomena. 

used witchcraft] R.V. practised sorcery. The Heb, word {kishsheph) 
is said to mean "make a magic brew with shredded herbs." 

with a familiar spirit] R.V. with them that had familiar spirits. 
The Heb. word {ob) probably means a necromancer who uses ventrilo- 
quism in the practice of his art. The witch of Endor (i Sam. xxviii.) 
was such a person. LXX. here has [eTrotTjo-ey] hyaarpLfiijdovs, i.e. "he 
appointed ventriloquists." 

7. a carved image, the idol] R.V. the graven image of the idol. In 
2 Kin. xxi. 7, R.V. "the graven image of Asherah." For Asherah cp. 
XV. 16 (note). 

had said... before all] R.V. said... out of all (as 3 Kin.). 

8. from out of] R.V. from off. 


276 II. CHRONICLES, XXXIII. [w. 9— 13. 

appointed for your fathers ; so that they will take heed to 
do all that I have commanded them, according to the whole 
law and the statutes and the ordinances by the hand of 
9 Moses. So Manasseh made Judah and the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem to err, a7id to do worse than the heathen, whom 
the Lord had destroyed before the children of Israel. 

10 And the Lord spake to Manasseh, and to his people : 

11 but they would not hearken. Wherefore the Lord brought 
upon them the captains of the host of the king of Assyria, 
which took Manasseh among the thorns, and bound him 

12 with fetters, and carried him to Babylon. And when he 
was in affliction, he besought the Lord his God, and hum- 
bled himself greatly before the God of his fathers, and 

13 prayed unto him : and he was intreated of him, and heard 
his supplication, and brought him again to Jerusalem into 

so that they will take heed'] R.V. if only they will observe (as 2 Kin.). 
according to the ivhole la%v\ R.V. even all tlie law. 

9. and to do worse than the heathen] R.V. so that they did evil 
more than did the nations. Cp. Jer. xv. 4, where the captivity itself 
is referred back for its cause to the evil deeds of Manasseh. 

10. the Lord spake] i.e. by prophets ; cp. 2 Kin. xxi. 10 — 15. 

11 — 13 (not in 1 Kin.). The Punishment of Manasseh, and 
HIS Repentance. 

For a discussion of the historical probabilities of this account see the 
Introduction, § 8. 

11. Assyria] No Assyrian inscription at present known speaks of 
the captivity of Manasseh, but we have monumental evidence that there 
was a great insurrection against Asshur-bani-pal, the grandson of 
Sennacherib, in which Western Asia (and perhaps Manasseh) was 
involved. The restoration of Manasseh after this to his kingdom is not 
incredible, for Neco I. of Egypt was first put in fetters and afterwards 
sent back to Egypt. (Schrader, Keilinschriften und das A T., pp. 
366 ff.) 

among the thorns] R.V., in chains, but better, with hooks (as R.V. 
mg.); cp. 2 Kin. xix. 28 ( = Is. xxxvii. 29). Assyrian kings sometimes 
thrust a hook into the nostrils of their captives and so led them about. 
The practice is illustrated on many Assyrian reliefs in the British 
Museum. The same mistranslation ("thorn" for "hook") occurs in 
Job xli. 2 [xl. 26, Heb.], cp. R.V. 

to Babylon] Nineveh, not Babylon, was the capital of Assyria, but as 
Asshur-bani-pal at times resided in Babylon, there is nothing improbable 
in any important prisoner of his being carried thither. 

12. affliction^ R.V. distress, as in xxviii. 22. 

12, 13. fathers, and prayed] R.V. fathers. And he prayed. 

vv. 14—19.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXIII. 277 

his kingdom. Then Manasseh knew that the Lord he was 
God. Now after this he built a wall without the city of 14 
David, on the west side of Gihon, in the valley, even to 
the entering in at the fish gate, and compassed about Ophel, 
and raised it up a very great height, and put captains of 
war in all the fenced cities of Judah. And he took away 15 
the strange gods, and the idol out of the house of the 
Lord, and all the altars that he had built in the mount of 
the house of the Lord, and in Jerusalem, and cast them 
out of the city. And he repaired the altar of the Lord, 16 
and sacrificed thereon peace offerings and thank offerings, 
and commanded Judah to serve the Lord God of Israel. 
Nevertheless the people did sacrifice still in the high places, 17 
yet unto the Lord their God only. Now the rest of the 18 
acts of Manasseh, and his prayer unto his God, and the 
words of the seers that spake to him in the name of the 
Lord God of Israel, behold, they are written in the book 
of the kings of Israel. His prayer also, and how God was ly 
intreated of him, and all his sin, and his trespass, and the 

14—17 (not in 2 Kin.). The Later Deeds of Manasseh. 

14. a zvall without the at}'] R.V. an outer wall to the city. 
even to the entering in] Or, " and [on the west] of the entering in." 
and compassed about] R.V. and lie compassed about. 

Ophel] Cp. xxvii. 3 (note). 

and put captaiyis of war] R.V. and lie put valiant captains. 

15. the idol] Cp. ver. 7. 

16. he repaired] R.V. lie built up; the Hebrew word for "build" 
meaning also "rebuild." Cp. xi, 5, note, 

peace offerings] Cp. i Chr. xvi. i (note). 
commanded y udah] Cp. ver. 9; 2 Kin. xxi. 11. 

17. yet...<?«/j'] R.V. but only.... Cp. xxxii. 12, note. 

18—20 (cp. 2 Kin. xxi. 17, 18). The Epilogue of Manasseh's 


18. his prayer] A Prayer of Manasses is given in a collection of 
hymns appended to the Psalter in the Alexandrine MS. (A) of the 
LXX. ; it is also found in the Latin Vulgate, though the translation is 
not by Jerome. In the English editions of the Apocrypha it occurs 
just before i Maccabees. Though widely current, it has no claim 
to be considered authentic, but it is worth reading. Our present 
Greek text seems to be an original work, and not a translation from the 
Hebrew (cp. Westcott in Smith's Diet, of the Bible., s.v. Alaftasses). 

in the book of the kings] R.V. among the acts of the kings. 

278 II. CHRONICLES, XXXIII. XXXIV. [vv.20— 25 ; 1,2. 

places wherein he built high places, and set up groves and 
graven images, before he was humbled : behold, they are 

20 written among the sayings of the seers. So Manasseh slept 
with his fathers, and they buried him in his own house: and 
Amon his son reigned in his stead. 

21 Amon was two and twenty years old when he began to 

22 reign, and reigned two years in Jerusalem. But he did that 
which was evil in the sight of the Lord, as did Manasseh 
his father : for Amon sacrificed unto all the carved images 

23 which Manasseh his father had made, and served them; and 
humbled not himself before the Lord, as Manasseh his 
father had humbled himself; but Amon trespassed more and 

?4 more. And his servants conspired against him, and slew 

25 him in his own house. But the people of the land slew all 

them that had conspired against king Amon; and the people 

of the land made Josiah his son king in his stead. 

34 Josiah was eight years old when he bega7i to reign, and 

2 he reigned in Jerusalem one and thirty years. And he 

19. groves and graven images, before he was humbled\ R.V. the 
Asherim and tlie graven images, before he humbled himself. 

a?nong the sayings of the seers\ Render, in the history of his seers ; 
cp. R.V. mg. and LXX., slightly emending the Hebrew text. To take 
the Heb. word {hdzai) as a proper name (so R.V.) is unsuitable, since the 
same word occurs as a common noun (" seers") in the preceding verse. 

20. in his own hotise'\ i.e. as in 2 Kin. "in the garden of his own 

21 — 25 ( = 2 Kin. xxi. 19 — 26). Amon's short Reign. Josiah 


21. in yerusalem\ The Chronicler ■ omits here Amon's mother's 
name; cp. ver. i. 

22. But he did] R.V. And he did. 

for Amon...ca7-ved i?nages'\ R.V. and Amon... graven images (as in 
ver. 19). 

23. and hicffibled] R.V. And he humbled. This ver. is not in 2 Kin. 
but Anion'] R.V. but this same Amon ; cp. xxviii. 22 (note). 
trespassed] Render, became guilty (so R.V. mg.) ; cp. xix. 10; 

xxiv. 18; xxviii. 10, 13. 

25. slew] Render, smote. The Hebrew word suggests perhaps that 
there was a conflict between the people and the conspirators. 

Ch. XXXIV. 1, 2 ( = 2 Kin. xxii. i, 2). JosiAii's good Reign. 

1. in Jerusalern one a7id thirty years] R.V. thirty and one years in 
Jerusalem (as 2 Kin.). Here the Chronicler omits Josiah's mother's 
name; cp. xxxiii. i, 21. 


did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and 
walked in the ways of David his father, and declined neither 
to the right hand, nor to the left. For in the eighth year 3 
of his reign, while he was yet young, he began to seek after 
the God of David his father : and in the twelfth year he 
began to purge Judah and Jerusalem from the high places, 

2. in the sight] R.V. in the eyes. 

declined neither .. .nor] R.V. turned not aside... or (as 2 Kin.). 

3 — 7 (cp. ver. 33 ; 2 Kin. xxiii. 4 — 20). Josiah destroys the 
Symbols of Idolatry. 

3. in the eighth year... and in the twelfth] The two dates given in 
this verse seem to be "doublettes," i.e. various readings both of which 
have been adopted and placed side by side in the text. Moreover it is 
probable that neither reading is original, for both seem to have been 
derived by some transcriptional error or other from 2 Kin. xxii. 3, where 
the account of Josiah's doings begins with the date, in the eighteenth 

Thus we get : — 

(a) 2 Kin. xxii. 3 (=2 Chr. xxxiv. 8): 
bishemoneh esreh, "eighteenth" (the original reading). 

{b) 2 Chr. xxxiv. 3^: 
bishemoneh, "eighth" (defective reading; esreh having dropped out). 

{c) 2 Chr. xxxiv. 3 b : 
bishteym esreh, "twelfth" (attempted correction, perhaps from 
memory, of the defective reading). 

It should also be noticed that the order of the events of Josiah's reign 
given in Chron. varies from that given in 2 Kin. Thus we have in 
2 Chr. : 

(i) Destruction of idolatrous symbols throughout Jerusalem, Judah 
and Israel ; xxxiv. 3 — 7. 

(2) Repair of the Temple and Finding of the Law ; ib. 8 — 28. 

(3) Renewal of the Covenant with Jehovah; ib. 29 — 32. 

i4) Great Passover kept ; xxxv. i — 19. 
5) Death of Josiah ; ib. 20 — 27. 

In 2 Kin. on the other hand (2), (3) precede (i), and there can be 
little doubt that this order is right. 

while he zvas yet young] There is no clause corresponding to this in 
2 Kin., and the statement rests on the probably faulty reading 
"eighth." Yet his early piety is probably a fact, for though in 2 Kin. 
his reformation is dated in the eighteenth year of his reign, i.e. when he 
was 25 years of age (hardly "young" for a king), the favourable judge- 
ment passed on- him (2 Kin. xxii. 2) is unqualified by any suggestion 
that he was tardy in turning to Jehovah. 

in the twelfth year he began] The Chronicler spreads the cleansing 
of the land over six years, i.e. from the twelfth to the eighteenth; cp. 
ver. 8. 

to purge] Josiah's measures are more fully enumerated and described 

28o II. CHRONICLES, XXXIV. [w. 4— 8. 

and the groves, and the carved images, and the molten 

4 images. And they brake down the altars of Baalim in his 
presence ; and the images, that were on high above them, he 
cut down ; and the groves, and the carved images, and the 
molten images, he brake in pieces^ and made dust of them, and 
strowed it upon the graves of them that had sacrificed unto 

5 them. And he burnt the bones of the priests upon their 

6 altars, and cleansed Judah and Jerusalem. And so did he 
in the cities of Manasseh, and Ephraim, and Simeon, even 

7 unto Naphtali, with their mattocks round about. And when 
he had broken down the altars and the groves, and had 
beaten the graven images into powder, and cut down all the 
idols throughout all the land of Israel, he returned to 

8 Now in the eighteenth year of his reign, when he had 
purged the land, and the house, he sent Shaphan the son 

in 2 Kin. xxiii.; notice e.g. the removal of the Asherah from the Temple 
(ver. 6), the destruction of the houses of the Jfedeshim {cp. Deut. xxiii. 
17, 18) which were in the House of the Lord (ver. 7), the deportation 
of priests from the cities of Judah into Jerusalem (vv. 8, 9), and the 
defiling of Topheth and of Beth-el (vv. 10, 15, 16). 
the groves] R.V. the Asherim; cp. xiv. 3 (note), 
carved images] R.V. graven images; as xxxiii. 7, 22. 

4. Baalim] R.V. the Baalim; cp. xxxiii. 3 (note). 

the images] R.V. the sun-images (so ver. 7 for "the idols"). See 
2 Kin. xxiii. 11. 

he cut down ; and the groves, and the carved images] R.V. he hewed 
down; and the Asherim, and the graven images. 

5. he burnt the bones of the priests] Specially at Beth-el; 2 Kin. xxiii. 
15, 16. 

cleansed] R.V. purged (as in vv. 3, 8). 

6. Sifneoyi] Here as in xv. 9 regarded as belonging to the Northern 
tribes, but their cities were in the south; cp. i Chr. iv. 28 ff. 

■with their mattocks] R.V. in their ruins (with marginal note, "The 
text is probably corrupt"). LXX. iv...Toi% tottols avrQy i.e. "in their 
places." Pesh. reads, in their broad places, and this is probably correct. 

7. And when... all the idols] R.V. And he brake down the altars, 
and heat the Asherim and the graven images into powder, and hewed 
down all the sun-images. 

he returned] R.V. and returned. 

8 — 28 (=2 Kin. xxii. 3 — 20). Repair of the Temple. 
Discovery of the Book of the Law. 

8. Shaphan] According to 2 Kin. he was Scribe. See i Chr. xviii. 
16 (note). 

vv. 9— 12.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXIV. 281 

of Azaliah, and Maaseiah the governor of the city, and Joah 
the son of Joahaz the recorder, to repair the house of the 
Lord his God. And when they came to Hilkiah the high 9 
priest, they delivered the money that was brought itito the 
house of God, which the Levites that kept the doors had 
gathered of the hand of Manasseh and Ephraim, and of all 
the remnant of Israel, and of all Judah and Benjamin ; and 
they returned to Jerusalem. And they put // in the hand 10 
of the workmen that had the oversight of the house of the 
Lord, and they gave it to the workmen that wrought in the 
house of the Lord, to repair and mend the house : even to 1 1 
the artificers and builders gave they it, to buy hewn stone, 
and timber for couplings, and to floor the houses which the 
kings of Judah had destroyed. And the men did the work 12 
faithfully : and the overseers of them were Jahath and 

the governor of the city] Render, a ruler of the city; cp. xxix. 20. 
the recorder] R.V. mg. the chronicler; cp. i Chr. xviii. 15 (note). 
Neither Maaseiah nor Joah is mentioned in 2 Kin. 

9. And when they came. ..they delivered'] R.V. And they came. ..and 
delivered. The matter is somewhat differently stated in 2 Kin. accord- 
ing to which they are sent to Hilkiah with a message to him to "sum" 
i.e. to reckon the total of the money collected in the Temple. 

the Levites that kept the doors] R.V. the Levites, the keepers of the 
door. In 1 Kin. xii. 9 the keepers of the doors are called priests ; cp. 
ib. XXV. 18. 

of the hand of Manasseh etc.] In 2 Kin. simply "of the people." 
and they returned to Je^-usalem] R.V. and of the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem. The A.V. (cp. for the meaning of this rendering, xxiv. 5) 
follows one reading of the Hebrew (the A'VJ), the R.V., in agreement 
with the LXX., follows the other reading [Cthib). 

10. pict it in] R.V. delivered it into. 

and they gave it to the worhnen that wrought in the house of the Lord] 
R.V. and the workmen that wrought in the house of the LORD 
gave it. The "workmen" are distinguished from the "carpenters and 
builders" (ver. 11); overseers of some kind are meant. To oversee the 
work and to do the work are used as synonymous phrases in i Chr. xxiii. 
4 and ibid. ver. 24. 

to repair and mend] R.V. to amend and repair. "To amend" 
is to fill up a breach. 

11. to the artificers and builders] R.V. to the carpenters and to the 

to floor] R.V. to make beams for. 
the houses] Cp. 1 Chr. xxviii. 11. 

12. the overseers] There is no parallel in 2 Kin. for the rest of this 
verse and for ver. 13. 

282 II. CHRONICLES, XXXIV. [w. 13—18. 

Obadiah, the Levites, of the sons of Merari ; and Zechariah 
and Meshullam, of the sons of the Kohathites, to set // 
forward ; and other of the Levites, all that could skill of 
'3 instruments of musick. Also they were over the bearers of 
burdens, and ivere overseers of all that wrought the work 
in any manner of service : and of the Levites there were 
scribes, and officers, and porters. 

14 And when they brought out the money that was brought 
into the house of the Lord, Hilkiah the priest found a 

15 book of the law of the Lord given by Moses. And Hilkiah 
answered and said to Shaphan the scribe, I have found the 
book of the law in the house of the Lord. And Hilkiah 

16 delivered the book to Shaphan. And Shaphan carried the 
book to the king, and brought the king word back again, 
saying, All that was committed to thy servants, they do it. 

17 And they have gathered together the money that was found 
in the house of the Lord, and have delivered it into the 
hand of the overseers, and to the hand of the workmen. 

«3 Then Shaphan the scribe told the king, saying, Hilkiah the 

to set it forward] The same Heb. word is used in i Chr. xxiii. 4. 
coti/tt skill] "Skill" is used as a verb also in ii. 7, 8. skill of 
instruments = "play skilfully upon instruments." 

13. were overseers of all that wrought the work] R.V. set forward 
all that did the work. 

i7i any matmer] R.V. in every manner. 
scribes] Transcribers of the Law; Ezra vii. 6, 11. 
officers] Cp. xix. 11. 
porters] Cp. i Chr. xxvi. i ff. 

14. This verse has no parallel in 2 Kin, 

a book of the law] R.V. the book of the law. This book was not the 
complete Pentateuch in its present shape, for the redaction of the 
Pentateuch as a whole, is attributed by the ablest critics to a later 
period than this. Similarly it cannot have been the book of Deuteronomy 
in the complete form in which we have it, for there are traces in 
Deuteronomy of the work of an editor who must have lived at a later 
time than the days of Josiah. This "book of the law" seems to have 
consisted (roughly reckoned) of Deut. v. — xxvi. with xxviii. 

15. answered and said] For the use of "answer" where no question 
had been asked cp. xxix. 31, note. 

16. and brotight the kijig zvord back again] R.V. and moreover 
brought the king word again. 

17. have gathered together] R.V. have emptied out. 

18. Then Shaphan] R,V. And Shaphan, 

vv. 19—22.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXIV. 283 

priest hath given me a book. And Shaphan read it before 
the king. And it came to pass, when the king had heard 19 
the words of the law, that he rent his clothes. And the 20 
king commanded Hilkiah, and Ahikam the son of 
Shaphan, and Abdon the son of Micah, and Shaphan the 
scribe, and Asaiah a servant of the king's, saying, Go, 21 
inquire of the Lord for me, and for them that are left 
in Israel and in Judah, concerning the words of the book 
that is found : for great is the wrath of the Lord that is 
poured out upon us, because our fathers have not kept the 
word of the Lord, to do after all that is written in this book. 
And Hilkiah, and they that the king had appointed^ went to 22 
Huldah the prophetess, the wife of Shallum the son of 
Tikvath, the son of Hasrah, keeper of the wardrobe ; (now 
she dwelt in Jerusalem in the college :) and they spake to 

hath giveri] R.V. hath delivered (as in ver. 15). 

read it] R.V. read therein. The Heb. expression is partitive. 

19. rent his clothes] A sign of grief. "Clothes" is in the plur. 
because both inner and outer garments are meant. See Ezra ix. 5 
(with Ryle's note). 

20. Ahikam the son of Shaphan] Cp. Jer. xxvi. 24; xl. 5. 
Abdon the son of Micah] In 1 Kin. "Achbor the son of Micaiah." 
a servant of the kings] R.V. the king's servant. 

21. Go] R.V. go ye (as in 2 Kin.). 

that is poured out upon us] In 2 Kin. "that is kindled against us," 
so LXX. eKK€KavTai. Cp. here, ver. 25 (note). 
after all] R.V. according unto all (cp. xxviii. 3). 

22. they that the king had appointed] R.V. they whom the king had 
commanded. The verb dmar has seemingly fallen out of the Heb. 

the prophetess] This title is given to Miriam (Ex. xv. 20), Deborah 
(Judg. iv. 4), Anna (Luke ii. 36); cp. also Neh. vi. 14; Rev. ii. 20. 

Tikvath] R.V. Tokhath. In 2 Kin. "Tikvah." 

Hasrah] In 1 Kin. "Harhas." 

keeper of the wardrobe] Lit. "keeper of the garments." The Heb. 
word for garments {begddim) is applied to a king's robes (xviii. 29), to 
a high priest's vestments (Ex. xxviii. 2, 4), and to clothes in general; it 
is therefore not easy to say what office precisely is here referred to. 
Some in consideration of 2 Kin. x. 22 have thought that the garments 
here meant were ecclesiastical and not royal. 

in the college] R.V. in the second quarter; so Zeph. i. 10 (R.V.). A 
second, newer division of the city seems to be meant, but precisely what 
part is not known. Cp. Neh. xi. 9 (with Ryle's note on second over 
the city). 

284 n. CHRONICLES, XXXIV. [w. 23—29. 

23 her to that effect. And she answered them, Thus saith the 
Lord God of Israel, Tell ye the man that sent you to me, 

24 Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will bring evil upon this 
place, and upon the inhabitants thereof, even all the curses 
that are written in the book which they have read before 

25 the king of Judah : because they have forsaken me, and 
have burned incense unto other gods, that they might 
provoke me to anger with all the works of their hands ; 
therefore my wrath shall be poured out upon this place, 

26 and shall not be quenched. And as for the king of Judah, 
who sent you to inquire of the Lord, so shall ye say unto 
him. Thus saith the Lord God of Israel concerning the 

27 words which thou hast heard ; Because thine heart was 
tender, and thou didst humble thyself before God, when 
thou heardest his words against this place, and against the 
inhabitants thereof, and humbledst thyself before me, and 
didst rend thy clothes, and weep before me ; I have even 

28 heard thee also, saith the Lord. Behold, I will gather thee 
to thy fathers, and thou shalt be gathered to thy grave in 
peace, neither shall thine eyes see all the evil that I will 
bring upon this place, and upon the inhabitants of the same. 
So they brought the king word again. 

29 Then the king sent and gathered together all the elders 

23. she answered thefn] R.V. she said unto them. 

24. all the curses'] Deut. xxvii. 15 — 26, xxviii. 15 — 68. 

25. therefore my wrath shall be poured out] R.V. therefore is my 
wrath poured out (agreeing with ver. 21). Some of its effects were 
already manifest. 

26. And as for the king] R.V. But unto the king. 

the Lord God of Israel concerning the words] R.V. the LORD, the 
God of Israel: As touching the words. 

27. humbledst. . .and didst rend. ..and weep] R.V. hast humbled. . .and 
hast rent... and wept. 

/ have even heard thee also] R.V. I also have heard thee. 

28. of the same] R.V. thereof. Cp. the similar promise made to 
Ahab (i Kin. xxi. 29). 

29—33 (cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. i — 3). The Renewal of the 
Covenant with Jehovah. 

This renewal of the covenant should be compared with Hezekiah's 
great service of atonement for the breach of the covenant (xxix. 20 ff.). 
See also Ex. xxiv. 3 — 8. 

VV.30— 33; I— 3-] II- CHRONICLES, XXXIV. XXXV. 285 

of Judah and Jerusalem. And the king went up into the 30 
house of the Lord, and all the men of Judah, and the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem, and the priests, and the Levites, 
and all the people, great and small : and he read in their 
ears all the words of the book of the covenant that was 
found in the house of the Lord. And the king stood in 31 
his place, and made a covenant before the Lord, to walk 
after the Lord, and to keep his commandments, and his 
testimonies, and his statutes, with all his heart, and with all 
his soul, to perform the words of the covenant which are 
written in this book. And he caused all that were present 32 
in Jerusalem and Benjamin to stand to it. And the in- 
habitants of Jerusalem did according to the covenant of 
God, the God of their fathers. And Josiah took away all 33 
the abominations out of all the countries that pertained to 
the children of Israel, and made all that were present in 
Israel to serve, even to serve the Lord their God. And all 
his days they departed not from following the Lord, the 
God of their fathers. 

Moreover Josiah kept a passover unto the Lord in Jeru- 35 
salem : and they killed the passover on the fourteenth day 
of the first month. And he set the priests in their charges, 2 
and encouraged them to the service of the house of the 
Lord, and said unto the Levites that taught all Israel, 3 

30. the Levites] In 2 Kin. "the prophets." 

31. to zval/i after the Lord] Cp. Dent. x. 12, 13. 
which are written] R.V. that were written. 

32. he caused alt that were found... ^c? stand to it] In 2 Kin., "all 
the people stood to the covenant." 

33. And y osiah took away] Cp. vv. 3 — 7. 

made all that were found... /<? set've] i.e. made the remnant of the 
Northern tribes his subjects. 

even to serve] Render, that they might serve. 

all his days] The case was altered under his son Jehoiakim. 

Ch. XXXV. 1 — 19 ( = 1 Esdras i. i — 22; cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. 21 — 23). 
Josiah's Passover. 

1. Moreover Josiah] R.V. And Josiah. 

the first month] The legal month ; cp. xxx. 2 (with note). 

2. in their charges] i.e. at their duties. 

encouraged them] As Hezekiah had done; cp. xxix. 5 — 11; xxx. 22. 

3. that taught all Israel] Cp. Neh. viii. 7, 9; also (perhaps) 2 Chr. 
xxx. 22, A.V. 

286 II. CHRONICLES, XXXV. [vv. 4— 9. 

which were holy unto the Lord, Put the holy ark in the 
house which Solomon the son of David king of Israel did 
build ; it shall not be a burden upon your shoulders : serve 

4 now the Lord your God, and his people Israel, and prepare 
yourselves by the houses of your fathers, after your courses, 
according to the writing of David king of Israel, and ac- 

5 cording to the writing of Solomon his son. And stand in 
the \\o\y place according to the divisions of the families of 
the fathers of your brethren the people, and after the division 

6 of the families of the Levites. So kill the passover, and 
sanctify yourselves, and prepare your brethren, that they 
may do according to the word of the Lord by the hand of 

7 Moses. And Josiah gave to the people, of the flock, lambs 
and kids, all for the passover offerings^ for all that were 
present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thou- 

8 sand bullocks : these were of the king's substance. And 
his princes gave willingly unto the people, to the priests, 
and to the Levites : Hilkiah and Zechariah and Jehiel, 
rulers of the house of God, gave unto the priests for the 
passover offerings two thousand and six hundred small cattle^ 

9 and three hundred oxen. Conaniah also, and Shemaiah 

4. by the houses of your fathers^ after your courses'\ R. V. after your 
fathers' houses by your courses. 

the writing of David] Cp. i Chr. xxiii. 27; xxviii. 19 — 21. 

5. of the families of the fathers'] R. V. of the fathers' houses. 

the people] R.V. the children of the people, i.e. the laity. The same 
phrase is translated in 2 Kin. xxiii. 6 "the common people" (without 
any invidious meaning). 

and after the division of the families of the Levites] R.V. and let there 
be for each a portion of a fathers' house of the Levites. Each great 
division of the laity is to be served by a small division of the Levites. 

6. prepare your brethren that they jnay do] R.V. prepare for your 
brethren, to do. Cp. vv. 12, 13. 

7. gave] R.V. mg., gave for offerings ; cp. xxx. 24, (R-V.) where it 
is said that Hezekiah did the same at his great Passover. 

to the people] R.V. to the children of the people (as in ver. 5, see 
for all] R.V. unto all. 

8. %villingly\ The A.V. is better here than the R.V. ("for a free will 

rulers of the house of God] Cp. i Chr. ix. 11, note. 

9. Conaniah... and Shemaiah] Perhaps the "Conaniah and Shimei 
his brother" of xxxi. 12, and so fozabadv^siy be the "Jozabad" of xxxi^ 

vv. 10—15.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXV. 287 

and Nethaneel, his brethren, and Hashabiah and Jeiel and 
Jozabad, chief of the Levites, gave unto the Levites for 
passover offerings five thousand S7?tall cattle, and five hundred 
oxen. So the service was prepared, and the priests stood 10 
in their place, and the Levites in their courses, according to 
the king's commandment. And they killed the passover, n 
and the priests sprinkled the blood from their hands, and 
the Levites flayed them. And they removed the burnt 12 
offerings, that they might give according to the divisions 
of the families of the people, to offer unto the Lord, as it 
is written in the book of Moses. And so did they with the 
oxen. And they roasted the passover with fire according 13 
to the ordinance : but the other holy offerings sod they in 
pots, and in caldrons, and in pans, and divided them speedily 
among all the people. And afterward they made ready for m 
themselves, and for the priests : because the priests the 
sons of Aaron were busied in offering of burnt offerings and 
the fat until night ; therefore the Levites prepared for them- 
selves, and for the priests the sons of Aaron. And the 15 
singers the sons of Asaph we?'e in their place, according to 
the commandment of David, and Asaph, and Heman, and 
Jeduthun the king's seer ; and the porters waited at every 

13. If this be so, the names represent families rather than individuals, 
for nearly sixty years separate the reigns of Hezekiah and Josiah. 
chief] R.V. the chiefs. 

10. in their courses^ R.V. hy their courses. 

11. sprinkled] Cp. xxix. 22, note. 

from their hands] R.V. which they received of their hand ; cp. xxx. 
the Levites flayed] Cp. xxix. 34. 

12. that they might give according to the divisions of the fajnilies of 
the people] R.V. that they might give them according to the divisions 
of the fathers' houses of the children of the people. 

13. the ordinance] Ex. xii. 9. 

but the other holy offerings] R.V. and the holy offerings. The 
bullocks mentioned in vv. 7, 8, 9. They vi^ould not be slain on the 
Passover day itself, but on the days which immediately followed. 

divided them speedily amotig all the people] R.V. carried them 
quickly to all the children of the people. 

14. of bur^it offerings] R.V. the burnt offerings. 
the fat] Cp. vii. 7, note; xxix. 35. 

15. the singers] Cp. i Chr. xxv. i ff. 

waited at every gate; they might not depart] R.V. "Were at every 
gate : they needed not to depart. 

288 II. CHRONICLES, XXXV. [vv. 16—20. 

gate ; they might not depart from their service ; for their 

16 brethren the Levites prepared for them. So all the service 
of the Lord was prepared the same day, to keep the pass- 
over, and to offer burnt offerings upon the altar of the 

17 Lord, according to the commandment of king Josiah. And 
the children of Israel that were present kept the passover 
at that time, and the feast of unleavened bread seven days. 

18 And there was no passover like to that, kept in Israel from 
the days of Samuel the prophet; neither did all the kings 
of Israel keep such a passover as Josiah kept, and the 
priests, and the Levites, and all Judah and Israel that were 

19 present, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. In the eighteenth 
year of the reign of Josiah was this passover kept. 

20 After all this, when Josiah had prepared the temple, 
Necho king of Egypt came up to fight against Carchemish 

16. the same day] Lit. "on that day," i.e. the fourteenth of Nisan. 

18. there was no passover] Cp. what is said of Hezekiah's Passover, 
XXX. 26. 

fro7n the days of Samuel] Perhaps in allusion to i Sam. ix. 12, 13, 
though there is no word there to identify the feast mentioned with the 
Passover. In 1 Kin. xxiii. 22 "from the days of the judges." 

19. in the eighteenth year] Cp. xxxiv. 8; 2 Kin. xxiii. 23. 

20 — 24 (= I Esd. i. 25 — 31 ; cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. 29, 30). The Death 

OF Josiah. 

The account of Josiah's death is veiy much fuller in Chron. than in 
Kings. The features which are peculiar to the Chronicler are, 
(i) Neco's message to dissuade Josiah from war, (2) Josiah's disguising 
himself and coming to fight in the valley of Megiddo., (3) the wounding 
of Josiah by archers, (4) the transfer of the wounded king from a war 
chariot to another chariot. In other words all the details which 
represent the meeting at Megiddo as a battle are peculiar to Chron. 

The account given in Kings is simply: — "King Josiah weitt to meet 
him (Necho), and he put him to death at Megiddo when he saw him. 
And his servants carried him in a chariot dead from Megiddo, and 
brought him to Jerusalem." The Hebrew expression for "went to 
meet" in this passage is the same as in i Kin, xviii. 16; 2 Kin. xvi. 10; 
it does not suggest a hostile meeting, though it can be used in a suitable 
context to describe one. The phrase "when he saw him" suggests an 
interview rather than a battle. Thus we have two traditions of Josiah's 
death : according to Chron. he was mortally wounded in battle, 
according to Kings he sought an interview Mdth Neco and was 
assassinated by him at the town of Megiddo. 

20. Necho] R.V. Neco. This was Neco II. (reigned 611 — 595 B.C., 
Maspero, Histoire Ancienne, p. 545, note), who according to Herodotus 

vv. 21— 24.] 11. CHRONICLES, XXXV. 289 

by Euphrates : and Josiah went out against him. But he 21 
sent ambassadors to him, saying, What have I to do with 
thee, thou king of Judah ? / mm not against thee this day, 
but against the house wherewith I have war : for God 
commanded me to make haste : forbear thee from meddHng 
with God, who is with me, that he destroy thee not. Never- 22 
theless Josiah would not turn his face from him, but dis- 
guised himself, that he might fight with him, and hearkened 
not unto the words of Necho from the mouth of God, and 
came to fight in the valley of Megiddo. And the archers 23 
shot at king Josiah; and the king said to his servants. 
Have me away ; for I am sore wounded. His servants 24 

(n. 159) conquered the "Syrians" (Jews or Assyrians?) at "Magdol" 
(Megiddo or Magdol near the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile?) and then 
captured Cadytis (Kadesh on the Orontes or Gaza?), an important city 
of Syria. The account of Herodotus is obscure, ambiguous and defec- 
tive, but a comparison of 2 Kings with an inscription of Nabu-na'id king 
of Babylon (555— 538 B.C.) sets Neco's action in a clearer light. The 
campaign (which took place about 608 B.C.) was directed "against the 
king of Assyria" (2 Kin. xxiii. 29), i.e. against the last king Sin-sar- 
iskun (Saracos) who was at war wiih Nabopolassar (father of iSebuchad- 
nezzar), king of Babylon. Nabopolassar, hard pressed, called in to his 
help the Umman-manda (Scythians), who destroyed Nineveh circ. 
608 B.C. ; cp. Messerschmidt, die Inschrift der Stele Nabu-na'id^ s 
^pp, g — 12). Neco advanced to the Euphrates to secure some of the 
spoils of the Assyrian overthrow, but the victory of Nebuchadnezzar 
over Neco at Carchemish (circ. 605 B.C.) finally excluded Egypt from 
any share. 

against Carchemish] Cp. Jer. xlvi. 2. It was a city situated near 
the junction of the Habor and Euphrates. In 2 Kin., "against the 
king of Assyria." 

21. against the house wherewith I have war] In i Esd. i. 27 there 
is a different reading "My war is upon Euphrates." 

commanded] R.V. hath commanded. 

22. disguised himself] Josiah, like Ahab (xviii. 29), took the 
warning so far seriously as to think that his life was in danger and that 
he would be safer fighting in disguise. The eKpaTanbOr] ("was strength- 
ened") of the LXX. represents an inferior reading. 

the valley of Megiddo] Cp. Judg. v. 19; Zech. xii. 11. In i Esd. i. 
29, "the plain of Megiddo." The whole (or perhaps only the western 
part) of the plain of Esdrelon is meant; cp. i Chr. x. 7, note. 

23. the archers shot] Cp. the death of Ahab, xviii. 33. i Esd. i. 29 
has an inferior reading, viz. "the princes came down against king 

24. His servants therefore took him out of that chariotl R.V. So his 
servants took him out of the chariot. 

CHRON. 19 

290 II. CHRONICLES, XXXV. XXXVI. [vv.25— 27; 1,2. 

therefore took him out of that chariot, and put him in the 
second chariot that he had ; and they brought him to Jeru- 
salem, and he died, and was buried in one of the sepulchres 
of his fathers. And all Judah and Jerusalem mourned for 
2s JosiaL And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah : and all the 
singing men and the singing women spake of Josiah 
in their lamentations to this day, and made them an 
ordinance in Israel : and behold, they are written in the 

26 lamentations. Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and his 
goodness, according to that which was written in the law 

27 of the Lord, and his deeds, first and last, behold, they are 
written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah. 

36 Then the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of 

Josiah, and made him king in his father's stead in Jerusa- 

2 lem. Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he 

the second chariot] War chariots were small, with (apparently) only 
standing room for their occupants ; see the illustrations of Egyptian and 
Assyrian chariots given in Smith's Bib. Diet. s.v. This "second 
chariot" was probably of a larger kind, suitable for travelling. 

in one of the sepulchres] R. V. in the sepulchres. 

25 (=1 Esd. i. 32; not in 2 Kin.). The Lamentations 
FOR Josiah. 

25^ lamented] i.e. "composed {or uttered) an elegy." The Heb. word 
{konen) suggests formal composition, and the actual words of lamen- 
tation are often given; 2 Sam. i. i7ff.; iii. 33, 34; Ezek. xxvii. 32; 
xxxii. 2, 16. 

aw^they made them an ordinance] Cp. 2 Sam. i. 18, R.V. 

in the lamentations] In some lost work, not in our 'canonical book 
of the Lamentations, for there we "look in vain for a single word 
distmctive of a funeral dirge over a devout and zealous reformer like 
Josiah" (E. H. Plumptre in Smith's Bib. Diet. s.v.). 

26, 27 (=1 Esd. i. 33; 2 Kin. xxiii. 25, 28). The Epilogue of 
Josiah's Reign. 

26. his goodness] R.V. his good deeds; cp. xxxii. 32. 
_ according to that which was (is) written] Cp. the strong terms used 
in 2 Km. xxiii. 25, "like unto him was no king before him, that turned 
to the Lord with all his heart,.. according to all the law of Moses 
neither after him arose there any like him." 

Ch. XXXVL 1—4 ( = 1 Esd. i. 34—38; 2 Kin. xxiii. 31—34). 
The Reign of Jehoahaz. 
1. the people of the land took] Cp. xxvi. i ; xxxiii. 25. 
Jehoahaz] Called "Shallum" in i Chr. iii. 15; Jer. xxii 11 He 
was younger than Jehoiakim; ver. 5. 

vv. 3—6.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXVI. 291 

began to reign, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. 
And the king of Egypt put him down at Jerusalem, and 3 
condemned the land in an hundred talents of silver and a 
talent of gold. And the king of Egypt made Eliakim his 4 
brother king over Judah and Jerusalem, and turned his 
name to Jehoiakim. And Necho took Jehoahaz his brother, 
and carried him to Egypt. 

Jehoiakim ivas twenty and five years old when he began 5 
to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem : and he 
did that which ivas evil in the sight of the Lord his God. 
Against him came up Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, 6 

2. in y erusalem^ His mother's name is here omitted ; cp. xxxiii. i, 
21; xxxiv. I. According to 2 Kin. xxiii. 32 (cp. Ezek. xix. 3, 4) 
Jehoahaz "did evil." 

3. put him dozvn at yerusale?ii\ R.V. deposed Mm at Jerusalem. 
The clause answers to 2 Kin. xxiii. 33, "put him in bands at Riblah in 
the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem." Perhaps 
we should read the same words in Chron. The Heb. words for 
"deposed" and "put in bands" are liable to be easily confused. 

condemned'^ R.V. amerced. For "amerce" in the sense of "fine," cp. 
Deut. xxii. 19; and for "condemn" in the same sense see Amos ii. 8 
(A.V., "fined" R.V.). 

an huttdred talents of silver and a talent of gold^ The land was poorer 
than in the days in which Sennacherib had imposed a fine on Hezekiah 
of "three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents oi gold" (2 Kin. 
xviii. 14). 

4. turned his name to Jehoiakim'\ This name is compounded with 
the divine name Jehovah. Probably Neco made the new king swear 
fealty by yehovah, and then declared his official name to be Jehoiakim, 
in order that he and his people might have something to remind them of 
the oath he had taken. 

to Egypt'Y He died in Egypt; 2 Kin. xxiii. 34; Jer. xxii. 12. 

5 — 8 (=x Esd. i. 39 — 42; 2 Kin. xxiii. 35 — xxiv. 7). The Reign 
OF Jehoiakim. 

5. in yerusalem^ The Chronicler omits his mother's name (cp. ver. 
2, note) and also the statement that he raised the indemnity imposed by 
Neco by means of a poll-tax (2 Kin. xxiii. 35). 

he did that which was evil'\ Cp. 2 Kin. xxiii. 37 ; Jer. xxii. 13 — 18; 
xxvi. 20 — 23; xxxvi. I — 32. 

6. Nebuchadnezzar'\ A more accurate form of his name is "Nebu- 
chadrezzar" (so generally in Jeremiah and Ezekiel); in the Inscriptions 
"Na-bi-um-ku-du-ur-ri-u-su-ur," also "Nabu-ku-dur-ri-u-su-ur," the 
meaning being, "O Nebo (one of the gods of Babylon; cp. Is. xlvi. i), 
protect the crown (or the boundary) !" He reigned from 604 — 561 B.C., 

19 — 2 

292 II. CHRONICLES, XXXVI. [vv. 7—9. 

7 and bound him in fetters, to carry him to Babylon. Nebu- 
chadnezzar also carried of the vessels of the house of the 
Lord to Babylon, and put them in his temple at Babylon. 

8 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and his abominations 
which he did, and that which was found in him, behold, 
they are written in the book of the kings of Israel and 
Judah : and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead. 

9 Jehoiachin was eight years old when he began to reign, 
and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem : 

and was succeeded by Evil-Merodach (Amil-Marduk). The only purely 
historical inscription relating to his reign deals with a campaign in 
Egypt in 568 B.C. ; cp. Jer. xliii. ii. 

Nebuchadnezzar^ It seems probable that Nebuchadnezzar did not in 
person come up against Jerusalem at the end ofy ehoiakim^ s reign., nor in 
person carry off any of the sacred vessels; it is likely moreover that 
Jehoiakim was not carried to Babylon. The result of Jehoiakim's 
rebellion against Nebuchadnezzar was according to 2 Kin. simply that 
"bands" of Chaldeans and their allies invaded Judah. Probably 
Jehoiakim's life and reign came to an end {hoiv we do not know; cp. 
Jer. xxii. 18, 19) during this petty warfare, and then three months later, 
the main Chaldean army under Nebuchadnezzar having arrived, Jeru- 
salem was taken, and Jehoiakim's son and successor Jehoiachin was 
carried off with the golden vessels of the house of the Lord to Babylon. 
The Chronicler seems to foreshorten the history at this point. 

7. of the vessels] There is no mention in 2 Kin. of the removal of 
sacred vessels during Jehoiakim's reign. Some were carried off under 
Jehoiachin, the rest under Zedekiah; 1 Kin. xxiv. 13; xxv. 13 — 17. 
Cp. last note. 

in his temple'] So LXX.; i Esd. i. 39 [41]; Dan. i. 1. R.V. mg., 
"in his palace." The Heb. word {heykdl) is a loan-word; the original 
{ikallu) is the ordinary word in Assyrio-Babylonian for "palace." 

8. that which was foimd in him] i.e. his sin (in this context) ; cp. i 
Kin. xiv. 13. 

9, 10 (=1 Esd. i. 43 — 45; cp. 2 Kin. xxiv. 8 — 17). The Reign 
OF Jehoiachin. 

The account given in 2 Kin. contains much that is not given in 
Chron. and, in particular, many details of the first captivity of Judah. 

9. Jehoiachiri] Called "Jeconiah," i Chr. iii. 16, where see note. 
eight years] So LXX. (B) of Chron. and of Esd., but the number is 

probably corrupt for eighteen (so LXX. (A) of Chron. and of Esd. 
and Heb. and LXX. of 2 Kin. xxiv. 8). It is possible that the clause 
"and ten days" below is a misplaced fragment of an original reading 
ben shemoneh esreh shanah, i.e. "eighteen years old." 

in Jerusalem] The Chronicler here omits the king's mother's name 
(cp. ver. 2, note), though she was a person of some influence ; cp. 2 Kin. 
xxiv. 12 ; Jer. xxii. 24 — 26; and perhaps ibid. xiii. 18 (R.V.). 

vv. 10—14.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXVI. 293 

and he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord. 
And when the year was expired, king Nebuchadnezzar sent, lo 
and brought him to Babylon, with the goodly vessels of the 
house of the Lord, and made Zedekiah his brother king 
over Judah and Jerusalem. 

Zedekiah tvas one and twenty years old when he bega7i n 
to reign, and reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And he 12 
did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord his God, 
and humbled not himself before Jeremiah the prophet 
speaking from the mouth of the Lord. And he also re- 13 
belled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him 
swear by God : but he stiffened his neck, and hardened 
his heart from turning unto the Lord God of Israel. More- 14 
over all the chief of the priests, and the people, transgressed 
very much after all the abominations of the heathen : and 

he did that which was evil'\ Cp. Jer. xxii. 24 ; Ezek. xix. 5 —9. 

10. when the year was expired'] R.V. at the return of the year ; cp. 
2 Sam. xi. 1 = 1 Chr. xx. i, "at the return of the year, at the time when 
kings go out to battle," R.V. This would be in the spring. 

brought him to Babylon] It was not the king only, but also all the 
best of the people, "the princes, of valour, the craftsmen and the 
smiths" who went into captivity; 2 Kin. xxiv. 14; Jer. xxiv. i, 5; Ezek. 
xvii. 12 — 14. 

Zedekiah] A covenant-name like "Jehoiakim" (ver. 4, note); it 
seems to mean "Righteousness of Jehovah"; cp. the significant title in 
Jer. xxiii. 6, "The Lord is our Righteousness." Zedekiah 's original 
name was "Mattaniah"; 2 Kin. xxiv. 17. 

his brother] In 2 Kin. (more accurately) "his father's brother"; cp. 
I Chr. iii. 15, 16, notes. 

11 — 19 (=1 Esd. i. 46 — 56; cp. 2 Kin. xxiv. 18 — xxv. 21; Jer. xxxvii. 
I — xxxix. 8; Hi. i — 27). Reign of Zedekiah. Destruction 
OF Jerusalem. 

11. in yerusalem] The Chronicler omits, as usual, his mother's 
name. She was "Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah" 
(2 Kin. xxiv. 18), and was mother of Jehoahaz also {ibid, xxiii. 31). 
Jehoiakim was by a different mother {ibid. ver. 36). 

12. hu?nbled not himself] Jeremiah consistently advised Zedekiah 
to submit to the Chaldeans; but the king partly through fear of his 
princes, partly through illusive hopes, could never bring himself to do 
this; cp. Jer. xxi. i — 7; xxxiv. 8 — 22; xxxvii. i — 10, 17; xxxviii. 


13. who had made him, swear by God] Cp. Ezek. xvii. 11 — 19. 

14. the chief] R.V. the chiefs. 

transgressed very much] R.V. trespassed very greatly. 

294 II. CHRONICLES, XXXVI. [vv. 15—20. 

polluted the house of the Lord which he had hallowed in 

15 Jerusalem. And the Lord God of their fathers sent to 
them by his messengers, rising up betimes, and sending; 
because he had compassion on his people, and on his 

16 dwelling place : but they mocked the messengers of God, 
and despised his words, and misused his prophets, until 
the wrath of the Lord arose against his people, till there was 

17 no remedy. Therefore he brought upon them the king of 
the Chaldees, who slew their young men with the sword in 
the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion upon 
young man or maiden, old man, or him that stooped for 

i3 age : he gave them all into his hand. And all the vessels 
of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of 
the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king, and 

19 of his princes ; all these he brought to Babylon. And they 
burnt the house of God, and brake down the wall of Jeru- 
salem, and burnt all the palaces thereof with fire, and 

20 destroyed all the goodly vessels thereof. And them that 
had escaped from the sword carried he away to Babylon ; 

polluted the house'] Jer. vii. 9 — 11; xxiii. 11 — 14; Ezek. viii. 
5 — 16. 

15. rising up betimes, and sending] R.V. rising up early and 
sending; cp. Jer. xxvi. 5. 

16. mocked the messengers] Jeremiah was imprisoned, beaten, and 
threatened with death, Urijah (Jer. xxvi. 20 — 23) was put to death. Of 
the fate of Habakkuk (who also lived during the Chaldean period, 
Hab. i. 6) nothing is known. 

misused his prophets] R.V. scoffed at Ms prophets. 

17. Chaldees'] R.V. Chaldeans. Their name in Hebrew is Casdim 
and in Assyrio-Babylonian Caldu (the change of "s"for"l" before a 
dental is not uncommon in the latter language). They were a people 
originally living south of Babylon on the sea, but Nabopolassar, father 
of Nebuchadnezzar, conquered Babylon and established a Chaldseo- 
Babylonian empire. 

in the house of their sanctuary] Cp. Ezekiel's vision of the slaughter; 
Ezek. ix. I — II. 
him that stooped for age] R.V. ancient ; cp. Is. ix. 15. 

18. all the vessels] i.e. all the vessels which remained after the 
previous spoliation (ver. 10). They were perhaps chiefly of brass; cp. 
2 Kin. XXV. 13 — 15. 

19. brake doxvn the wall] The Heb. verb here used {nittef) implies 
probably a more thorough breaking down than the pdraf of xxv. 23 (see 
note) ; xxvi. 6. 

vv. 21—23.] II. CHRONICLES, XXXVI. 295 

where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign 
of the kingdom of Persia : to fulfil the word of the Lord 21 
by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her 
sabbaths : for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath, 
to fulfil threescore and ten years. 

Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the 22 
word of the Lord spoken by the mouth of Jeremiah might 
be accomplished, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus 
king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all 
his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying. Thus saith 23 
Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath 
the Lord God of heaven given me; and he hath charged 

20, 21 (=1 Esd. i. 57, 58). The Captivity. 

20. to him aitd his sons] Cp. Jer. xxvii. 7. There were three kings 
of Babylon after Nebuchadnezzar before Cyrus established Persian rule, 
viz. Evil-Merodach (Amil-Marduk) (2 Kin. xxv. 27), Neriglissar (Nergal- 
sar-usur), and Nabonidus (Nabu-na'id). The last two kings were 
usurpers. Neriglissar was (it seems) son-in-law to Nebuchadnezzar 
(Hommel, Babylonia in Hastings' Bible Diet., i. 229a). Whether 
Nabonidus was connected with the royal house is not known. 

21. by the mouth of yeremiah] Cp. Jer. xxv. 11; xxix. 10. 

until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths] Cp. Lev. xxv. I — 7 ; xxvi. 

34> 35- 

threescore and ten years] i.e. two whole generations. It is very 
unlikely that the Chronicler intended to suggest that the Sabbatical years 
had been neglected throughout the period (about 490 = 70 x 7 years) 
during which the kingdom lasted, for he mentions several God-fearing 
kings (David, Solomon, Jehoshaphat) whose reigns would need to be 
subtracted from this total, so that the number of violated Sabbatical 
years would fall considerably below 70. 

22, 23 ( = Ezrai. i — 3a; i Esd. ii. i — 5a). Cyrus Decrees the 
Rebuilding of the Temple. 

On this section see the full notes of Professor Ryle on Ezra. 

The historical character of this decree of Cyrus has been questioned 
(on purely subjective grounds) by Cheyne, Jewish Religious Life after 
the Exile, pp. 5 — 7. 

22. stiri-ed up the spirit] Cp. i Chr. v. 26; Haggai i. 14. 

made a proclamatio7i\ cp. xxx. 5 . The phrase is characteristic of the 

23. All the kingdoms of the earth] The king of Babylon bore the 
title of "king of the four quarters of the world." Cyrus succeeded to 
this title on his conquest of Babylon. 

God of heaven] R.V. the God of heaven. 

296 II. CHRONICLES, XXXVI. [v. 23. 

me to build him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. 
Who is there among you of all his people ? The Lord his 
God be with* him, and let him go up. 

Who is there among you of all his people? The Lord . . .€ic^^ R.V. 
Whosoever there is among you of all his people, the LORD... etc. 

let him go up'\ i.e. to Jerusalem ; cp. Ezra i. 3. Since Chronicles is 
the last book of the Old Testament (according to the Hebrew order), 
these words are to be reckoned the last words of the Old Testament. 



Abiathar, 8i, 97 

Abijah, 187 fF. 

addirim, 231 

Adullam, cave of, 62, 181 

Ahab, 204 ff. 

Ahaz, 247 fF. 

Ahaziah, 224 

Ahl, 168 

Akaba, gulf of, 172 

Alashya, 3 

Alexander the Great, xii, 3 

Algum tree = Almug tree, 148, 174 

Altar of incense, xxxii, 245 

Altar-pillars, 63 

Amaziah, 236 ff. 

Ambushment, 189, 216 

Ammonites, 98, 102, 103 

Amon, King of Judah, 278 

Anachronisms, xxviii 

Anathoth, 65 

Angel, ic6 fF. 

Apes, 176 

Aram = Syria, 252 

Ariel, 63 

Ark, 75, 76, 80 ff, 158 f. 

Armourbearer, 56 

Asa, 191 ff 

Asaph, 82, 85 

Ashdod, 242 

Asherim, Asheroth, 191, 210, 234, 275, 

Ashtorcth, 57 
Asshur-bani-pal, 267, 276 

Assyrians, the, 6 
Assyrian monuments, 276 
Athaliah, 225 fF. 
Augury, 275 

Authorised English Version, xxxv 
azdrdh, 155, 213 
Azariah, the prophet, 195 
Azariah, another name for Uzziah the 
King, 241 

Baal, use and disuse of the title, 17, 46, 
201 ; house of, 230 ; altars of, 275 

Babylon, 276 ; kings of, 295 

Badeker's Palestine and Syria, referred 
to, 21 (twice), 26, 59, 78, 102, 105, 125, 
i8i, 197, 198 &c. 

Balsam-trees, 79 

bdmoth, 197 f. 

bandk, 181 

Bashan, 26 

baik, a liquid measure, 154 

Battalion, 227 

bay it k, 137 

Bearers, 146 

' Beauty of holiness,' 88 

' Beer-sheba to Dan,' 105 

begddim, 283 

Belial, children of, 188 

Ben-hadad, 198 f. 

Beth-Dagon, xxiv, 57 

Beth-el, xxx, 42, 190 

Beth-horon, 36, 170 

Beth-shan vide Beth-shean 



Beth-shean, 43, 57 
Beth-shemesh, 35, 240, 251 
Berachah, valley of, 217 
blrah, blrdniyyoth, 203 
B'tnidbar^ i85 

Book of the law discovered, 282 
Brasen altar, the, 153, 167, 171 
Brasen sea, the, 96, 252 
Brass, 96 

Briar ('thorn'), 239 
' Brook of Egypt,' 167 
Burning for the dead, 201, 223 
Burning of the dead, 57 
Burnt-offerings, 84 

Cadytis, 289 

Caleb (Chelubai), 14 

Calebites, 129 

Cajnbridge Companion to tJie Bible re- 
ferred to, 9, 12, 244 

Canaan, meaning of the name, 4 

Candlesticks, the golden, 155 

Capitals = chapiters, 152 

Caravans, halting- places of, 13 

Carchemish, 289 

Carmel, 66, 243 

Cart, a new, 75 

Castles, 203, 217 

Caterpillars, 164 

Causeway leading to the Temple, 125 

Cedars, 147, 176 

Censers, 157 

Census, David's, xix, 23, 105, 106, 130 

Chaboras, the river, 99 

Chaldeans, 6, 294 

Champions, Philistine, 103, 104 

' Chapmen,' 175 

Chariot cities, 145, 176 

Cherubims, 151 f. 

Cheyne's/^wzVi Religious Lije referred 
to, 295 

Choir, 113 

Chronicler, The, Characteristic treat- 
ment of subjects by, 10, 57, 74, 77, 
83, 84, 95, 102, 103, 106, III, 133, 
171, 178, 184, 187 ff., 195, 202, 218 f., 
226 ff., 231, 240, 2SS; Facts omitted 

by, xvii, 16, 58, 90, 171, 180, i8r, 183, 

274, 278, 291, 292, 293 
fi?inak, 175 
cisterns, 243 
Citium, 4 

Commandments, the Ten, 232 
Conder, C. R., 59 
Coniah (Jeconiah, Jehoiachin) denounced 

by Jeremiah, 18 
Contents of the books of Chronicles, 

xiv — xvii 
coy, 148, 246 
Cornet, 83 
Coronation, 229 
Corvee, 146, 171 
Cotes,' 273 

Courts, the Temple, 155 
Covenant, 58, 73, i88, 196, 232, 254, 

284 f. 
Creeds mentioned, 92 
Crown, 102, 229 
Cush, 4, 5, 193 
Cyprus, 4 
Cyrus, xiv, 295 

D and R easily confused in Hebrew, 3, 4 

Damascus, 94, 95, 199, 213, 252 

Daric, 138 

David, his descent, 11; the city of, 59; 
brings home the Ark, 80 ff. ; appoints 
Levites to minister before the Ark, 85; 
his desire to build the Temple, 90 ff.; 
his war with the Philistines, 94; his 
war with the Moabites and king of 
Zobah, 95 ; his body-guard, 98 ; his 
war with the Ammonites, 98 ff. ; num- 
bers Israel, 104 ff. ; prepares for the 
building of the Temple, 1 10 ff. ; charges 
Solomon to build the Temple, 134; 
blesses God, and dies, 139 — 141 

Debir, 35 

deblr, 151 

Devils (he-goats), 182 

dhirrih, 193 

'Door keepers '= Porters, 82, 89, 113, 
123 ff. 

Drachma, 138 



Driver's Introduction referred to, 2 ; his 

Amos referred to, 197 
Dukes [of Edom], 9 

Edom, 9, 220, 238 

Elijah, writing of, 222 

En-gedi, 213 

Ephod, 84 

Ephraim, encounter of, with the men of 

Gath, 42 
Ephraimite mercenaries, 238 
Erman's Ancient Egypt referred to, 131, 

179, 206 
Esdreion (Esdraelon), 56, 145, 289 
Ethiopia, 4, 193, 222 
Eunuch, 132, 205 
Euphrates, 94, 95, 99, 289 
Evil-Merodach, Amil-Marduk, 292 
Ezekiel=Jehezkel, 118 
Ezion-geber, 172, 219 

Fasting, 57 

' Father ' = eponymous ancestor, 13 

' Fathers' houses,' 38 

Feast of Weeks, 196 

Foreigners in Israel, 15, 76, 98, 146 

Fortresses, 181, 192 

Gad the Seer, xxi, 106, 142 

Gates of the Temple, 228, 230 

Gehenna, ge-hinnoni, 247, 275 

Genealogies, common in Eastern His- 
tories, I 

Genealogical Table of the Nations, i 

Genealogy, reckoning by, 27, 186 

Giant, 103, 104 

Gibeon, 143 

Gihon, spring of, 273 

Gilboa, campaign and battle of, 55^ (>-j 

Gilead, 12 

Girnirrai, 2 

Goliath, 103 f, 

'Governors of the Sanctuary,' 117 

' Grave,' = carve, 147 

Gray, G. Buchanan, Hebrew Proper 
Names, referred to, 14 

'Grove,' 197, 275, 278 

' Habergeons,' 244 

Habor, 29 

kdfer, hagerim, 23 f, 155, 213 

hdfofrdh, 83, 197 

Hadarezer=Hadadezer, 95, 102 

Haggdddh, xxx 

Hamath, Entering in of, 75; = modern 

Hama, 95 
Hamath-zobah, 169 • 

hamman, 192 
Hanani the seer, 199 f. 
Hanoch, Henoch= Enoch, i, 8 
Harp, 120 f. 
Havvoth Jair, 12 f. 
Headmen of villages, 144 
hebel, 86 
Heaven, 249 

Herodotus referred to, 2, 3, 153, 288 f. 
Hewers, 146 
heykdl, 137, 292 
Hezekiah, 253 ff. 
hidoth, 173 

' High degree, man of,' 92 
High places, 197 f., 202, 218 
High-priests, roll of the, 29 
Hiram = Huram, 146 
Hittites, 6 

Holy of Holies, 135, 151, 155, 255 
Holy place, 116 
J}omer, 246 
Hommel, F. (in Hastings' Bible Die- 

tionary) referred to, 26 
Horn, the (used in the Temple service), 

' Host of God,' the, 71 
' Houghed ' = hamstrung, 95 
' House of the forest of Lebanon,' 175 
hozai, XX, 278 

Huldah the prophetess, 283 f 
Huram (king), xxvi, 147 fF., 169 
Huram (artificer), 156 

Iddo the seer, xx, 177, 186 

Idols, 196 f., 280 

Incense, 171, 218, 245 • 

Inheritance, falls in the East to a servant 

at times, 14 
Instruments, musical, 113 



lonians, 3 

Isaiah the prophet, xx, 267, 274 

'Israel* (i.e. laymen), 47 

Jahaziel, the prophecy of, 215 

Javan = lonians, 3 

Jehoahaz = Ahaziah, 223 

Jehoiachin, Jeconiah, 292 

JehoisBla, 129, 226 

Jehoiakim, Eliakim, 291 

Jehoram, 219 ft". 

Jehoshaphat, xxxi, 201 — 219 

Jehu the prophet, xx, 210 flf., 218 

Jehu the king, 225 

Jeremiah the prophet, 293 — 295 

Jericho, 250 

Jeroboam, returns from Egypt, 177 ; 

revolts, 179 ff.; makes war on Abijah, 

187 ff. 
Jerusalem, 59 
Jezreel, 224 
jih&d, 189 

Joab, 59, 97, 100 ff., 105 
Joash, King of Judah, 225 — 236 
Joash, King of Israel, 239 
' Johanan the priest,' xii 
Joppa, Jaffa, 149 

Josiah, 278 ff. ; lamentation for, 290 
Jotham, 246 
Justin (Roman historian) referred to, 6 

Karnak, the temple of, 184 

Kasi, the, 5 

^edeshitn, 280 

Kidron, the brook, 197, 255 

'King's Friend' a title, 131 f. 

kinndr, 76 

Kinship sometimes traced through the 

mother, 12 
Kiriath-jearim, 75, 143 
Kiriath-sannah, 35 
Kiriath-sepher, 35 
Kirkpatrick's Samuel referred to, 81, 94, 

kishsheph, 275 
kiyyor, 161 
Knops, 154 
Korahites, 216 

Koran, referred to, i68 
Ku-su (Ku-u-su), 4 

Lachish, 241 

Lavers, the, 154 f. 

Levites, the cities of, 33 ; mentioned 
once only in Kings, 74 ; numbered 
from the age of thirty years, 112; 
divided into courses, 113; their duties, 
lis f. ; their families, 119 f.; help to 
cleanse the Temple, 255 

Libnah, 34 

Lots, drawing of, 118, 122 f. 

Lydia, Lydians, 5, 6 

Maachah, 41, 100 

ntaffebdk, 191 

Magdol, 289 

tndgen, tndginnoth, 175, 273 

Magog, 2 

Manasseh, xxxii, 276 f.; Prayer of, 277 

Manna i, 3 

Mareshah, battle of, 193 

Maspero's Histoire Ancienne, 184, 288 

massa Heb. = burden, 83 

Megiddo, 43, 225, 288 ff. 

Megilloth, the, xiii 

Mesopotamia, 99 

MESSIAH, The, 25 

Meunim, 24, 212, 243 

Micaiah, the prophet, 205 ff. 

Michal, 83 f. 

Midianites, the, 8 

tnidrask, xx, 236 

migddnoth, 220, 273 

mi^i, 146 

Millo, 60 

miskma'ath, 64 

Miskor, 243 

miskan, 232 

mizlagoth, 156 

Mizraim= Egypt, 4, 146 

tnizrakoth, 156 

Moab, 94, 95 

Moabites, invasion by, 212 ff. 

*Moe' (='more'), 77 

Molech=Malcam=Milcom, 102, 247 f. 

Molten Sea, the, 153 



tnorek, 195 
Mount Moriah, 149 
Mount Seir, 214, 238 
Muski, 3 
Musur, 4 

New Testament (passages of) referred to: 
Matt. i. 3 — 6, p, II 

.. i- 7. 17 

,, V. 22, 247 

„ V. 39, 208 

„ xxiii. 35, 234 

,, XXV. 15, 24s 
Mark ii. 26, 81 

„ xi. 2, 7, 75 
Luke i. 5, n8 

>, i- 7, 225 

,, i. 39, 246 

„ iii. 27—31, 18 

„ xi. SI, 234 

John i. 45, II 

M xi. 54, 190 

Acts vii. 60, 235 

,, viii. 40, 242 

,, ix. 32, 21 

„ xii. I, 19s 

„ xii. 21, 132 

„ xii. 23, 190 

2 Thess. ii. 11, 207 
I Tim. iii. 15, 92 
Nabopolassar, 294 
Nabulus, 36 
ndgid, 25, 133, 183, 249 
na^al, 215 
Names, significant, 18, 19; lists of, in 

Oriental Histories, 60 
nasi, xix 

Nathan the prophet, xxi, 142, 177 
Navy, 176 
nebkel, 76 

Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuchadrezzar, 291 
Necho (Neco), xxvii, 288, 289, 291 
ner, 220 

nethitiun, 48, 113 
Nineveh, destruction of, 289 
Nisan, the first month, 253, 288 
nittef, 294 

Nowack, Hebrdische Archaologie, re- 
ferred to, 76 

Numbers surprisingly high in Chronicles, 
xxix, 71, III 

Obelisk of Shalmanesar II, 99, 176 

ob, 275 

Obsolete English words : 

Chapmen = merchants, 175 

Fet= fetched, 185 

Glister=glitter, 137 

Moe = more, 77 

Play = dance, 76, 84 

PolIs = heads, 113 
ohel, 232 
'onen, 275 
Oracle, the, 153 
Oman, 107 ff., 150 
Ophir, 138, 172, 219 

pai^oth, 17s 

pdrafy 294 

'Parcel' of ground, 62 

Passover, 259 ff., 285 if. 

Peace-offerings, 84 

Pentateuch, 202 

Peshitta cited or referred to, x (note), 

xii, xxxiv f., II, 25, 60, 61, 96, 109, 

162, 193, 221, 242, 247, 273, 274, 280 
Pestilence, 107 
Petrie, W. M. Flinders, Syria and 

Egypt, referred to, 3 
Philistines, their original seats, 5 ; war 

against, 242 
Phinehas, 51 
Pillar (Platform?), 229 
Pillars (Jachin and Boaz), 152 f. 
Plays on words in Hebrew, 11 
Polls = heads, 113 
Poll-tax, 232, 291 
'Pommels,' 156 
Porch of the Temple, 134 
Porters, 82 ; pre- and post-exilic, 51 
Precious stones, 150 f. 
Priesthood, double, 81 
Priests, courses of, 49; 'sons' of, 53; 

only, allowed to enter the house of 

the Lord, 255 



Prophesying with the harp, 120, 121 

Pss. cv, xcvi, cvi, 85 

Psaltery, 76, 82, 120, 174 

Psammetichus, 5 

pUch, 137 

Pul (Tiglath-pileser), 29 

Punt, 4 

qahal, 80 

qegeph, 210, 234, 273 

Queen-mother, 197 

Rabbah, 99, 102 

Rammannirar (Rimmon-nirari III), 2 

Ramoth-gilead, 204 ; battle of, 208 ff. 

Rechabites, the, 15 

Recorder = chronicler, 97 

Rehoboam, 177 fF. 

Rephaim, valley of, 62, 78 

Revised Version, Preface of, referred to, 


River, the, = the Euphrates, 9 

Robertson Smith's Religion of the Sem- 
ites, referred to, 152 f., 182, 188, 191, 

rdpKim, 201 

Ryle {Ezra and Nehe7niaJi) referred to, 
X, 112, 118, 137, 244, 249, 283, 295 

Sackcloth, 107 f. 

Sacrifice, daily morning and evening, 
116, 234; sevenfold, made by Heze- 
kiah, 256 ; under Josiah, 286 fF. 

Samuel, xxi, 52 ; his descent, 31 ; the 
Hebrew form of his name, 32 ; ' the 
seer,' 142 

Satan, 104, 105 

Saul, his genealogy, 46 ; his defeat, 
death and burial, 55 

Saws, 103 

Sayce, Higher Criticism and the Ver- 
dict of the Monuments^ referred to, 2 
(twice), 5 (twice), 6, 96; (in Hastings' 
Bible Dictionary) referred to, 2 

Schrader's Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek, 
referred to, 3, 276 

Scribe, 98, 117, 131 

Sharon, perhaps two places bearing the 

name, 27; the great maritime plain, 

Sheba, Queen of, 173 f. 
skebhet, 64 
Shechem, 36, 41, 177 
shelah, 229 
sheldtim, 96, 229 
sheletn, 84 

Shemaiah, 180, 184 f. 
Shephelah, 131, 145, 177, 181, 243 
Shewbread, 54, 114, 136, 147, 155, 189 
Shields of gold, 96 
Shihor (Sihor), 75 
Shishak, 183, 184 f. 
shoier, 243 

Significant Heb. names, 121 
Siloam, pool of, 274 
Singers, families of the, 120 ff, 
sippitn, 227 
Slings, 244 
Smith, G. A., Hist. Geog. referred to, 

xxxi, 194, 212 f., 216, 250 
Sojourner, 139 
Solomon, iioff., 133; twice crowned, 140; 

his Royal majesty, 141 ; his Vision, 

144; his horsemen and chariots, 145; 

begins to build Temple, 149 ; brings 

the Ark to the Sanctuary, 158 ; his 

fleet, 172 
Somali Coast, 4 
Soudanese, the, 4 
Spearmen, 237 
Spices, 174, 201 
'Suburbs,' 75 
Sycomore, 131, 145, 176 
Syrian invasion, 235 

Tabal, 3 

Tabernacle, 74, 143, 158, 232 

Tabor, 37, 38 

Tactics, 69, 79 

Tadmor, 170 

taph, 215 

Targum, referred to, 11, 21, 22, 23, 77, 

Tarshish, 219 
Tarsus, 3 
Tartessus, 4 



Task-work, 103, no, 170 
Tekoa, 216 

Tell-el-amarna Letters, 3, 99, 181 
Teman, 8 

Temple, gates of, 51; size of, no; pre- 
parations for building, 134 fF. ; de- 
scribed, 150 flf. 
Tent, 74, 80, 84 
terii'ah, 84, 197 
Testimony, the, 229, 232 
Text of Chronicles, faults in, 6, 9, 11, 
12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 27, 31, 34, 39, 45, 46, 
50, 51, 65, 66, 82, 128 
Threshing-floor, 107 fF., 205 
'Throw down,' 76 
Tigris, 99 
Tilgath-Pilneser (Tiglath-pileser), 26, 29, 

241, 247, 251 
'Times,' 72 

Tisri, the seventh month, 158 
iorah, 162, 195 
Treasuries, the, 125 
Tree-worship, 191, 248 
Trees, large, 57 
Trumpets, silver, 83, 160, 189 

Unleavened bread, 116 
Uriah, 66, 98 
Uzziah, xxxii, 241 ff. 

Valley of Salt, 97 
Ventriloquists, 275 
Vessels of gold, 157 

Vulgate, the Latin, its influence on the 
A. v., I 

Wellhausen, referred to, 229 
Wilson, Sir C., 59 
Witchcraft, 275 

Zacharias, father of John the Baptist, 

Zadok, 81, 129, 141 
Zechariah, stoned, 234 f. 
Zedekiah the prophet, 206 ff. 
Zedekiah the king, 293 
Zemaraim, battle of, 187 AT. 
Zerah, xxxi, 193 

Zidon, an older city than Tyre, 5 f. 
Ziz, 215 
Zobah, 94, 95, lOT 



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KCta-dr F.R 6.S. 



1. GREEK. 





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Life and Educational Works 
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Tractate on Education 
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J. J. S. Perowne, D.D., Bishop of Worcester. 

A. F. KiRKPATRiCK, D.T)., Regius Professor of Hebrew. 

Guardian. — " It is difficult to cotnmendtoo highly this excellent series.^'' 

Academy. — *^The 77iodesty of the general title of this series has, we 
believe, led many to misunderstand its character and underrate its value. 
The books are well suited for study ifi the upper forms of our best schools, 
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popular commentaries recently issued in this country will be found more 
serviceable for general use" 

Baptist Magazine. — " One of the most popular and useful literary 
enterprises of the nineteenth century.^^ 

Sword and Trowel. — " Of great value. The whole series of com- 
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II. Samuel. Academy. — *' Small as this work is in mere dimensions, 
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of. The opening sections at once prove the thorough competence of the 
writer for dealing with questions of criticism in an earnest, faithful and 
devout spirit ; and the appendices discuss a few special difficulties with a 
full knowledge of the data, and a judicial reserve, which contrast most 
favourably with the superficial dogmatism which has too often made the 
exegesis of the Old Testament a field for the play of unlimited paradox 
and the ostentation of personal infallibility. The notes are always clear 
and suggestive ; never trifling or irrelevant ; and they everywhere demon- 
strate the great difference in value between the work of a commentator 
who is also a Hebraist, and that of one who has to depend for his 
Hebrew upon secondhand sources." 




I. Kings and Ephesians. Sword and Trowel. — " With great hearti- 
ness we commend these most valuable little commentaries. We had 
rather purchase these than nine out of ten of the big blown up exposi- 
tions. Quality is far better than quantity, and we have it here." 

Ezra and Nehemiali. Guardian. — " Professor Ryle's Commentary 
is quite the best work on these books accessible to the English reader." 

The Book of Job. Spectator.— '' Able and scholarly as the Introduc- 
tion is, it is far surpassed by the detailed exegesis of the book. In this 
Dr Davidson's strength is at its greatest. His linguistic knowledge, 
his artistic habit, his scientific insight, and his literary power have full 
scope when he comes to exegesis." 

Methodist Recorder. — "Already we have frequently called attention 
to this exceedingly valuable work as its volumes have successively ap- 
peared. But we have never done so with greater pleasure, very seldom 
with so great pleasure, as we now refer to the last published volume, 
that on the Book of Job, by Dr Davidson, of Edinburgh.... We cordially 
commend the volume to all our readers. The least instructed will under- 
stand and enjoy it ; and mature scholars will learn from it." 

Psalms. Book I. Church Times. — "It seems in every way a most 
valuable little book, containing a mass of information, well-assorted, 
and well-digested, and will be useful not only to students preparing for 
examinations, but to many who want a handy volume of explanation to 
much that is difficult in the Psalter We owe a great debt of grati- 
tude to Professor Kirkpatrick for his scholarly and interesting volume." 

Literary Churchman. — "In this volume thoughtful exegesis founded 
on nice critical scholarship and due regard for the opinions of various 
writers, combine, under the influence of a devout spirit, to render this 
commentary a source of much valuable assistance. The notes are 
'thougli deep yet clear,' for they seem to put in a concentrated form 
the very pith and marrow of all the best that has been hitherto said on 
the subject, with striking freedom from anything like pressure of personal 
views. Throughout the work care and pains are as conspicuous as 

Psalms. Books II. and III. Critical Review. — " The second volume 
of Professor Kirkpatrick's Commentary on the Book of Psalms has 
all the excellent qualities which characterised the first. ...It gives what 
is best in the philology of the subject. Its notes furnish what is most 
needed and most useful. Its literary style is attractive. It furnishes all 
that is of real value in the form of introduction, and it has a studious 
regard for the devout as well as intelligent understanding of the Psalms." 

Job — Hosea. Guardian. — " It is difficult to commend too highly 
this excellent series, the volumes of which are now becoming numerous. 
The two books before us, small as they are in size, comprise almost 
everything that the young student can reasonably expect to find in the 
way of helps towards such general knowledge of their subjects as may 
be gained without an attempt to grapple with the Hebrew ; and even 
the learned scholar can hardly read without interest and benefit the very 
able introductory matter which both these commentators have prefixed 
to their volumes." 


Isaiah. Chapters I — XXXIX. Professor W. H. Bennett in the 
British Weekly. — "Dr Skinner's name on the title-page of this book 
is a guarantee for extensive and exact scholarship and for careful and 
accurate treatment of the subject. This little volume will more than 
sustain the high reputation of the series in which it appears... readers 
will look forward with much interest to Dr Skinner's second volume on 
chapters xl — Ixvi." 

School Guardian. — "This last addition to 'The Cambridge Bible for 
Schools and Colleges,* is a most valuable one, and will go far to 
increase the usefulness of what we have no hesitation in calling the 
most useful commentary for school purposes. There ought to be two 
copies, at least, of this in every parish — one in the clergyman's and the 
other in the teacher's library." 

Jeremiah. Church Quarterly Review. — "The arrangement of the 
book is well treated on pp. xxx., 396, and the question of Baruch's 
relations with its composition on pp. xxvii., xxxiv., 317. The illustra- 
tions from English literature, history, monuments, works on botany, 
topography, etc., are good and plentiful, as indeed they are in other 
volumes of this series." 

EzeMel. Guardian. — "No book of the Old Testament stands 
more in need of a commentator than this, and no scholar in England 
or Scotland is better qualified to comment upon it than Dr A. B. 
Davidson. With sound scholarship and excellent judgement he com- 
bines an insight into Oriental modes of thought which renders him a 
specially trustworthy guide to a book such as this..., His commentary 
may be safely recommended as the best that has yet appeared. Nor is 
it unlikely that it will remain the best for some time to come." 

Joel and Amos. Church Bells. — "Professor Driver's latest con- 
tribution to the Cambridge Bible cannot but shed lustre and value on 
this already praiseworthy attempt to aid our students of Bible history 
and doctrine. The introduction and notes place this book among the 
best handbooks to the Prophets' lives, work, and mission." 

NahTim, Habakkuk and Zephaniah, Critical Review. — ** No better 
guide to these three prophets could be wished than Dr Davidson's little 
book. His commentaries on Job and Ezekiel are perhaps the best in 
this excellent series, and the present work is equal to its predecessors." 

Guardian. — " Prof. Davidson has laid all students of the Old 
Testament under a fresh debt of gratitude by the publication of this 
scholarly little volume. It is quite the best commentary on these books 
that has yet appeared.... Small as it is, the volume is well worthy to 
take its place by the side of the same author's invaluable commentaries 
on Job and Ezekiel." 

Spectator. — "We may say without hesitation that Professor David- 
son's guidance is amply satisfactory. The theological student or the 
preacher who may have to deal with the subject cannot do better than 
consult him." 

Malachi. Academy. — "Archdeacon Perowoe has already edited 


Jonah and Zechariah for this series. Malachi presents comparatively 
few difficulties and the Editor's treatment leaves nothing to be desired. 
His introduction is clear and scholarly and his commentary sufficient. 
We may instance the notes on ii. 15 and iv. 2 as examples of careful 
arrangement, clear exposition and graceful expression." 

First Book of Maccabees. Bookman. — "Useful at once to the 
theological student and the serious reader of the Bible. The notes are 
exceedingly interesting and are careful summaries of the best research." 

Educational Times. — *' An excellent school and college edition." 

St Matthew. English Churchman. — "The introduction is able, 
scholarly, and eminently practical, as it bears on the authorship and 
contents of the Gospel, and the original form in which it is supposed 
to have been written. It is well illustrated by two excellent maps of 
the Holy Land and of the Sea of Galilee." 

St Mark. Expositor. — "Into this small volume Dr Maclear, besides 
a clear and able Introduction to the Gospel, and the text of St Mark, 
has compressed many hundreds of valuable and helpful notes. In 
short, he has given us a capital manual of the kind required — containing 
all that is needed to illustrate the text, i. e. all that can be drawn from 
the history, geography, customs, and manners of the time. But as a 
handbook, giving in a clear and succinct form the information which 
a lad requires in order to stand an examination in the Gospel, it is 

admirable I can very heartily commend it, not only to the senior 

boys and girls in our High Schools, but also to Sunday-school teachers, 
who may get from it the very kind of knowledge they often find it 
hardest to get. " 

St Luke. Spectator. — "Canon Farrar has supplied students of 
the Gospel with an admirable manual in this volume. It has all that 
copious variety of illustration, ingenuity of suggestion, and general 
soundness of interpretation which readers are accustomed to expect 
from the learned and eloquent editor. Anyone who has been accus- 
tomed to associate the idea of 'dryness' with a commentary, should go 
to Canon Farrar's St Luke for a more correct impression. He will 
find that a commentary may be made interesting in the highest degree, 

and that without losing anything of its solid value But, so to speak, 

it is too good for some of the readers for whom it is intended." 

St John. English Churchman. — "The notes are extremely scho- 
larly and valuable, and in most cases exhaustive, bringing to the 
elucidation of the text all that is best in commentaries, ancient and 

Acts. School Guardian. — " We do not know of any other volume 
where so much help is given to the complete understanding of one of 
the most important and, in many respects, difficult books of the New 

Romans. Expositor. — "The 'Notes' are very good, and lean, as 
the notes of a School Bible should, to the most commonly accepted 
and orthodox view of the inspired author's meaning ; while the Intro- 


duction, and especially the Sketch of the Life of St Paul, is a model 
of condensation. It is as lively and pleasant to read as if two or three 
facts had not been crowded into well-nigh every sentence." 

Ephesians. Baptist Magazine. — " It seems to us the model of a 
School and College Commentary — comprehensive, but not cumbersome; 
scholarly, but not pedantic." 

Guardian. — "It supplies matter which is evidently the outcome of 
deep study pursued with a devotional mind." 

FMlippians. Record. — "There are few series more valued by 
theological students than * The Cambridge Bible for Schools and 
Colleges,' and there will be no number of it more esteemed than that 
by Mr H. C. G. Moule on the Epistle to the Philippians." 

Colossians. Record. — "Tliose who have already used with pleasure 
and profit Mr Moule's volumes of the same series on Ephesians and 
Philippians will open this little book with the highest expectations. 

They will not be disappointed No more complete or trustworthy 

volume has been contributed to this series." 

Expository Times. — "This is now the Commentary on Colossians and 
Philemon to have at your hand, whether you are schoolboy or scholar, 
layman or clergyman." 

Thessalonians, Academy. — "Mr Findlay maintains the high level 
of the series to which he has become contributor. Some parts of his 
introduction to the Epistles to the Thessalonians could scarcely be 
bettered. The account of Thessalonica, the description of the style and 
character of the Epistles, and the analysis of them are excellent in style 
and scholarly care. The notes are possibly too voluminous ; but there 
is so much matter in them, and the matter is arranged and handled so 
ably, that we are ready to forgive their fulness Mr Findlay's com- 
mentary is a valuable addition to what has been written on the letters 
to the Thessalonian Church." 

Baptist Magazine. — "Mr Findlay has fulfilled in this volume a 
task which Dr Moulton was compelled to decline, though he has rendered 
valuable aid in its preparation. The commentary is in its own way a 
model — clear, forceful, scholarly — such as young students will welcome 
as a really useful guide, and old ones will acknowledge as giving in 
brief space the substance of all that they knew." 

Timothy and Titus. The Christian. — "The series includes many 
volumes of sterling worth, and this last may rank among the most 
valuable. The pages evince careful scholarship and a thorough acquaint- 
ance with expository literature ; and the work should promote a more 
general and practical study of the Pastoral Epistles." 

Hebrews. Baptist Magazine. — " Like his (Canon Farrar's) com- 
mentary on Luke it possesses all the best characteristics of his writing. 
It is a work not only of an accomplished scholar, but of a skilled 


James. Expositor. — "It is, so far as I know, by far the best 
exposition of the Epistle of St James in the English language. Not 
schoolboys or students going in for an examination alone, but ministers 
and preachers of the Word, may get more real help from it than from 
the most costly and elaborate commentaries." 

The Epistles of St Jolin. Churchman. — " This forms an admirable 
companion to the 'Commentary on the Gospel according to St John,' 
which was reviewed in The Churchman as soon as it appeared. Dr 
Plummet has some of the highest qualifications for such a task ; and 
these two volumes, their size being considered, will bear comparison 
with the best Commentaries of the time." 

Revelation. Guardian. — "This volume contains evidence of much 
careful labour. It is a scholarly production, as might be expected from 

the pen of the late Mr W. H. SiMCOX The notes throw light upon 

many passages of this difficult book, and are extremely suggestive. It 
is an advantage that they sometimes set before the student various 
interpretations without exactly guiding him to a choice." 

Wesleyan Methodist Sunday-School Record. — **We cannot speak 
too highly of this excellent little volume. The introduction is of the 
greatest possible value to the student, and accurate scholarship is 
combined with true loyalty to the inspired Word. There is much more 
matter of practical utility compressed into this volume of pp. 1 74 than 
is contained in many a portentous tome." 

OTjt Smaller Cambrtlige W\\Ai for S^cftools. 

Sunday-School Chionicle. — ^^We can only repeat what we have 
already said of this admirable series^ cofitaining, as it does, the scholar- 
ship of the larger work. For scholars in our elder classes, and for those 
preparing for Scripture examinations, no better commentaries can be put 
into their hands.'''' 

Record.— ^'*Z>^j/2y<f their small size, these volumes give the substance 
of the admirable pieces of work on which they are founded. We can only 
hope that in tnany schools the class-teaching will proceed on the lines these 
coniiiicntators suggest.^'' 

Educational Review. — " The Smaller Cambridge Bible for Schools 
is unique in its combination of small compass with great scholaiship.... 
For use in lower forms, in Sunday-schools and in the family, we cannot 
S2iggest better little manuals than these.'''' 

Literary World. — ^'' All that is necessary to be known and learned by 

pupils in junior and elementary schools is to be foujid in this series. 

Indeed, much more is provided than should be required by the examiners. 

We do not know what more could be done to provide sensible, interesting, 

and solid Scriptural insti'uction for boys and girls. The Syndics of the 


Cambridge University Press are rendering great services both to teachers 
and to scholars by the publication of such a valuable series of books, in 
which slipshod work could not have a place.'''' 

Christian Leader. — "/br the student of the sacred oracles who utilizes 
hours of travel or moments of waiting in the perusal of the Bible there 
is nothing so handy, and, at the same time, so satisfying as these little 

books Nor let anyone suppose that, because these are school-books, 

therefore they are beneath the adjilt reader. They contain the very ripest 
results of the best Biblical scholarship, atid that in the very simplest 

Joshua. School Guardian. — *' This little book is a model of what 
editorial work, intended for the use of young students, should be ; and 
we could scarcely praise it more highly than by saying that it is in 
every way worthy of the volumes that have gone before it." 

Schoolmistress. — "A most useful little manual for students or 

Judges. Educational News (Edinburgh). — "The book makes 
available for teaching purposes the results of ripe scholarship, varied 
knowledge, and religious insight. " 

Schoolmaster. — "The work shows first-rate workmanship, and may 
be adopted without hesitation." 

Samuel I. and II. Saturday Revierv. — "Professor Kirkpatrick's 
two tiny volumes on the First and Second Books of Samuel are quite 
model school-books; the notes elucidate every possible difficulty with 
scholarly brevity and clearness and a perfect knowledge of the subject." 

Kings I. Wesley an Methodist Sunday-School Record. — "Equally 
useful for teachers of young men's Bible classes and for earnest Bible 
students themselves. This series supplies a great need. It contains 
much valuable instruction in small compass. " 

St Mark. St Luke. Guardian. — "We have received the volumes 
of St Mark and St Luke in this series.... The two volumes seem, on the 
whole, well adapted for school use, are well and carefully printed, and 
have maps and good, though necessarily brief, introductions. There is 
little doubt that this series will be found as popular and useful as the 
well-known larger series, of which they are abbreviated editions." 

St Luke. Wesley an Methodist Sunday-School Record, — " We cannot 
too highly commend this handy little book to all teachers." 

St John. Methodist Times. — "A model of condensation, losing 
nothing of its clearness and force from its condensation into a small 
compass. Many who have long since completed their college curriculum 
will find it an invaluable handbook." 

Acts. Literary World. — "The notes are very brief, but exceedingly 
comprehensive, comprising as much detail in the way of explanation as 
would be needed by young students of the Scriptures preparing for 
examination. We again give the opinion that this series furnishes as 
much real help as would usually satisfy students for the Christian 
ministry, or even ministers themselves." 



with a Revised Text, based on the most recent critical authorities, 

and English Notes. 

Expositor. — *' Has achieved an excellence which puts it above criti- 

Expository Times. — " We could not point out better ha^idbooks for 
the student of the Greek .^^ 

St Luke. Methodist Recorder.— ^^li gives us in clear and beautiful 
language the best results of modern scholarship.... For young students 
and those who are not disposed to buy or to study the much more costly 
work of Godet, this seems to us to be the best book on the Greek Text 
of the Third Gospel." 

St John. Methodist Recorder. — "We take this opportunity of 
recommending to ministers on probation, the very excellent volume of 
the same series on this part of the New Testament. We hope that most 
or all of our young ministers will prefer to study the volume in the 
Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools. ^^ 

II. Corinthians. Guardian. — " The work is scholarlike, and main- 
tains the high level attained by so many volumes of this series." 

London Quarterly Review. — " Young students will not easily find a 
more helpful introduction to the study of this Epistle than this. ...There 
is everything that a student of the Epistle needs in this little volume. 
It deals clearly and thoroughly with every point, and is written in a 
style that stimulates attention." 

The Epistle to the Philipplans. London Quarterly Reviezu. — "This 
is a first rate piece of work, furnished with all the Critical notes that a 
student of the text needs, and enriched by many excellent quotations 
from divines and commentators.... It will well repay every student to 
get this little volume and master it." 

Educational Times. — "Dr Moule's concise and scholarly edition 
of the Epistle to the Philippians is among the best volumes of the 
Cambridge Greek Testament." 

St James. Athenceum. — "This is altogether an admirable text- 
book. The notes are exactly what is wanted. They shew scholarship, 
wide reading, clear thinking. They are calculated in a high degree to 
stimulate pupils to inquiry both into the language and the teaching of 
the Epistle." 

Revelation, fournal of Education. — " Absolute candour, a feeling 
for Church tradition, and the combination of a free and graceful style of 
historical illustration with minute scholarship characterise this work. 
We wish we had more work of the same kind in the present day, and 
venture to think that a mastery of this unpretentious edition would 
prove to many a means of permanently enlarging the scope of their 
studies in sacred literature." 


Princeton Theological Seminary Libraries 

1012 01249 16 

Date Due^^ i 

M 1 5 '37